Millennia: 1st millennium - 2nd millennium - 3rd millennium

On the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd millennium commenced in the year 1001, and ended at the end of 2000. The terms often used to refer to the 1000s, the millennium starting at the beginning of the year 1000 and finishing at the end of the year 1999.


The 2nd millennium encompasses the High Middle Ages, the Renaissance, the Early Modern Age, the age of Colonialism, Industrialisation, the rise of nation states and democracy, and culminates in the 20th century with the impact of science, widespread education, and universal healthcare and vaccinations in many nations. The centuries of expanding large-scale warfare with high-tech weaponry (of the World Wars and nuclear bombs) are offset by growing peace movements from the United Nations, the Peace Corps, religious campaigns warning "violence begets violence" (Christianity, etc.), plus doctor|s/healthworker|s crossing borders to reduce injuries or disease, and the return of the Olympics as contest without combat.

From the 16th century, major population movements had set in, initially from Europe and Africa (via Atlantic slave trade) to the New World, with subsequent increased migration from Asia to the Americas, beginning the ever-accelerating process of globalization.

The tremendous power of technological advancements (with World War II called the "Scientist's war") leads the U.S. military to attempt to restrict all scientific research as classified. However, many scientists (with Einstein) prevail in explaining intellectual freedom, and new technology is developed by governments, industry, and academia across the world, with education shared by many international conferences and journals. The development of moveable type, radio, television, and the Internet spread information worldwide, within minutes, in audio, video, and print-image format to educate, entertain, and alert billions of people by the end of the 20th century.

As information spread, sophisticated stealth monitoring groups expanded to check access to dangerous technology, and many products became manufactured with built-in chemical indicators, micro-printing, or GPS/radio-locators to back-trace the origin or routing of those products.

The interwoven international trade led to the formation of multi-national corporations, with home offices in multiple countries. International business ventures reduced the impact of nationalism in popular thought.

World population doubles over the first seven centuries of the millennium, from 310 million in AD 1000 to 600 million in AD 1700, and increases tenfold over its last three centuries, rising to 6070 million in AD 2000.

Some significant persons[]



19th century[]

  • Vincent van Gogh (18531890), Dutch painter
  • Arthur Rimbaud (18541891), French poet, adventurer, explorer, businessman
  • Sigmund Freud (18561939), Austrian psychoanalyst
  • Nikola Tesla (18561943), Inventor
  • Mangal Pandey (d. 1857), considered to be responsible for the Indian Mutiny
  • Anton Chekhov (18601904), Russian playwright and author
  • Henry Ford (18631947), Industrialist
  • Mahatma Gandhi (18691948), Indian civil rights leader
  • Henri Matisse (18691954), French artist
  • Mustapha Kemal Atatürk (18811938), Turkish soldier, revolutionary and politician

20th century[]

Inventions, discoveries, and introductions[]

  • Communication and Technology
    • Printing press
    • Photography and motion pictures
    • Telegraphy, Telephone and Television
    • Animation
    • Transistors and electronics
    • Computers
    • Public Key Cryptography
    • Robotics
    • The Internet
  • Food and Drink
    • Sugar
    • Frozen food
    • Powdered milk
    • Food processing
    • TV dinners and Fast food
  • Mathematics and Business
    • Calculus
    • Insurance
    • Rule of Law and double-entry book-keeping
  • Manufacturing
    • Machinery & machine tools and Interchangeable Replaceable parts
    • Factory
    • Circular saw
    • The Assembly line
    • Plastic
    • Nail gun
  • Medicine
    • Inoculation, vaccination & antibiotics
    • Dentistry & anesthesia
  • Power
    • Coal Mining
    • Gasoline
    • Nuclear power & waste
    • Solar panel
  • Science
    • The development of the scientific method
    • Theory of evolution
    • The invention of genetics and DNA technology
    • Theory of Relativity
    • Quantum physics & Lasers
  • Society
    • The Bible in English
    • Christianity (to Americas, Africa, East Indies etc.)
    • Negro slaves from Africa
    • Capitalism and socialism
    • Universal suffrage and Parliamentary Sovereignty
    • European explorers colonize the Americas
  • Transportation and Space exploration
    • Bicycle
    • Steam engine and turbine
    • Internal combustion engine
    • Railways
    • Automobile
    • Human Flight
    • Landing on the Moon
    • Space shuttle, satellites and the Space station
    • GPS navigation
  • Warfare
    • Longbow
    • Aircraft carrier
    • Nuclear weaponry and the submarine
    • Mechanization of warfare

Centuries and decades[]

11th century 1000s 1010s 1020s 1030s 1040s 1050s 1060s 1070s 1080s 1090s
12th century 1100s 1110s 1120s 1130s 1140s 1150s 1160s 1170s 1180s 1190s
13th century 1200s 1210s 1220s 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s
14th century 1300s 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s 1360s 1370s 1380s 1390s
15th century 1400s 1410s 1420s 1430s 1440s 1450s 1460s 1470s 1480s 1490s
16th century 1500s 1510s 1520s 1530s 1540s 1550s 1560s 1570s 1580s 1590s
17th century 1600s 1610s 1620s 1630s 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s 1680s 1690s
18th century 1700s 1710s 1720s 1730s 1740s 1750s 1760s 1770s 1780s 1790s
19th century 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
20th century 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s

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