|Centuries:||4th century · 5th century · 6th century|
|Decades:||400s 410s 420s 430s 440s|
450s 460s 470s 480s 490s
|Categories:||Births – Deaths |
Establishments – Disestablishments
The Western Roman Empire is ruled by a succession of weak emperors, and true power falls increasingly into the hands of powerful generals. Internal instability and pressing military problems caused by foreign invaders finally result in the sacking of Rome by a Visigoth army in 410. Some recovery is made in the following decades, but the Western Empire receives a serious blow when another barbarian group, the Vandals occupy Carthage, capital of the extremely important province of Africa. Attempts to retake the province are interrupted by the invasions of the Huns under Atilla. After Atilla's final defeat and death both Eastern and Western empires join forces for a final assault on Vandal North Africa, but it is a spectacular failure.
The Fall of the Roman Empire
The year 476 is widely understood as the point at which the Roman Empire came to an end. In 476 the last Roman Emperor, Romulus Augustus (nicknamed Augustulus "Little Augustus") is deposed by a Germanic foederati general named Odoacer. The Eastern Roman Empire ceases trying to prop up its hopeless Western twin, whose former lands are then divided into numerous barbarian kingdoms. The last de-facto Roman Emperor, Julius Nepos is murdered in Dalmatia in 480 AD. The last fragment of the Western Empire, the Domain of Soissons ruled by Duke Syagrius, was conquered by the Frankish King Clovis in 486. Roman power continued in the east however, under the rulers of Constantinople. Scholars normally refer to their empire as the Byzantine Empire, however its inhabitants considered themselves Roman throughout. Recognizable Roman culture continued to exist in the east for another 200 years before the Arab invasions of the 7th Century set off a chain of events that forever changed the face of the Eastern Roman Empire, and the entity that emerged in the next few centuries is what one might refer to as the true Medieval Byzantine Empire.
- 399–412: The Chinese Buddhist monk Faxian sails through the Indian Ocean and travels throughout Sri Lanka and India to gather Buddhist scriptures.
- 406: The Suevi, Alans, and Vandals cross the frozen Rhine near Mainz, and enter Gaul. This marks the collapse of the Roman frontier in the West.
- 407: Constantine III leads many of the Roman military units from Britain to Gaul, occupying Arles (Arelate). This is generally seen as Rome's withdrawal from Britain.
- 410: Rome sacked by Visigoths, St. Augustine writes The City of God
- 439: Vandals conquer Carthage
- At some point after 440, the Anglo-Saxons settle in Britain. The traditional story is that they were invited there by Vortigern.
- 451: Huns under Attila facing the Romans and the Visigoths are defeated in the Battle of Chalons. 
- 452: Pope Leo I allegedly meets personally with Attila the Hun and convinces him not to sack Rome.
- 455: Vandals sack Rome
- 455: Chichen Itza of Mexico founded
- 476, August 28: Deposition of Romulus Augustulus by Odoacer: traditional date for the Fall of Rome in the West.
- 480: Death of Julius Nepos in Dalmatia, the last de jure Western Roman Emperor.
- 481: Clovis I becomes king of the Western Franks upon the death of Childeric I
- 490: Approximate date of the Battle of Mount Badon. According to legend, British forces led by Arthur defeated the invading Saxons.
- 493: Theodoric the Ostrogoth ousts Odoacer to become king of Italy.
- 494: Northern Gaul is united under Frankish King Clovis I, founder of the Merovingian dynasty.
- Buddhism reaches Myanmar and Indonesia.
- African and Indonesian settlers reach Madagascar.
- Hopewell culture ends.
- Agatharcos — Greek artist
- Flavius Aëtius, last of the great Roman generals
- Alaric I, king of the Visigoths that sacked Rome
- Aspar, Eastern Roman general and politician
- Attila the Hun
- Augustine of Hippo, bishop, theologian
- Bodhidharma, founder of Zen Buddhism
- John Chrysostom, Patriarch of Constantinople
- Clovis, first Frankish king to unite all the Frankish peoples
- Cyril of Alexandria, Patriarch of Alexandria
- Faxian, Chinese Buddhist monk
- Geiseric, Vandal king and founder of the Vandal kingdom in North Africa
- Hawaiiloa, discovered and settled Hawaii
- Huiyuan, Chinese Buddhist
- Hypatia of Alexandria, woman philosopher
- St. Jerome hermit, cleric, Bible translator
- Pope Leo I
- Ricimer, Western Roman general, politician and ruler
- Saint Mesrob, Armenian monk
- Niall Noigiallach, founder of one of Ireland's greatest dynasties.
- St. Patrick, completed the conversion to Christianity in Ireland
- Socrates Scholasticus, Byzantine Church historian
- Sozomen, Christian church historian
- Theoderic the Great, Ostrogothic king
- Zu Chongzhi, Chinese astronomer and mathematician
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
- Horse collar invented in China
- Heavy plow in use in Slavic lands
- Metal horseshoes become common in Gaul
- Anglo-Saxon Futhorc alphabet used in England
- Armenian alphabet created by Mesrob Mashtots c. 405
- ^ Roberts, J: "History of the World.". Penguin, 1994.
Decades and years
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