Events and trends
- Reformation; Bible translations of William Tyndale, Martin Luther and Ulrich Zwingli.
- Fall of Tenochtitlán and conquest of Mexico by the Spanish.
- 1520-66: The reign of Suleiman the Magnificent marks the zenith of the Ottoman Empire.
- 1521: Belgrade is captured by the Ottoman Empire.
- 1521: Luther is excommunicated and declared an enemy of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation.
- 1521: Henry VIII receives title Defender of the Faith.
- 1521: San Juan Bautista is founded in the isle of San Juan, north of Caparra. It became the capital city of Puerto Rico, San Juan.
- September 6, 1522: Ferdinand Magellan's crew finishes circumnavigating the globe.
- 1523: Sweden gains independence from the Kalmar Union.
- 1523: Zwingli expounds his faith in formal disputation.
- 1524-25: Peasants' War in the Holy Roman Empire.
- 1526: The Ottomans conquer the Kingdom of Hungary at the Battle of Mohács.
- November 1526: The one really effective soldier in the Medici family, a young man named Giovanni della Bande Nere—who bore an uncanny resemblance to the later conqueror of Italy, Napoleon—was accidentally wounded by a cannonball from one of the Ferrarese guns in a small skirmish with Frundberg’s troops.
- 1526: Mughal Empire, founded by Babur, rules India until 1857.
- 1527: Sack of Rome is considered the end of the Italian Renaissance.
- 1529: The Siege of Vienna marks the Ottoman Empire's farthest advance into Europe.
Hassis, Ross. "The Immolation of Hernàn Cortés: Tenochtitlan, June 30, 1521," What If? The World's Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been, ed. Robert Cowley.
Parker, Geoffrey. "Martin Luther Burns at the Stake, 1521," What If? 2: Eminent Historians Imagine What Might Have Been, ed. Robert Cowley.
Rabb, Theodore K. "If Only It had Not Been Such a Wet Summer: The Critical Decade of the 1520s," What If? The World's Foremost Military Historians Imagine What Might Have Been, ed. Robert Cowley.
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