From National Park Service:Fort Necessity Archives

Montour’s American Indian name was Sattelihu (SAT-tel-ee-hyoo). His father was an Oneida. There are many stories about his mother, Madam Montour. She lived her life and raised her children in American Indian towns. However she was very familiar with European lifestyles. She spoke several languages and served as an interpreter between Europeans and American Indians.

Montour inherited his mother’s gift for language. He spoke French, English, Lenape, Shawnee and the Iroquoian languages. It was very unusual to find a person who spoke so many languages and did it so well. He made his living helping the colonists and the American Indians communicate. It was called a "go-between." He set up meetings, delivered messages, and translated whenever it was needed. He was a man comfortable both with the American Indians and the Europeans.

In 1742 when Count Zinzindorf met Montour he wrote Montour looked "decidedly European, and had his face not been encircled with a broad band of paint" we would have thought he was one. Montour wore European clothes. However, in his ears he wore earrings "of brass and other wires" braided together.

Throughout the French and Indian War Montour sided with the British. He often worked for the Pennsylvania government. He was with George Washington before the battle at Fort Necessity. He was also one of the few American Indians to travel with Braddock. He had so much influence with the American Indians in the Ohio River Valley that the French offered money to have him killed.

In 1752 Montour received land from the Pennsylvania government for all the work he had done for them. He had an idea for his land. He thought that many different types of people would live with him on the land. He wanted many types of Europeans, such as Irish, German and British; as well as many types of American Indians including Lenape, Iroquois and Delaware. However, neither the man in power in the Pennsylvania government nor the leaders of the Iroquois like this idea. Montour was not able to go ahead with his plan.

Montour was very unusual in his ability to understand both the Europeans and the American Indians. He was able to live in either world. But, in the end very few people followed his lifestyle. They chose to live either as American Indians or Europeans.

From Darlington, 1893. Additional editing required

ANDREW MONTOUR, eldest son of Madame Montour, first appears as captain of a party of Iroquois warriors marching against the Catawbas of Carolina in 1744. He fell sick on his way to James River and was obliged to return to Shamokin.' In May, 1745, he accompanied Weiser and the Chief Shich- illany to Onondaga with a message and instructions from the Governor of Pennsylvania, to induce the Six Nations to send deputies to a Peace Conference with the Catawbas at Wil- liamsburgh, Virginia; also to urge them to compel the Shaw- nese, with Peter Chartier at their head, to make restitution for the robbery of Pennsylvania traders, incited thereto by the French.' In June, 1748, he was introduced by Weiser to the President and Council of the Province at Philadelphia, and highly commended as "faithful and prudent;" "lives amongst the Six Nations between the branches of the Ohio and Lake Erie." * In July, following, he was interpreter at a Treaty at Lancaster, between the Provincial Authorities and the Six Nations, Shawnese, Miamis, etc.4 In August, 1748, he accompanied Weiser on his mission to Logstown. In May, 1750, arrived at George Croghan's House at Pennsboro, Cumberland County, from Allegheny, and joins in the Conference held on the I7th with some Six Nation and Conestoga Chiefs. 1 Marshe's Journal, Vol VII. Letter of C. Weiser to James Logan. 2 Colonial Records, Vol. IV, p. 778. 8 Colonial Records, Vol. V, p. 290. 4 Colonial Records, Vol. V, p. 307., id., p. 349. ( 159)

