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2011 in other calendars
Gregorian calendar 2011
MMXI

Ab urbe condita 2764
Armenian calendar 1460
ԹՎ ՌՆԿ
Bahá'í calendar 167 – 168
Buddhist calendar 2555
Coptic calendar 1727 – 1728
Ethiopian calendar 2003 – 2004
Hebrew calendar 5771 5772
Hindu calendars
 - Vikram Samvat 2066 – 2067
 - Shaka Samvat 1933 – 1934
 - Kali Yuga 5112 – 5113
Holocene calendar 12011
Iranian calendar 1389 – 1390
Islamic calendar 1432 – 1433
Japanese calendar Heisei 23


(平成 23年)

 - Imperial Year Kōki 2671
(皇紀2671年)
Julian calendar 2056
Korean calendar 4344
Thai solar calendar 2554
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2011 (MMXI ) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2011th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 11th year of the 3rd millennium, the 11th year of the 21st century, and the 2nd year of the 2010s decade.

2011 was designated as:

  • International Year of Forests
  • International Year of Chemistry[1]
  • International Year for People of African Descent

Events[]

January[]

  • January 1
    • Estonia officially adopts the Euro currency and becomes the 17th Eurozone country.[2]
    • A bomb explodes as Coptic Christians in Alexandria, Egypt, leave a new year service, killing 23 people.
  • January 4Tunisian street vendor Mohamed Bouazizi dies after setting himself on fire a month earlier, sparking anti-government protests in Tunisia and later other Arab nations. These protests become known collectively as the Arab Spring.[3][4]
  • January 915Southern Sudan holds a referendum on independence. The Sudanese electorate votes in favour of independence, paving the way for the creation of the new state in July.[5][6]
  • January 9 - Iran Air Flight 277 crashes near Orumiyeh in the northeast of the country, killing 77 people.
  • January 14 – The Tunisian government falls after a month of increasingly violent protests; President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali flees to Saudi Arabia after 23 years in power.[7][8]
  • January 24 – 37 people are killed and more than 180 others wounded in a bombing at Domodedovo International Airport in Moscow, Russia.[9][10][11]

February[]

  • February 11Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak resigns after widespread protests calling for his departure, leaving control of Egypt in the hands of the military until a general election can be held.[12]
  • February 15 Libyan Civil War (2011) starts.
  • February 22March 14 – Uncertainty over Libyan oil output causes crude oil prices to rise 20% over a two-week period following the Arab Spring,[13] causing the 2011 energy crisis.

March[]

  • March 11 – A 9.0-magnitude earthquake and subsequent tsunami hit the east of Japan, killing 15,840 and leaving another 3,926 missing. Tsunami warnings are issued in 50 countries and territories. Emergencies are declared at four nuclear power plants affected by the quake.[14]
  • March 15
    • Hamad bin Isa Al Khalifa, King of Bahrain declares a three-month state of emergency as troops from the Gulf Co-operation Council are sent to quell the civil unrest.[15][16]
    • Protests breakout across Syria demanding democratic reforms and the resignation of President Bashar al-Assad.[17] The government responds by killing hundreds of protesters and laying siege to various cities, beginning the Syrian Civil War.[18]
  • March 17 – The United Nations Security Council votes 10–0 to create a no-fly zone over Libya in response to allegations of government aggression against civilians.[19]
  • March 19 – In light of continuing attacks on Libyan rebels by forces in support of leader Muammar Gaddafi,[20] military intervention authorized under UNSCR 1973 begins as French fighter jets make reconnaissance flights over Libya.[21]

April[]

May[]

  • May 1 – U.S. President Barack Obama announces that Osama bin Laden, the founder and leader of the militant group Al-Qaeda, was killed on May 2, 2011 (Pakistani time, UTC+6) during an American military operation in Pakistan.[24]
  • May 16 – The European Union agrees to a €78 billion rescue deal for Portugal. The bailout loan will be equally split between the European Financial Stabilisation Mechanism, the European Financial Stability Facility, and the International Monetary Fund.[25]
  • May 21Grímsvötn, Iceland's most active volcano, erupted and caused disruption to air travel in Northwestern Europe.[26]
  • May 26 – Former Bosnian Serb Army commander Ratko Mladić, wanted for genocide, war crimes and crimes against humanity, is arrested in Serbia.[27][28]

