Events and Trends
- The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell.
- The light bulb was invented.
- The phonograph is invented in 1877 by Thomas Edison.
War, peace and politics
- Franco-Prussian War (1870–1871) results in the collapse of the Second French Empire and in the formation of both the French Third Republic and the German Empire
- Continuing expansion of the British Empire; beginning of the New Imperialism
- Bulgaria and Romania declare independence following war against the Ottoman Empire
- Passive resistance is used to prevent the confiscation of Māori land at Parihaka in New Zealand
- Emergence of German Empire and Alliance System
Literature and Arts
- In the United States, continuation of post-Civil War reconstruction until its conclusion under President Rutherford B. Hayes in 1877
- Jeanne Calment, born 1875, would eventually become the longest-living human being in recorded history. She lived until 1997, at the age of 122. She still holds the record as of 2007.
- Atlas Bear goes extinct.
- Emperor Franz Josef (Austria-Hungary)
- Prime Minister Sir John A. Macdonald (Canada)
- Prime Minister Alexander Mackenzie (Canada)
- Tongzhi Emperor (China)
- Guangxu Emperor (China)
- Emperor Wilhelm I (German Empire)
- Chancellor Otto von Bismarck (German Empire)
- King Victor Emmanuel II (Italy)
- King Umberto I (Italy)
- Emperor Meiji (Japan)
- Pope Pius IX
- Pope Leo XIII
- Emperor Alexander II (Russia)
- King Alfonso XII (Spain)
- Queen Victoria (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)
- Prime Minister William Ewart Gladstone (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)
- Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland)
- President Ulysses S. Grant (United States)
- President Rutherford B. Hayes (United States)
- Nasser-al-Din Shah of Qajar dynasty (Persia)
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