Familypedia
Advertisement
Alpine County, California
—  County  —
Alpine County
Spanish: Condado Alpino
[[File:
Alpine county sign.jpg
Markleeville Trip (20).jpg20050723-1411-0739-CarsonPass-CA.jpg
Images, from top down, left to right: an Alpine County line road sign during a snow storm, Alpine County Courthouse, a view eastward from Carson Pass overlooking Red Lake
|250px|none|alt=|Skyline of Alpine County, California]]

Flag

Seal
[[File:Script error: No such module "Mapframe".|250px|none|alt=|Interactive map of Alpine County]]Interactive map of Alpine County
Location in the state of California
Country  United States
State  California
Region Sierra Nevada
Incorporated March 16, 1864[1]
Named for Its location in the Sierra Nevada resembling the (Swiss) Alps
County seat Markleeville
Largest community Markleeville
Government
 • Type Council–CAO
 • Body
 • Chair David Griffith
 • Vice Chair January Riddle
 • County Administrative Officer Nichole Williamson
Area
 • Total 743 sq mi (1,920 km2)
 • Land 738 sq mi (1,910 km2)
 • Water 4.8 sq mi (12 km2)
Highest elevation[3] 11,464 ft (3,494 m)
Population (2020)
 • Total 1,204
 • Density 1.6000000000000/sq mi (0.6300000000000/km2)
Time zone Pacific Standard Time (UTC−8)
 • Summer (DST) Pacific Daylight Time (UTC−7)
Area codes 209, 530
FIPS code 06-003
GNIS feature ID 1675840
Website alpinecountyca.gov

Alpine County (Spanish: Condado Alpino)[4][5] is a county in Eastern California located within the Sierra Nevada on the state border with Nevada. As of the 2020 Census, the population was 1,204,[6] making it California's least populous county. The county seat and largest community is Markleeville.[7]

History[]

Woods Lake, situated in Alpine County

The Washoe people, a Great Basin tribe, inhabited the Sierra Nevada on the CaliforniaNevada boundary, with the Hung A Lel Ti band populating the Diamond Valley including what would become Alpine County.

Kit Carson and John C. Frémont were among the first explorers to bring nationwide attention to the Sierra Nevada region in their winter 1844 expedition, though the first known westerners to actually explore the area were Jedediah Smith and Joseph R. Walker. Though gold spurred the infrastructural development of Alpine County, the Comstock Lode found near Virginia City, Nevada and the subsequent silver boom was what triggered Alpine County's growth, even attracting gold miners from neighboring Nevada.[8] This prompted the formation on March 16, 1864, from parts of Amador County, Calaveras County, El Dorado County, Mono County and Tuolumne County.[1] It was named Alpine County due to its resemblance to the Swiss Alps.[9] At its formation, it had a population numbering around 11,000. By 1868, however, the local silver mines had proven unfruitful of replicating the Nevada silver boom and the population fell to about 685 in the 1870 Census, a decline that would steadily continue through the 1950s.[10][11] Silver Mountain (established as Köngsberg)[12] was designated the county seat following the discovery of silver nearby by Norwegian miners.[13] Markleeville, established by Jacob Markley in 1861 as a 160-acre claim encompassing a bridge and toll station, became the new county seat in 1875.[1] The collapse of the silver industry and closing of mines was finalized with the demonetization of silver in 1873, and Silver Mountain was abandoned by 1886, with most businesses moving to Markleeville.[8][13]

Following the devastating collapse of the silver industry, the population began quickly declining until the 1950s, falling to an all-time low of 241 in 1930.[11] During this time, its small economy limited the county to serving primarily as a trading center for the local farming and lumber industries, as well as fishing and hunting during the 1930s. Several lots in the county were left vacant.[8]

Alpine County finally managed an economic rebound with the construction of the Bear Valley and Kirkwood ski resorts in the late 1960s, the latter of which is split with Amador County. The population shot up from 484 in 1970 to 1,097 in 1980, a 126.65% increase, and has remained around that level.[11] The three national forests (Eldorado, Humboldt–Toiyabe and Stanislaus) means 96% of the county is owned by the federal government,[14] providing opportunities for economic development and tourism to the skiing resorts as well as historical tourism and outdoor recreation.[15]

Geography[]