June[]

  • June 4 – Chile's Puyehue volcano erupts, causing air traffic cancellations across South America, New Zealand, Australia and forcing over 3,000 people to evacuate.
  • June 28Food and Agriculture Organization announces the eradication of the cattle plague rinderpest from the world.[29]

July[]

  • July 9South Sudan secedes from Sudan, per the result of the independence referendum held in January.[30]
  • July 12 – The planet Neptune completes its first orbit since it was discovered in 1846.[31]
  • July 14South Sudan joins the United Nations as the 193rd member.[32]
  • July 20
    • Goran Hadžić is detained in Serbia, becoming the last of 161 people indicted by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.[33]
    • The United Nations declares a famine in southern Somalia, the first in over 30 years.[34]
  • July 21Space Shuttle Atlantis lands successfully at Kennedy Space Center after completing STS-135, concluding NASA's Space Shuttle program.[35]
  • July 31 – In Thailand over 12.8 million people are affected by severe flooding. The World Bank estimates damages at 1,440 billion baht (US$45 billion).[36] Some areas are still six feet under water, and many factory areas remained closed at the end of the year. 815[37] people are killed, with 58 of the country's 77 provinces affected.[38]

August[]

  • August – Stock exchanges worldwide suffer heavy losses due to the fears of contagion of the European sovereign debt crisis and the credit rating downgraded as a result of the debt-ceiling crisis of the United States.[39][40]
  • August 5
    • NASA announces that its Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has captured photographic evidence of possible liquid water on Mars during warm seasons.
    • Juno, the first solar-powered spacecraft on a mission to Jupiter, is launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.[41]
  • August 2028 – Libyan rebels take control of the capital Tripoli, effectively overthrowing the government of Muammar Gaddafi.[42][43][44]

September[]

October[]

  • October 4 – The death toll from the flooding of Cambodia's Mekong river and attendant flash floods reaches 207.[58]
  • October 18Israel and the Palestinian militant organization Hamas begin a major prisoner swap, in which the captured Israeli Army soldier Gilad Shalit is released by Hamas in exchange for 1,027 Palestinian and Israeli-Arab prisoners held in Israel, including 280 prisoners serving life sentences for planning and perpetrating terror attacks.[59][60][61]
  • October 20
    • Libyan leader Muammar Gaddafi is killed in Sirte, with National Transitional Council forces taking control of the city, and ending the war.[62][63][64][65]
    • Basque separatist militant organisation ETA declares an end to its 43-year campaign of political violence, which has killed over 800 people since 1968.[66]
  • October 23 – A magnitude 7.2 Mw earthquake jolts eastern Turkey near the city of Van, killing over 600 people, and damaging about 2,200 buildings.[67]
  • October 27 – After an emergency meeting in Brussels, the European Union announces an agreement to tackle the European sovereign debt crisis which includes a writedown of 50% of Greek bonds, a recapitalisation of European banks and an increase of the bailout fund of the European Financial Stability Facility totaling to €1 trillion.[68][69]
  • October 31
    • Date selected by the UN as the symbolic date when global population reaches seven billion.[70]
    • UNESCO admitted Palestine as a member, following a vote in which 107 member states supported and 14 opposed.[71]

November[]

  • November 26 – The Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity, the most elaborate Martian exploration vehicle to date, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center. It lands on Mars on August 6, 2012.[72][73][74]

December[]

  • December 15 – The United States formally declares an end to the Iraq War. While this ends the insurgency, it begins another.[75][76][77][78][79]
  • December 16Tropical Storm Washi causes 1,268 flash flood fatalities in the Philippines, with 85 people officially listed as missing.[80]
  • December 29Samoa and Tokelau move from east to west of the International Date Line, thereby skipping December 30, in order to align their time zones better with their main trading partners.[81]

Births[]

  • January 8Prince Vincent and Princess Josephine of Denmark

Deaths[]

January[]

Gerry Rafferty

February[]

Jane Russell

March[]

