Millennium:  1st millennium BC 

Centuries:  4th century BC · 3rd century BC · 2nd century BC 
Decades:  290s BC 280s BC 270s BC 260s BC 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC 200s BC 
Categories:  Births – Deaths Establishments – Disestablishments 
The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period.
The first few decades of this century were characterized by a balance of power between the Greek Hellenistic kingdoms in the east, and the great mercantile power of Carthage in the west. This balance was shattered when conflict arose between Carthage and the Roman Republic. In the following decades, the Carthaginian Empire was first humbled and then destroyed by the Romans in the first and second Punic wars. Following the Second Punic War, Rome became the most important power in the western Mediterranean.
In the 3rd century BC the Xiong Nu were at the height of their power in Mongolia. The Warring States period in China drew to a close, with Qin Shihuang conquering other nationstates and establishing the Qin dynasty, the first empire of China. The Protohistoric Period began in the Korean peninsula.
Contents
Events[]
290s BC[]
 299 BC The Samnites, seizing their chance when Rome is engaged on the Lombard plain, start the third Samnite War with a collection of mercenaries from Gaul and Sabine and Etruscan allies to help them.
 298 BC The Samnites defeat the Romans under Lucius Cornelius Scipio Barbatus in the Battle of Camerinum, first battle of the Third Samnite War.
 293 BC The Chinese State of Qin reduced the threat of the State of Wei and the State of Han with the Qin victory in the Battle of Yique.
 Roman armies penetrate into the heart of the Samnite territory and then capture the Samnite cities of Taurasia, Bovianum Vetus and Aufidena.
 Agathocles, king of Syracuse, assists the Italian Greeks against the Bruttians and supported the Greeks against the Romans.
 Ptolemy gives his stepdaughter Theoxena in marriage to Agathocles, the tyrant of Syracuse (in southeastern Sicily).
 Ptolemy finally brings the rebellious region of Cyrene under his control. He places the region under the rule of his stepson Magas.
 Bindusara succeeds his father Chandragupta Maurya as emperor of the Mauryan Empire.
 Theater, Epidauros, is built with later additions.
280s BC[]
 281 BC Antiochus I Soter, on the assassination of his father Seleucus becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
 280 BC King Pyrrhus of Epirus invades Italy in an attempt to subjugate the Romans and bring Italy under a new empire ruled by himself.
 280 BC Construction of the Colossus of Rhodes is completed
270s BC[]
 279 BC Singidunum and Taurunum, today's Belgrade and Zemun, founded by Scordisci Celts.
 275 BC: end of history of Babylon.
 After failing to decisively defeat the Romans, Pyrrhus of Epirus withdraws from Italy.
 Gallic migration to Macedon, Thrace and Galatia.
 273 BC–252 BC Ashoka the Great ruled the Mauryan Empire.
260s BC[]
 264 BC First Punic War breaks out between the Carthaginian Empire and the Roman Republic.
 261 BC Antiochus II Theos, 2nd son, at the death of his father becomes emperor of the Seleucid empire.
 260 BC Battle of Changping between the State of Qin and the State of Zhao in China; a decisive Qin victory.
240s BC[]
 241 BC First Punic War ends in Carthaginian defeat. Rome demands large reparations, and annexes Sicily and Corsica.
230s BC[]
220s BC[]
 225 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Wei.
 223 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Chu.
 222 BC The Chinese Qin State conquers Yan and Zhao.
 221 BC With the conquest of the State of Qi, Qin Shihuang unifies the whole of China into one empire that also included northern Vietnam, forming the Qin Dynasty.
210s BC[]
 218 BC Second Punic War begins. Hannibal makes his famous Alpine crossing to invade Italy, the Roman heartland.
 214 BC Qin Shi Huang of the Chinese Qin Dynasty ordered construction of the Great Wall of China.
200s BC[]
 206 BC202 BC Civil war of the ChuHan contention in China after the fall of the Qin Dynasty.
 202 BC Romans defeat Carthaginians, ending the Second Punic War. Carthage's territories are reduced to the city itself, and crippling reparations are demanded by Rome.
 Indian traders regularly visited Arabia.
 Scythians occupy Sogdiana, in modernday Uzbekistan.
 Han Dynasty of China was founded (202 BC–220 AD).
 The Pharos of Alexandria is built.
 Appearance of the Hopewell culture in Ohio, USA.
 Teotihuacán, Mexico begun.
Significant persons[]
 Mencius, Chinese philosopher and sage (371–289 BC)
 Euclid, geometer (c. 365–275 BC)
 Ashoka, Mauryan ruler of India (273 BC–232 BC)
 Archimedes of Syracuse, mathematician, physicist, and engineer (c. 287–212 BC)
 Eratosthenes (c. 276–194 BC), Greek mathematician, geographer and astronomer
 Apollonius of Perga, mathematician (c. 262–190 BC)
 Qin Shi Huang, Chinese Emperor (259–210 BC, reigned 246–210 BC)
 Emperor Gaozu of Han, founder of the Han Dynasty in China, (256 BC195 BC, reigned 202 BC195 BC)
 Xiang Yu (232 BC202 BC), Chinese rebel general against the Qin Dynasty and arch nemesis of Liu Bang in the ChuHan contention.