According to the United States Census Bureau, the county has an area of 743 square miles (1,920 km2), of which 738 square miles (1,910 km2) is land and 4.8 square miles (12 km2) (0.7%) is water.[16] The federal government owns about 96% of Alpine County, the highest percentage in California,[14] including three national forests: Eldorado (54,318 acres, or 7.81% of the 695,098-acre total), Stanislaus (119,805 acres, or 13.32% of the 899,427 acre-total) and Humboldt–Toiyabe (233,962 acres, or 3.72% of the 6,290,945 acre-total).[17][18]

Adjacent counties[]

National protected areas[]

  • Eldorado National Forest (part)
  • Stanislaus National Forest (part)
  • Toiyabe National Forest (part)

Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1870 685
1880 539 −21.3%
1890 667 23.7%
1900 509 −23.7%
1910 309 −39.3%
1920 243 −21.4%
1930 241 −0.8%
1940 323 34.0%
1950 241 −25.4%
1960 397 64.7%
1970 484 21.9%
1980 1,097 126.7%
1990 1,113 1.5%
2000 1,208 8.5%
2010 1,175 −2.7%
U.S. Decennial Census[19]
1790–1960[20] 1900–1990[21]
1990–2000[22] 2010[23] 2020[24]

2020 census[]

Alpine County, California - Demographic Profile
(NH = Non-Hispanic)
Race / Ethnicity Pop 2010[23] Pop 2020[24] % 2010 % 2020
White alone (NH) 852 801 72.51% 66.53%
Black or African American alone (NH) 0 10 0.00% 0.83%
Native American or Alaska Native alone (NH) 210 214 17.87% 17.77%
Asian alone (NH) 7 12 0.60% 1.00%
Pacific Islander alone (NH) 0 0 0.00% 0.00%
Some Other Race alone (NH) 1 7 0.09% 0.58%
Mixed Race/Multi-Racial (NH) 21 76 1.79% 6.31%
Hispanic or Latino (any race) 84 84 7.15% 6.98%
Total 1,175 1,204 100.00% 100.00%

Note: the US Census treats Hispanic/Latino as an ethnic category. This table excludes Latinos from the racial categories and assigns them to a separate category. Hispanics/Latinos can be of any race.

2019 American Community Survey estimates[]

2010 Census[]

The 2010 United States Census reported that Alpine County had a population of 1,175. The racial makeup of Alpine County was 881 (75.0%) White, 0 (0.0%) African American, 240 (20.4%) Native American, 7 (0.6%) Asian, 0 (0.0%) Pacific Islander, 19 (1.6%) from other races, and 28 (2.4%) from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 84 persons (7.1%).[28]

2000[]

As of the census[29] of 2000, there were 1,208 people, 483 households, and 295 families residing in the county. The population density was 2 people per square mile (1/km2). There were 1,514 housing units at an average density of 2 per square mile (1/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 73.7% White, 0.6% Black or African American, 18.9% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.4% from other races, and 5.1% from two or more races. 7.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 12.1% were of German, 12.1% Irish, 9.3% English, 6.5% American and 5.7% Italian ancestry. 95.0% spoke English, 3.1% Spanish and 2.0% Washo as their first language.

There were 483 households, out of which 25.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 43.9% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 38.9% were non-families. 27.7% of all households were made up of individuals, and 5.4% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 2.96.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 22.8% under the age of 18, 10.4% from 18 to 24, 27.5% from 25 to 44, 29.3% from 45 to 64, and 9.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females there were 110.8 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 117.2 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $41,875, and the median income for a family was $50,250. Males had a median income of $36,544 versus $25,800 for females. The per capita income for the county was $24,431. About 12.0% of families and 19.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.4% of those under age 18 and 10.1% of those age 65 or over.

Politics[]

Throughout the 20th century, Alpine County was a Republican stronghold in presidential and congressional elections. From 1892 until 2004, the only Democrat to carry Alpine County in a presidential election was Franklin Roosevelt in 1932 and 1936. In 1964, Alpine was one of only five counties in the state to back Barry Goldwater. It was among the five most Republican counties in the entire nation in 1892,[30] 1908,[31] 1920,[32] and 1928.[33] Warren Harding and Herbert Hoover gained over ninety percent of the county's vote. However, Alpine has become more of a Democratic county in recent elections. It was carried by John Kerry in 2004 and has stayed in the Democratic column since. No Republican has won a majority in the county since 1988.

