Significant Events and Trends
- Cape Town founded by the Dutch East India Company in South Africa.
- Anglo-Dutch Wars begin.
- Oliver Cromwell takes over England during an interregnum
- Massacre of the Waldensians in 1655 by troops of Charles Emmanuel II prompting John Milton's sonnet "On the Late Massacre in Piedmont".
- 1658: After his father Shah Jahan completes the Taj Mahal, his son Aurangzeb deposes him as ruler of the Mughal Empire.
- Origin of Quakers
- The Northern Wars cement Sweden's rise as a Great Power.
- King Louis XIV of France (1643 - 1715).
- King Frederick III of Denmark (1648 - 1670).
- Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1653 - 1658).
- Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland (1658 - 1659).
- Ferdinand III (1637 - 1657).
- Leopold I (1658 - 1705).
- King John II of Poland (1649 - 1668).
- King John IV of Portugal (1640 - 1656).
- King Afonso VI of Portugal (1656 - 1667).
- Tsar Aleksey I of Russia (1645 - 1676).
- King Philip IV of Spain (1621 - 1665).
- Queen Christina of Sweden (1632 - 1654).
- King Charles X of Sweden (1654 - 1660).
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