Revisions and sourced additions are welcome.

In contemporary history, the third millennium of the anno Domini or Common Era in the Gregorian calendar is the current millennium spanning the years 2001 to 3000 (21st to 30th centuries). Ongoing futures studies seek to understand what is likely to continue and what could plausibly change in the course of this period and beyond.

Predictions and forecasts not included on this timeline[]

  • List of future astronomical events
    • List of 21st-century lunar eclipses
    • List of solar eclipses in the 21st century
  • Projections of population growth
  • Climate change
    • Representative Concentration Pathway
    • Shared Socioeconomic Pathways
  • Extinction
  • List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events
  • Predictions and claims for the Second Coming of Christ
  • Near future in fiction
  • Works falling into the public domain in the United States

21st century[]





Plans and goals[]

  • NASA plans to execute a human mission to Mars between 2031 and 2035.[1]
  • Targets of the goals of the United Nations' 2030 Agenda are set to 2030.[2]
  • The 2030 Climate Target Plan of the EU aims to cut greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030. After the plan was presented in September, the European Commission will review, and possibly propose to revise all relevant policy instruments to achieve its additional emission reductions by June 2021.[3]
  • The international community, including the United Nations, World Bank, and United States, have set the goal of completely eradicating extreme poverty by 2030.[4] Noting a significant decline in extreme poverty since 1990, the World Bank has noted that the end of extreme poverty is in sight and pledged to cut it down to at most 3% of the world's population by this time.[5]
  • The World Health Organization and UNICEF have set a goal for universal access to basic sanitation by 2030.[6]
  • The United Nations has made it a goal that Internet access and literacy will be universal by 2030.[7][8]
  • The World Bank has called for all countries to implement universal health care by this time.[9]
  • Saudi Vision 2030
  • Melbourne 2030

Expected events[]

  • 2030:
    • New petrol and diesel cars will be banned from sale in the UK.[10]
    • Masdar City in Abu Dhabi, UAE, is expected to be completed by 2030.[11]
  • 2031: ATHENA (Advanced Telescope for High Energy Astrophysics), which is an X-ray observatory, is planned to launch this year.
  • 2032:
  • 2033:
    • May 18: at 03:33:20 (UTC), Unix time will equal 2000000000 seconds.
    • The planned final phase of the UK's High Speed 2 rail link is scheduled to be completed.[13]
    • A Jubilee will be held in the Catholic Church, in this case 2000 years after the traditional year of Jesus' death and resurrection.[14]
  • 2034:
    • As of 2011, Switzerland is scheduled to phase out the last of its nuclear power plants.[15]
    • The European Space Agency may launch the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna.[16]
    • ODINUS may be launched on a mission to explore Uranus and Neptune.
  • 2035:
    • January 8: Near-Earth object 2002 AY1 will make a close approach to Earth.
    • The US State of California will require all car sales be zero-emission vehicles by this year.[17]
  • 2036: On February 7, the 64-bit timestamps used by NTP, which consists of a 32-bit part for seconds and a 32-bit part for fractional seconds that gives a time scale that rolls over every 232 seconds (136 years) and a theoretical resolution of 2−32 seconds (233 picoseconds), and due to the fact that the NTP uses an epoch of 1 January 1900, will cause the first roll over to occur in this year.[18]
  • 2037:
    • Certain documents relating to Elizabeth Bowes-Lyon's wishes to preserve a monarchy if the Nazis occupied the UK are to be released from the Royal Archives.
    • The Oxford English Dictionary is expected to publish its completed revised third edition.[19]
  • 2038:
    • January 19: 03:14:08 UTC – Many 32-bit computer clocks overflow, potentially confusing the date as 13 December 1901. Known as the Year 2038 problem, similar to the Year 2000 problem.
    • April 12: Documents related to the NSA's PRISM program are to be declassified by the U.S. Government.[20]
    • April 25: Easter will occur on its latest possible date. The last time this occurred was in 1943 and, after 2038, the next time it will occur will be in 2190.
    • December 26: A total solar eclipse will occur in the Southern Hemisphere. It will start on the south of the Indian Ocean, will cross Australia and New Zealand and it will end in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean.
  • 2039: On September 2, the Destroyers for Bases Agreement's 99-year rent-free leases to the U.S. by the U.K. will expire.