Alberto Granado

Elizabeth Taylor

  • March 2Allan Louisy, 2nd Prime Minister of Saint Lucia (b. 1916)
  • March 4
    • Krishna Prasad Bhattarai, 30th Prime Minister of Nepal (b. 1924)
    • Simon van der Meer, Dutch Nobel physicist (b. 1925)
  • March 5Alberto Granado, Cuban writer and scientist (b. 1922)
  • March 6Ján Popluhár, Slovak footballer (b. 1935)
  • March 15Nate Dogg, American rapper (b. 1969)
  • March 17Michael Gough, British actor (b. 1916)
  • March 18Warren Christopher, American diplomat (b. 1925)
  • March 21Nikolai Andrianov, Soviet-Russian gymnast (b. 1952)
  • March 23Elizabeth Taylor, British-American actress (b. 1932)
  • March 26
    • Paul Baran, Polish-American computer engineer (b. 1926)
    • Geraldine Ferraro, American politician (b. 1935)
    • Diana Wynne Jones, British writer (b. 1934)
  • March 27Farley Granger, American actor (b. 1925)
  • March 29José Alencar, Brazilian politician (b. 1931)

April[]

William Lipscomb

  • April 5
    • Baruch Samuel Blumberg, American physician (b. 1925)
    • Ange-Félix Patassé, 5th President of the Central African Republic (b. 1937)
  • April 9Sidney Lumet, American film director (b. 1924)
  • April 14William Lipscomb, American chemist (b. 1919)
  • April 19Grete Waitz, Norwegian athlete (b. 1953)
  • April 24Sathya Sai Baba, Indian spiritual leader (b. 1926)
  • April 30Ernesto Sabato, Argentine writer (b. 1911)

May[]

Osama bin Laden

Rosalyn Yalow

  • May 2Osama bin Laden, Saudi-born leader of Al-Qaeda (b. 1957)
  • May 3Jackie Cooper, American actor (b. 1922)
  • May 7
    • Seve Ballesteros, Spanish golfer (b. 1957)
    • Willard Boyle, Canadian Nobel physicist (b. 1924)
  • May 9Lidia Gueiler Tejada, 67th President of Bolivia (b. 1921)
  • May 15Samuel Wanjiru, Kenyan athlete (b. 1986)
  • May 18Guy Razanamasy, 2-Time Prime Minister of Madagascar (b. 1928)
  • May 19Garret FitzGerald, 7th Taoiseach of Ireland (b. 1926)
  • May 20Randy Savage, American professional wrestler (b. 1952)
  • May 23Xavier Tondo, Spanish professional racing cyclist (b. 1978)
  • May 27
    • Jeff Conaway, American actor (b. 1950)
    • Gil Scott-Heron, American poet and musician (b. 1949)
  • May 29
    • Sergei Bagapsh, Georgian-born politician (b. 1949)
    • Ferenc Mádl, 2nd President of Hungary (b. 1931)
  • May 30Rosalyn Sussman Yalow, American physicist (b. 1921)
  • May 31Pauline Betz, American tennis player (b. 1919)

June[]

Jack Kevorkian

Peter Falk

  • June 3Jack Kevorkian, American euthanasia advocate (b. 1928)
  • June 4Lawrence Eagleburger, American diplomat (b. 1930)
  • June 5Ludo Martens, Belgian writer and political activist (b. 1946)
  • June 7Jorge Semprún, Spanish writer and politician (b. 1923)
  • June 9
    • M. F. Husain, Indian painter (b. 1915)
    • Tomoko Kawakami, Japanese voice actress (b. 1970)
  • June 10Patrick Leigh Fermor, British travel writer, scholar and soldier (b. 1915)
  • June 18
    • Frederick Chiluba, 2nd President of Zambia (b. 1943)
    • Clarence Clemons, American musician and actor (b. 1942)
  • June 23Peter Falk, American actor (b. 1927)

July[]

