Ambilineality is a system of determining descent groups in which one belongs to one's father's or mother's lineage. Unlike Unilineal descent, Ambilineality allows the individual the option of choosing their own lineage.

Societies practicing Ambilineal descent are especially common in Southeast Asia and the Pacific. Polynesian cultures are generally ambilineal, including for example Samoans, Māori and Hawaiians. The indigenous peoples of Northwestern North America are also practitioners of Ambilineality; it also often occurs among Jewish people living in the United States.

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