Plans and goals[]

  • Oman Vision 2040

Expected events[]

  • 2041
    • The Antarctic treaty is scheduled to come under review.[21][22]
    • The joint venture partnership between Volkswagen Group China and SAIC Motor is scheduled to end.[23]
  • 2042
    • April 30: A Nickelodeon time capsule, sealed in April 1992, is scheduled to be opened.[24]
    • September 17: A common computing representation of date and time on IBM mainframe systems will overflow with potential results similar to the year 2000 problem.
  • 2045: Centennial commemorations of the conclusion of World War II and the fall of Nazi Germany.
  • 2047: On July 1, the present "one country, two systems" arrangement in Hong Kong is scheduled to end, as it was guaranteed for 50 years starting from 1 July 1997, provided under the Hong Kong Basic Law. The agreement was raised by Deng Xiaoping to deal with Hong Kong's reunification with the People's Republic of China in 1997, and stipulated in the Sino-British Joint Declaration of 1984. What will be done is not stated in any document.[25]
  • 2048: On January 14, the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty is scheduled to come up for review.[26][27]
  • 2049:
    • October 1: Scheduled completion of the Belt and Road Initiative, coinciding with the 100th anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China.[28]
    • December 20: The present "One country, two systems" with Macau, guaranteed for 50 years starting from 20 December 1999, provided under the Basic Law and the Joint Declaration on the Question of Macau, will expire.[29]


  • 2050:
    • Three-North Shelter Forest Program is expected to be completed.[30]
    • President Joe Biden says his plan will ensure that the United States will be a 100% clean energy economy and reach net-zero emissions by 2050.[31]
    • Arnulf Jaeger-Walden of the European commission's Institute for Energy believes that solar power from North Africa can provide 100 GW to the entire continent of Europe.[32]
    • Under a plan announced in July 2016, New Zealand aims to eradicate all non-native rats, possums, and mustelids by this year.[33]
    • The United States Airforce is set to retire the B-52 Bomber from service.
    • A time capsule in Rachel, Nevada is set to be opened in this year.[34]Template:Importance inline
  • 2051:
    • April: One of the METI messages Cosmic Call 1 sent from the 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar in 1999 arrives at its destination, Gliese 777 star.
    • June 1: The Washington State Ferries time capsule is scheduled to be opened, celebrating WSF's 100th anniversary.
  • 2054:
    • November 7: The lease agreement International Speedway Corporation has with Daytona Beach Racing and Recreational Facilities District expires.[35]
    • Hawksbill Creek Agreement tax exempt status is scheduled to expire.
  • 2057:
    • February: A METI message Cosmic Call 1 sent from the 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar arrives at its destination, 15 Sge star.
    • May: A METI message, called the Teen Age Message, sent from the 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar arrives at its destination, HD 76151 star.
    • December: A METI message, called the Teen Age Message, sent from the 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar arrives at its destination, 37 Gem star.
    • In the UK, the Midland Expressway Ltd (MEL) contract to run the M6 Toll expires.
  • 2059: In January, a METI message, called the Teen Age Message, sent from the 70-meter Eupatoria Planetary Radar arrives at its destinations, HD 126053 star and HD 193664 star.


  • 2061:
    • September 1: A time capsule at St. Gabriel School in Biggar, Saskatchewan, Canada is scheduled to be opened for its 150th anniversary of its school division (Greater Saskatoon Catholic Schools).
    • July 24: Halley's comet expected to be visible for the first time since the perihelion was last reached in 1986.
    • December 31: Expiration of the Singapore-Malaysia Water Agreement.
  • 2065: On November 22, Venus occults Jupiter, the first planet-planet occultation since 3 January 1818. The next planet-planet occultation will occur less than two years later, on 15 July 2067 (when Mercury occults Neptune).
  • 2068:
    • September 29: One of four time capsules at the Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument is scheduled to be opened 100 years after it was locked.
    • May 31: A Solar Eclipse will occur.


  • 2070: In 2020, some scientists projected that, by 2070, 1 to 3 billion people, mostly living in regions with little adaptive capacity, would be left outside the historically favourable climate conditions, the "human temperature niche", depending on patterns of population growth and climate change mitigation, without levels of migration unlikely to be sustainable.[36][37][38]
  • 2073: On January 1, assuming no further extensions to the term of copyrights become law in the interim, all media that was published before 1978 will have fallen into the public domain in the United States. This year in particular is significant because this is the last year when the terms of the Sonny Bono Copyright Extension Act will apply; works published after 1977 will generally fall into the public domain after 70 years post mortem auctoris. Template:Example needed


  • 2089: During the months of May and June, insect Magicicada broods X (17-year) and XIX (13-year) will emerge simultaneously. This will be the first time this will occur since 1868; next time will be in 2310. This event occurs only once in every 221 years.[39]