 Hannibal, military leader of Carthage (247–182 BC)
 the "second" Brennus, Gaulish chieftain, invades Macedonia in 279 BC
 The Ptolemaic dynasty rules Egypt
 Ptolemy I Soter (305 BC–282 BC) and his wives Eurydice and
 Ptolemy II Philadelphos (284 BC–246 BC) and his wives Arsinoe I and Arsinoe II Philadelphos
 Ptolemy III Euergetes I (246 BC–222 BC) and his wife Berenice II
 Ptolemy IV Philopater (222 BC–204 BC) and his wife Arsinoe III
 Ptolemy V Epiphanes (204 BC–180 BC) and his wife Cleopatra I
 Appius Claudius Caecus, Aqua Appia, Via Appia, invented letter G
 Arcesilaus, founder of new Academy
 Manetho, wrote History of Egypt
 Xun Zi, founder of Legalism
 Zeno of Citium, founder of Stoicism
 Bai Qi, Chinese general
 Song Yu, Chinese poet
Inventions, discoveries, introductions[]
 Eratosthenes accurately calculates diameter of the Earth
 Weiqi wellestablished in China, and may date back to the 2nd millennium BC
 Stone of Canopus (for Ptolemy III), No. 1, in Rosetta Stone Series of 3 stones. Implements Leap year in Egypt. Leap year not formally recognized until Caesar in 55 B.C.
 293 BC: first Roman Sundial [Pliny (79ce): Natural History 7.213]
 Water screw invented by Archimedes
 Invention of the musical instrument hydraulis, the precursory to the Pipe organ by Ktesibios, a Greek engineer working in Alexandria.
 Emperor Gaozu of Han China discovers an elaborate mechanical puppet theater in the treasury of the previous ruler Qin Shihuang.
 The enormous Du Jiang Yan Irrigation System of China is engineered and constructed by Li Bing in 256 BC.
Evidence[]
Much of what we know of this century comes down to us from the works of the Roman historian Polybius, whose main concern is the story of how Rome comes to dominate the known world.
Decades and years[]
[[::5th century BC5th century BC]]
←[[::4th century BC4th century BC]]
← ↔ →[[::2nd century BC2nd century BC]]→[[::1st century BC1st century BC]]
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Millennium  Century  

Before Christ / Before Common Era (BC/BCE)  
[[::4th millennium BC4th]]:  [[::40th century BC40th]]  [[::39th century BC39th]]  [[::38th century BC38th]]  [[::37th century BC37th]]  [[::36th century BC36th]]  [[::35th century BC35th]]  [[::34th century BC34th]]  [[::33rd century BC33rd]]  [[::32nd century BC32nd]]  [[::31st century BC31st]] 
[[::3rd millennium BC3rd]]:  [[::30th century BC30th]]  [[::29th century BC29th]]  [[::28th century BC28th]]  [[::27th century BC27th]]  [[::26th century BC26th]]  [[::25th century BC25th]]  [[::24th century BC24th]]  [[::23rd century BC23rd]]  [[::22nd century BC22nd]]  [[::21st century BC21st]] 
[[::2nd millennium BC2nd]]:  [[::20th century BC20th]]  [[::19th century BC19th]]  [[::18th century BC18th]]  [[::17th century BC17th]]  [[::16th century BC16th]]  [[::15th century BC15th]]  [[::14th century BC14th]]  [[::13th century BC13th]]  [[::12th century BC12th]]  [[::11th century BC11th]] 
[[::1st millennium BC1st]]:  [[::10th century BC10th]]  [[::9th century BC9th]]  [[::8th century BC8th]]  [[::7th century BC7th]]  [[::6th century BC6th]]  [[::5th century BC5th]]  [[::4th century BC4th]]  [[::3rd century BC3rd]]  [[::2nd century BC2nd]]  [[::1st century BC1st]] 
Anno Domini / Common Era (AD/CE)  
[[::1st millennium1st]]:  [[::1st century1st]]  [[::2nd century2nd]]  [[::3rd century3rd]]  [[::4th century4th]]  [[::5th century5th]]  [[::6th century6th]]  [[::7th century7th]]  [[::8th century8th]]  [[::9th century9th]]  [[::10th century10th]] 
[[::2nd millennium2nd]]:  [[::11th century11th]]  [[::12th century12th]]  [[::13th century13th]]  [[::14th century14th]]  [[::15th century15th]]  [[::16th century16th]]  [[::17th century17th]]  [[::18th century18th]]  [[::19th century19th]]  [[::20th century20th]] 
[[::3rd millennium3rd]]:  [[::21st century21st]]  [[::22nd century22nd]]  [[::23rd century23rd]]  [[::24th century24th]]  [[::25th century25th]]  [[::26th century26th]]  [[::27th century27th]]  [[::28th century28th]]  [[::29th century29th]]  [[::30th century30th]] 
[[::4th millennium4th]]:  [[::31st century31st]] 
This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at 3rd century BC. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License. 