United States presidential election results for Alpine County, California
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 244 32.71% 476 63.81% 26 3.49%
2016 217 36.05% 334 55.48% 51 8.47%
2012 236 36.09% 389 59.48% 29 4.43%
2008 252 36.31% 422 60.81% 20 2.88%
2004 311 44.37% 373 53.21% 17 2.43%
2000 281 47.95% 265 45.22% 40 6.83%
1996 264 43.00% 258 42.02% 92 14.98%
1992 222 35.18% 215 34.07% 194 30.74%
1988 306 55.43% 230 41.67% 16 2.90%
1984 264 56.65% 194 41.63% 8 1.72%
1980 254 55.10% 133 28.85% 74 16.05%
1976 225 50.34% 189 42.28% 33 7.38%
1972 366 63.54% 195 33.85% 15 2.60%
1968 150 59.29% 83 32.81% 20 7.91%
1964 124 57.67% 91 42.33% 0 0.00%
1960 132 76.74% 40 23.26% 0 0.00%
1956 114 79.72% 29 20.28% 0 0.00%
1952 148 88.10% 20 11.90% 0 0.00%
1948 106 76.81% 25 18.12% 7 5.07%
1944 98 68.53% 45 31.47% 0 0.00%
1940 125 66.49% 62 32.98% 1 0.53%
1936 74 46.54% 85 53.46% 0 0.00%
1932 53 47.32% 56 50.00% 3 2.68%
1928 49 94.23% 3 5.77% 0 0.00%
1924 52 88.14% 5 8.47% 2 3.39%
1920 64 91.43% 6 8.57% 0 0.00%
1916 60 72.29% 23 27.71% 0 0.00%
1912 8 10.00% 34 42.50% 38 47.50%
1908 75 87.21% 11 12.79% 0 0.00%
1904 74 89.16% 9 10.84% 0 0.00%
1900 69 82.14% 15 17.86% 0 0.00%
1896 40 49.38% 39 48.15% 2 2.47%
1892 65 75.58% 17 19.77% 4 4.65%
1888 53 66.25% 27 33.75% 0 0.00%
1884 56 60.87% 36 39.13% 0 0.00%
1880 66 61.68% 41 38.32% 0 0.00%



In November 2008, Alpine was one of just three counties in California's interior in which voters rejected Proposition 8, the ballot initiative to amend the California Constitution to reject the legal extension of the title of marriage to same-sex couples. Alpine voters rejected Proposition 8 by 56.4 percent to 43.6 percent. The other interior counties in which Proposition 8 failed to receive a majority of votes were neighboring Mono and Yolo counties.[34]

According to the California Secretary of State, as of January 2016, there are 696 registered voters in Alpine County. Of those, 257 (36.9%) are registered Democratic, 210 (30.2%) are registered Republican, 46 (6.6%) are registered with other political parties, and 183 (26.3%) declined to state a political party.[35]

Alpine County is in California's 4th congressional district, represented by Republican   Tom McClintock.[36] In the State Assembly, the county is in the 5th Assembly District, represented by Republican   Frank Bigelow.[37] In the State Senate, the county is in the 1st Senate District, represented by Republican   Ted Gaines.[38]

Due to its low population density, Alpine County votes entirely by mail, one of two counties in California which do so.[39] In the June 2014 primary elections, about 22% of registered voters went to the polls. In Alpine County, the number was almost 70%, the highest of any county in the state.[40]

Stonewall Nation[]

Gay activist Don Jackson seriously presented an idea for taking over Alpine County at a December 28, 1969 gay liberation conference in Berkeley, California. The project, which eventually became known as Stonewall Nation, was subsequently surreptitiously used by fellow gay activists Morris Kight and Don Kilhefner as an agitation and propaganda tool with no serious plans to bring the idea to fruition.[41] Once the political theater aspect of the project was exposed, planning for the Alpine County project came to a halt even among demoralized true believers.

Posse Comitatus controversy[]

In the late 1970s, the Posse Comitatus organization attempted to take over Alpine County by settling there and fielding candidates in local elections.[42] The Posse thought winning local elections in Alpine County was their best opportunity to take control of a single county. The group fielded a candidate for sheriff and registered fictitious voters using post office boxes and vacant lots as their addresses. Six people were prosecuted for voter fraud, the false registrations were thrown out, and the incumbent sheriff was re-elected.[43]

Voter registration statistics[]

Crime[]

The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense.