  • 2090: The 9/11 Victims Compensation Fund is set to expire.[40]
  • 2092: Work on cleaning up the site of the Oldbury Nuclear Power Station[lower-alpha 1] is scheduled to be complete in 2092 (early estimate).[41]
  • 2094:
    • March 19: A time capsule sealed exactly seventy-five years before, is scheduled to be opened at Denver International Airport.[42]
    • April 7: Mercury transits Jupiter, this is the only known such event of the decade.[43]
  • 2097: A time capsule, sealed 100 years earlier, is scheduled to be opened in Baltimore's Inner Harbor to celebrate 300 years of the city's incorporation.[44]
  • 2099: The 99-year lease for Kaufman Astoria Studios in Queens, New York City is set to expire.[45]

22nd century[]


  • 2100: On 14 March (which will be 29 February in the Julian calendar), the difference between the Julian calendar and the Gregorian calendar reaches 14 days. Since 14 is divisible by 7, this will be the first time in history since its inception that the Gregorian calendar has the same day of the week for each day of the year as the Julian calendar. This will last until 28 February, 2200 of the Gregorian Calendar.
  • 2103: Per an agreement between the National Archives and Caroline Kennedy, the jacket Jackie Kennedy wore on the day John F. Kennedy was assassinated cannot be displayed in public until this year.[46]
  • FAT file systems theoretically support dates up to 31 December, 2107 (though officially only up to 31 December 2099).
  • 2109: On April 27, a time capsule placed under the floor boards of the Old Queens Building at Rutgers University, in New Jersey, buried on 27 April 2009, is scheduled to be opened.[47]


  • The Chernobyl New Safe Confinement reaches end of designed lifetime in the 2110s.
  • 2110: On 19 September, a time capsule at the Plaza de Armas in Santiago, Chile is intended to be opened. It was buried in 2010.
  • 2111: The will of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh is scheduled to become public knowledge.[48]
  • 2112:
    • November 18: The city of Beaumont, California in the United States is scheduled to open a time capsule in honour of its bicentennial.
    • A time capsule buried in Weavers Academy, Wellingborough, UK, will be opened after 100 years of being buried.
  • 2115:
    • The first book from the Future Library project will be published, 100 years after being submitted by author Margaret Atwood.[49]
    • The One Hundred Year Study on Artificial Intelligence (AI100) initiated by Stanford University will be concluded.[50][51][52]
    • November 18: In 2015, Robert Rodriguez and John Malkovich teamed up with Louis XIII de Rémy Martin (cognac) to create a film called 100 Years. It was put into a time capsule and is scheduled to be released exactly 100 years later.


  • 2120: In November, a South African vault of thousands of time capsules containing present-day information for future generations' use will be opened, 101 years after burial. The Vault 2120 is located at Maropeng in the Cradle of Humankind and was sealed in November 2019. The vault will only be opened in the year 2120. The vault and its thousands of time capsules have been buried at least two metres underground at the Maropeng Visitor Centre.[53]


  • 2132: A time capsule on Rideau Street in Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is intended to be opened that year. It was buried in 1982.


  • 2140: All Bitcoins are expected to be mined.


  • 2155: The Year type in MySQL supports dates up to 31 December, 2155.



  • 2182-09-24: Asteroid 101955 Bennu has a 1-in-2,700 chance of impacting Earth.[54]


  • 2193: A time capsule at the York Civic Centre in Toronto, Ontario, Canada is scheduled to be opened that year.[55] It was buried in 1997.

23rd century[]

  • 2227–2247: Pluto will be closer to the Sun than Neptune is for the first time since the year 1999.
  • 2265: Return of the Great Comet of 1861.
  • 2284: Possible the perihelion of Halley's Comet might come back after the year 2209.
  • 2285: On March 22, Easter will occur on its earliest possible date for the first time since the year 1818.

24th century[]

  • 2400: The first century leap year since 2000.

25th century[]

  • 2453: 1,000 years since the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire
  • 2476: 2,000 years since the collapse of the Western Roman Empire
  • October 12, 2492: 1000 years since Christopher Columbus arrived on Bahamas and discovered Americas.

26th century[]

27th century[]

  • 2640: On September 5, the 639-year-long performance of John Cage's organ work As Slow as Possible (begun in 2001) is scheduled to finish at the St. Burchardi Church in Halberstadt, Germany.[56]

28th century[]

29th century[]

  • The St. Michael's Catholic Cemetery (Happy Valley) in Hong Kong lease on Wanzai's Saint Fulan gentleman street will end after a 999-year lease, assuming no legal status changes before that date.
  • 2883: On January 4, the CPR (Canadian Pacific Railway) lease on the O&Q (Ontario and Quebec) will end, after a 999-year lease.