Amy Winehouse

File:ItamarFranco.jpg

Itamar Franco

Betty Ford

  • July 2Itamar Franco, 37th President of Brazil (b. 1930)
  • July 4Archduke Otto of Austria, (b. 1912)
  • July 5Cy Twombly, American painter (b. 1928)
  • July 8
    • Roberts Blossom, American actor and poet (b. 1924)
    • Betty Ford, American feminist, activist, philanthropist and former First Lady of the United States (b. 1918)
  • July 10Roland Petit, French choreographer and dancer (b. 1924)
  • July 12Tom Gehrels, American astronomer (b. 1925)
  • July 17Juan María Bordaberry, 36th President of Uruguay (b. 1928)
  • July 20Lucian Freud, German-born British painter (b. 1922)
  • July 23
    • Robert Ettinger, American academic (b. 1918)
    • Nguyễn Cao Kỳ, 8th Prime Minister of the Republic of Vietnam (b. 1930)
    • Amy Winehouse, British singer (b. 1983)
  • July 25Mihalis Kakogiannis, Cypriot filmmaker (b. 1922)
  • July 28Abdul Fatah Younis, Libyan army commander (b. 1944)
  • July 30Mario Echandi Jiménez, 47th President of Costa Rica (b. 1915)

August[]

Jack Layton

  • August 2Baruj Benacerraf, Venezuelan-born American Nobel immunologist (b. 1920)
  • August 3Bubba Smith, American football player and actor (b. 1945)
  • August 7
    • Harri Holkeri, 36th Prime Minister of Finland (b. 1937)
    • Nancy Wake, New Zealand-born French Resistance fighter (b. 1912)
  • August 14Shammi Kapoor, Indian film actor and director (b. 1931)
  • August 16Andrej Bajuk, 3rd Prime Minister of the Republic of Slovenia (b. 1943)
  • August 19Raúl Ruiz, Chilean film director (b. 1941)
  • August 22
    • Abdul Aziz Abdul Ghani, Prime Minister of Northern Yemen (b. 1939)
    • Jack Layton, Canadian politician (b. 1950)
    • Vicco von Bülow, German actor, comedian, humorist, cartoonist, film director (b. 1923)
  • August 26Sylvia Siddell, New Zealand artist (b. 1941)
  • August 31Valery Rozhdestvensky, Soviet-Russian cosmonaut (b. 1939)

September[]

Rudolf Mössbauer

Wangari Maathai

  • September 8Võ Chí Công, 5th President of Vietnam (b. 1912)
  • September 10Cliff Robertson, American actor (b. 1923)
  • September 11Andy Whitfield, Welsh actor and model (b. 1971)
  • September 12Alexander Galimov, Russian hockey player (b. 1985)
  • September 13Richard Hamilton, British painter and collage artist (b. 1922)
  • September 14Rudolf Mössbauer, German Nobel physicist (b. 1929)
  • September 19George Cadle Price, 1st Prime Minister of Belize (b. 1919)
  • September 20Burhanuddin Rabbani, President of Afghanistan from 1992 to 1996 (b. 1940)
  • September 22Aristides Pereira, 1st President of Cape Verde (b. 1923)
  • September 25Wangari Maathai, Kenyan veterinary anatomist and Nobel Peace Prize laureate (b. 1940)
  • September 27Imre Makovecz, Hungarian architect (b. 1935)
  • September 30
    • Anwar al-Awlaki, American-born terrorist and Islamist militant (b. 1971)
    • Ralph M. Steinman, Canadian Nobel immunologist and cell biologist (b. 1943)

October[]

Steve Jobs

Muammar Gaddafi

  • October 1Sven Tumba, Swedish hockey player (b. 1931)
  • October 5
    • Steve Jobs, American computer entrepreneur (b. 1955)
    • Charles Napier, American actor (b. 1936)
  • October 7Ramiz Alia, 1st President of Albania (b. 1925)
  • October 12Dennis Ritchie, American computer scientist (b. 1941)
  • October 16Dan Wheldon, English racing car driver (b. 1978)
  • October 20Muammar Gaddafi, Libyan dictator (b. 1942)
  • October 22Sultan, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, (b. 1930)
  • October 23
    • Terry Moriarty, Australian rules footballer (b. 1925)
    • Herbert A. Hauptman, American mathematician and Nobel laureate in chemistry (b. 1917)
    • Bronislovas Lubys, 5th Prime Minister of Lithuania (b. 1938)
    • Marco Simoncelli, Italian motorcycle road racer (b. 1987)
  • October 24John McCarthy, American computer scientist (b. 1927)
  • October 26Jona Senilagakali, Prime Minister of Fiji (b. 1929)
  • October 29Jimmy Savile, English DJ, television presenter, media personality and charity fundraiser (b. 1926)
  • October 31
    • Flórián Albert, Hungarian footballer (b. 1941)
    • Ali Saibou, 3rd President of Niger (b. 1940)