Transportation[]

Major highways[]

  • State Route 4
  • State Route 88
  • State Route 89

Airport[]

Alpine County Airport is a general aviation airport in the Eastern Sierra about 4 miles (6.4 km) from the town of Markleeville. The airport consists of a simple airstrip with an apron for small light aircraft to park. The airport has no buildings, no lights, and is rarely used. The airport is popular with astronomers due to the clear, dark skies.

Communities[]

Locator map of communities in Alpine County

All unincorporated

Population ranking[]

The population ranking of the following table is based on the 2020 census of Alpine County.[47]

county seat

Rank City/Town/etc. Municipal type Population (2020 Census)
1 Woodfords Community[48] AIAN 225
2 Alpine Village CDP 224
3 Mesa Vista CDP 217
4 Markleeville CDP 191
5 Kirkwood (partially in Amador County) CDP 190
6 Bear Valley CDP 128

See also[]

  • Alpine County Unified School District
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Alpine County, California
  • Stonewall Nation, a proposal by gay activists to colonize Alpine County in the 1970s

Notes[]

  1. ^ Percentage of registered voters with respect to total population. Percentages of party members with respect to registered voters follow.
  2. ^ Only larceny-theft cases involving property over $400 in value are reported as property crimes.
  3. ^ a b c d e For statistical purposes, defined by the United States Census Bureau as a census-designated place (CDP).

References[]

