Events and Trends
- Johannes Gutenberg is credited with inventing the first movable type printing press in Mainz, Germany.
- 1453 - Mehmed II of the Ottoman Empire lays siege and captures Constantinople, ending the political independence of the millennium-old Byzantine Empire.
- 1455 - Forces led by Richard, Duke of York and Richard, Earl of Warwick captured Lancastrian King Henry VI of England, beginning the Wars of the Roses with a Yorkist victory in the First Battle of St Albans.
- 1456 - Siege of Belgrade. The Hungarians under John Hunyadi rout the Turkish army of Sultan Mehmed II. The victory stopped the Ottoman Turkish advance towards Catholic Europe for 70 years.
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