November[]

Joe Frazier

  • November 4
    • Alfonso Cano, Colombian militant leader (b. 1948)
    • Norman Foster Ramsey Jr., American Nobel physicist (b. 1915)
  • November 7Joe Frazier, American boxer (b. 1944)
  • November 8Valentin Ivanov, Russian footballer (b. 1934)
  • November 9Har Gobind Khorana, Indian-born American Nobel biochemist (b. 1922)
  • November 21Anne McCaffrey, American-born Irish writer (b. 1926)
  • November 22
    • Svetlana Alliluyeva, daughter of Joseph Stalin (b. 1926)
    • Danielle Mitterrand, First Lady of France (b. 1924)
    • Paul Motian, American jazz drummer (b. 1931)
  • November 25Vasily Alekseyev, Soviet-Russian weightlifter (b. 1942)
  • November 27
    • Ken Russell, British film director (b. 1927)
    • Gary Speed, Welsh footballer and coach (b. 1969)
  • November 28
    • Charles Thomas Kowal, American astronomer (b. 1940)
    • Ante Marković, 9th Prime Minister of SFR Yugoslavia (b. 1924)

December[]

File:Christopher Hitchens 2008-04-24 001.jpg

Christopher Hitchens

Kim Jong-il

  • December 1Christa Wolf, German writer (b. 1929)
  • December 4Sócrates, Brazilian footballer (b. 1954)
  • December 5Violetta Villas, Polish singer (b. 1938)
  • December 7Harry Morgan, American actor (b. 1915)
  • December 14Joe Simon, American comic book writer and artist (b. 1913)
  • December 15Christopher Hitchens, British-American writer (b. 1949)
  • December 17
    • Cesária Évora, Cape Verdean singer (b. 1941)
    • Kim Jong-il, Supreme Leader of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (b. 1941/42)
  • December 18Václav Havel, Czech playwright, 10th President of Czechoslovakia and 1st President of the Czech Republic (b. 1936)
  • December 24Johannes Heesters, Dutch actor and singer (b. 1903)
  • December 26Kennan Adeang, 3-Time President of Nauru (b. 1942)
  • December 27Helen Frankenthaler, American abstract expressionist painter (b. 1928)

Nobel Prizes[]

  • ChemistryDan Shechtman[82]
  • EconomicsChristopher A. Sims and Thomas J. Sargent[83]
  • LiteratureTomas Tranströmer[84]
  • PeaceEllen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakel Karman[85]
  • PhysicsSaul Perlmutter, Adam G. Riess, and Brian P. Schmidt[86]
  • Physiology or MedicineBruce A. Beutler, Jules A. Hoffmann, and Ralph M. Steinman[87]

References[]

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  2. ^ "Estonia becomes 17th member of the euro zone 31/12/2010 BBC News". BBC News. 2010-12-31. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12098513. Retrieved 2012-05-06. 
  3. ^ Gardner, Frank (2011-12-17). "Tunisia one year on: Where the Arab Spring started". BBC News. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-16230190. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  4. ^ "Vegetable seller who inspired Arab Spring honoured". CBC News. Associated Press. 2011-12-17. http://www.cbc.ca/news/world/story/2011/12/17/tunisia-anniversary-arabspring.html. Retrieved 2012-01-15. 
  5. ^ "Al-ManarTV:: South Sudan Referendum Wraps up, Khartoum Vows to Recognize Results 15/01/2011". Almanar.com.lb. 2011-01-15. http://www.almanar.com.lb/newssite/NewsDetails.aspx?id=170242&language=en. Retrieved 2011-01-31. 
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  11. ^ Steve Rosenberg (24 January 2011). "Moscow bombing: Carnage at Russia's Domodedovo airport". BBC News. Archived from the original on January 25, 2011. https://web.archive.org/web/20110125024514/http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12268662. Retrieved 24 January 2011. 
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