  1. ^ a b c "Alpine County General Plan". February 2009. p. 7. http://www.alpinecountyca.gov/files/General_Plan-MASTER_Reduced_Size_0.pdf. 
  2. ^ http://www.alpinecountyca.gov/150/Board-of-Supervisors
  3. ^ "Sonora Peak". Peakbagger.com. http://www.peakbagger.com/peak.aspx?pid=2585. 
  4. ^ "Este municipio de California tiene luz verde para reabrir tras COVID-19" (in es-ES). https://laverdadnoticias.com/mundo/Este-municipio-de-California-tiene-luz-verde-para-reabrir-tras-COVID-19-20200521-0292.html. 
  5. ^ "Coronavirus: ¿Cuándo caducan las órdenes de quedarse en casa en los condados de California?" (in es). April 25, 2020. https://www.esdelatino.com/coronavirus-cuando-caducan-las-ordenes-de-quedarse-en-casa-en-los-condados-de-california/. 
  6. ^ "Alpine County, California". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/profile?g=0500000US06003. Retrieved January 30, 2022. 
  7. ^ "NACo County Explorer". http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  8. ^ a b c "History of Alpine County" (in en-US). https://alpinecounty.com/alpine-county-history. 
  9. ^ William Bright; Erwin Gustav Gudde (November 30, 1998). 1500 California place names: their origin and meaning. University of California Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-520-21271-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=CET4QodMZysC. 
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  11. ^ a b c Forstall, Richard L., ed (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/ca190090.txt. 
  12. ^ Durham, David L. (1998). California's Geographic Names: A Gazetteer of Historic and Modern Names of the State. Quill Driver Books. p. 1202. ISBN 9781884995149. 
  13. ^ a b Template:Ghost Towns of California
  14. ^ a b Sabalow, Ryan; Kasler, Dale; Reese, Phillip (January 9, 2016). "Rural Californians sympathize with protesters' goals in Oregon standoff". The Sacramento Bee. http://www.sacbee.com/news/state/california/article53922925.html. 
  15. ^ "Permits & Other Info". https://alpinecounty.com/permits-%26-other-info. 
  16. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. http://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/counties_list_06.txt. 
  17. ^ "Land Areas of the National Forest System". September 30, 2015. https://www.fs.fed.us/land/staff/lar/LAR2015/FY2015%20LAR%20Book.pdf. 
  18. ^ "Table 6 – NFS Acreage by State, Congressional District and County". November 18, 2008. https://www.fs.fed.us/land/staff/lar/2008/TABLE_6.htm. 
  19. ^ "Census of Population and Housing from 1790-2000". US Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html. 
  20. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  21. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/ca190090.txt. 
  22. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  23. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2010: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Alpine County, California". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=p2&g=0500000US06003&tid=DECENNIALPL2010.P2. 
  24. ^ a b "P2 HISPANIC OR LATINO, AND NOT HISPANIC OR LATINO BY RACE - 2020: DEC Redistricting Data (PL 94-171) - Alpine County, California". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=p2&g=0500000US06003&tid=DECENNIALPL2020.P2. 
  25. ^ a b c "2019 ACS Age and Sex 5-Year Estimates". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=Age&t=Age%20and%20Sex&g=0500000US06003&tid=ACSST5Y2019.S0101&moe=false&hidePreview=false. 
  26. ^ a b c "2019 ACS Demographic and Housing 5-Year Estimates". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?text=Demographics&g=0500000US06003&tid=ACSDP5Y2019.DP05&moe=false&hidePreview=false. 
  27. ^ "2019 ACS Place of Birth by Nativity and Citizenship Status 5-Year Estimates". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?q=B05002:%20PLACE%20OF%20BIRTH%20BY%20NATIVITY%20AND%20CITIZENSHIP%20STATUS&g=0500000US06003&tid=ACSDT5Y2019.B05002&hidePreview=false. 
  28. ^ "2010 Census P.L. 94-171 Summary File Data". United States Census Bureau. http://www2.census.gov/census_2010/01-Redistricting_File--PL_94-171/California/. 
  29. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov. 
  30. ^ Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; 1892 Presidential Election Statistics
  31. ^ Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; 1908 Presidential Election Statistics
  32. ^ Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; 1920 Presidential Election Statistics
  33. ^ Dave Leip’s Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections; 1928 Presidential Election Statistics
  34. ^ "California results". Los Angeles Times. September 16, 2014. http://www.latimes.com/local/la-2008election-california-results-htmlstory.html. 
  35. ^ "Voter Registration Statistics". California Secretary of State. January 5, 2016. http://www.sos.ca.gov/elections/voter-registration/voter-registration-statistics. 
  36. ^ "California's 4th Congressional District - Representatives & District Map". Civic Impulse, LLC. http://www.govtrack.us/congress/members/CA/4. 
  37. ^ "Members Assembly". State of California. http://assembly.ca.gov/assemblymembers. 
  38. ^ "Senators". State of California. http://senate.ca.gov/senators. 
  39. ^ "No voters at these polls". Los Angeles Times. http://latimesblogs.latimes.com/california-politics/2012/11/no-voters-at-these-polls.html. 
  40. ^ Mehta, Seema (June 17, 2014). "California's least-populous county takes voting seriously". Los Angeles Times. http://www.latimes.com/local/politics/la-me-pol-alpine-county-20140614-story.html. 
  41. ^ "In 1970, a Group of Gay Angelenos Plotted to Turn a Rural California County into a Gay Utopia". June 2021. https://www.lamag.com/mag-features/alpine-county-gay-liberation-front/#:~:text=LGBTQ-,In%201970%2C%20a%20Group%20of%20Gay%20Angelenos%20Plotted%20to%20Turn,County%20into%20a%20Gay%20Utopia&text=One%20night%2C%20Don%20Jackson,for%20coming%20out%20as%20gay.. 
  42. ^ Levitas, Daniel (January 20, 2004). The Terrorist Next Door: The Militia Movement and the Radical Right. Macmillan. p. 164. ISBN 9781429941808. https://books.google.com/books?id=aS2L9yeTYb4C&q=alpine+county&pg=PA164. 
  43. ^ Duncan, Dayton (September 2000). Miles from Nowhere: Tales from America's Contemporary Frontier. University of Nebraska Press. p. 259. ISBN 0803266278. https://books.google.com/books?id=7Nv6BQ74lsIC&q=alpine+county+elections&pg=PA258. 
  44. ^ a b U.S. Census Bureau. American Community Survey, 2011 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates, Table B02001. U.S. Census website . Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  45. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k California Secretary of State. February 10, 2013 – Report of Registration Script error: No such module "webarchive".. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
  46. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Office of the Attorney General, Department of Justice, State of California. Table 11: Crimes – 2009 Script error: No such module "webarchive".. Retrieved November 14, 2013.
  47. ^ "2020 U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census/decade.2020.html. 
  48. ^ Staff, Website Services & Coordination. "US Census Bureau 2010 Census Interactive Population Map". https://www.census.gov/2010census/popmap/ipmtext.php?fl=4665. 

External links[]

Commons-logo.png
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • [http:// Official website]

Coordinates: 38°35′N 119°48′W / 38.58, -119.80

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Alpine County, California. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Advertisement