30th century[]

  • 2968: The Helium Centennial Time Columns Monument in Amarillo, Texas, contains four separate time capsules, the last of which is intended to be opened 1,000 years after the Time Columns Monument was locked in 1968.
  • 2999:
    • The time capsule in Chinook Centre in Calgary, Alberta, Canada is scheduled to be opened on 31 December, 2999 after being sealed in 1999.[57]
    • The Longplayer composition is set to finish on 31 December 2999, marking the end of the thousand-year piece of music which began on 1 January 2000.

See also[]

  • Timelines of the future
  • Anthropocene
  • Foresight (psychology)
  • Outline of futures studies
  • Technology forecasting


  1. ^ The Oldbury Nuclear Power Station is located in South Gloucestershire, England.


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  2. ^ "Transforming our world: the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development .:. Sustainable Development Knowledge Platform". 
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  4. ^ Mark Tran. "New UN goals call for end to extreme poverty by 2030 | Global development". The Guardian. 
  5. ^ "World Bank chief tells Stanford audience that ending extreme poverty is possible". Stanford University. 
  6. ^ "How and Why Countries are Changing to Reach Universal Access in Rural Sanitation by 2030 | The Water Blog". 
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  8. ^ "United Nations pledges to get everyone online… by 2030". 
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  11. ^ "Lessons From a City Built Without Light Switches and Water Taps". TakePart. 19 September 2016. 
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  20. ^ "Verizon forced to hand over telephone data – full court ruling". The Guardian (London). 6 June 2013. 
  21. ^ Jagadish Khadilkar (2017). Antarctica: The Frozen Continent's Environment, Changing Logistics and Relevance to India. Bloomsbury Publishing. ISBN 9789386643001. 
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  25. ^ See also the transcript Script error: No such module "webarchive". of Deng's dialogue with Margaret Thatcher.
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  27. ^ "Archived copy". 
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  33. ^ Ramzy, Austin (25 July 2016). "New Zealand Vows to Wipe Out Rats and Other Invasive Predators by 2050". The New York Times. 
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  35. ^ "Daytona International Speedway signs long-term lease". 30 March 2006. 
  36. ^ "Climate change: More than 3bn could live in extreme heat by 2070". BBC News. 5 May 2020. 
  37. ^ Lustgarten, Abrahm (23 July 2020). "The Great Climate Migration Has Begun". The New York Times. 
  38. ^ (26 May 2020) "Future of the human climate niche" (in en). Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 117 (21): 11350–11355. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1910114117. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 32366654. 
  39. ^ "Niches :: May :: 2011". 15 April 2009. 
  40. ^ "Senate approves bill to extend 9/11 victims fund". 
  41. ^ Strategy: effective from April 2011. The Stationery Office. 2011. p. 85. ISBN 9780108510472. 
  42. ^ "The definitive guide to Denver International Airport's biggest conspiracy theories". 31 October 2016. 
  43. ^ Albers, Steven (March 1979). "Mutual Occultation of Planets". Sky and Telescope 57 (3). 
  44. ^ Arthur Hirsch (4 November 1997). "Maybe they'll figure out what we were thinking Parody: There is a lot we'd like to bury with Baltimore's bicentennial time capsule. Please, don't open till 2097.". Baltimore Sun. 
  45. ^ "After Schumer, Maloney Push, NPS Approves Kaufman Astoria Studios application for a 99 year lease term". Charles E. Schumer. 16 October 2012. 
  46. ^ Kaye, Randi. "Jackie Kennedy's pink suit locked away from public view". CNN. 
  47. ^ Diduch, Mary (27 April 2009). "U. celebrates Old Queens bicentennial". The Daily Targum (Rutgers University: College Media Network). "At the ceremony, a time capsule was revealed containing several items from today to leave for the University in 2109, at the building’s tricentennial commemoration." 
  48. ^ "Prince Philip's will to be secret for 90 years" (in en-GB). BBC News. 2021-09-16. 
  49. ^ Flood, Alison (27 May 2015). "Into the woods: Margaret Atwood reveals her Future Library book, Scribbler Moon" (in en-GB). The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. 
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  53. ^ "Vault Containing 4500 Time Capsules To Be Opened In 101-years.". 
  54. ^ "101955 1999 RQ36: Earth Impact Risk Summary". 
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