Governor Hamilton recommended him to the Assembly as a discreet person of influence with the Indians in keeping the French from alienating them from the British and deserving of recompense, to which the Assembly assented. He received £ g2 i$s. On September 20, a message to the Governor from the Miamis and Hurons was delivered to Secretary Peters by Andrew Montour. The Assembly having voted a present of .£100 to be given to the Twigtwees (Miami) Indians, the Governor directed Croghan and Montour to hasten to Ohio with it, which he called a small present; but they were both sick and therefore detained. Before they were able to start on their journey news came of active French movements and of their capturing two English traders, Turner and Kil- gore, in the Ohio country, and also of the death of Con- estoga, the great Chief of the Six Nations, an Onondaga and firm friend of the English, while his successor was strong in the French interest and a Roman Catholic. Therefore, the Governor gave orders to Croghan and Montour to stay until he should learn the resolution of the Assembly, to whom he communicated the alarming information. That body responded by voting ,£100 as a present of condolence to the Six Nations on the death of Conestoga, .£100 more to be given to the Miamis, and ,£500 "to the natives at Ohio" in suitable goods and to be sent as soon as possible. Croghan and Montour set out on their journey, arriving at Logstown on the Ohio on November 15. Of course, they took no goods for the present; they were yet to be purchased and the Indians to be notified to assemble to receive them. Not later than March Croghan arrived and wrote that the French, under Jean Cceur, had five canoe loads of goods up the Allegheny, and was, the Indians said, very generous in making presents to all the chiefs he met with. At Logstown they found thirty warriors of the Six Nations on their way to war with the Catawbas. But few of the chiefs of the Indians were seen, being absent hunting. He further wrote to the Governor that " Montour takes a great deal of pains to promote the English interest among the Indians, and has great sway among all those nations." The Indian goods were purchased ; the transportation to the Ohio cost .£230—very costly—but it could not be done for less, as the Governor informed the Assembly. Pack-horses then, and for near half a century afterward, were the only means of transportation. Croghan and Montour proceeded on to the Muskingum River, where, at a large Wyandot town (near the site of the present Coshocton, Ohio) Croghan had a trading house. Here they remained some weeks and were joined by Christopher Gist, the agent of the Ohio Company of Virginia. Croghan and Montour held frequent councils with the Indians, delivering the message from the Governor of Pennsylvania promising the presents to be delivered in the Spring at Logstown. They proceeded to the Shawnee towns at the mouth of the Scioto, and also on the south, or Kentucky, side of the Ohio, where, at a Council with the Shawnese, Croghan delivered speeches from the Governor of Pennsylvania to the chiefs of the nation and informed them that the escaped traders who had been in prisons of the French, brought news that the French had offered a large reward for Montour and himself if alive, or for their scalps if dead. Montour also informed them, as he had done the Wyandots and Delawares, that the King of Great Britain had .sent them a large present of goods.1 Montour was called by the French, a French Canadian deserter. Croghan, Montour, Gist and Robert Callender then proceeded to Pickawillamy, chief town of the Miamis.' It was situated on the Big Miami. Among other proceedings, Cro- 1 " Conduct of the Ministry." 2 " Conduct of the Ministry."

ghan presented them with a gift of the value of £100. Mon- tour delivered them a message from the Wyandots and Dela- wares. On March 3 Gist left them for the lower Shawnee Town, while they took the path to Hockhocking. While at the Miami Town, articles for a treaty of peace and alliance were entered into between the English and Miamis, drawn up by Gist, signed, sealed and delivered on both sides.1 Conrad Weiser was selected to deliver the goods at Logs- town, but declined, and, highly recommending Croghan and Montour as every way qualified, the Governor appointed them to transact the business. The goods were valued at £700. When Croghan reported the matter of the treaty of peace and alliance made with the Miamis, he said it was done at the request of the Indians, he consenting rather than discharge them at so critical a time. The Governor reproved him for acting in public matters without authority, but received it and ordered its entry on the Books of Minutes. On May 18, 1751, Montour and Croghan arrived at Logs- town with the promised presents for the Indians, of whom a great number were assembled—Six Nations, Delawares and Shawanese. They welcomed the messengers by firing guns and raising the English colors. Two days afterward Jean Coeur, with one other Frenchman and forty Six Nation warriors, arrived from the head of the Ohio. Jean Coeur held a council with all the Indians in the town on the following day, and urged them to turn away all the English traders from their country, otherwise they would be visited with the displeasure of the Governor of Canada.2 To which a Six Nation chief directly replied, emphatically refusing the proposition of the French. On the 27th Croghan and Montour held a conference with the chiefs of the Six Nations, and agreed upon 1" Colonial Records." 2 " Virginia State Papers," p. 245.

the speeches to make the day following to the Delawares, Miamis, Wyandots and Shawanese, when the promised presents were to be delivered. Accordingly, on the 28th, the treaty was held; George Croghan delivered the speeches; Andrew Montour acted as interpreter for Pennsylvania. Some ten traders were present. The Beaver, of the Delawares, and chiefs of other tribes responded, among other things saying they hoped "our brother would build a strong-house on the River Ohio," that, in case of war, a place of security might be ready. Croghan and Montour left on the 30th. On his arrival at Pennsboro, Croghan wrote to the Governor, sending a copy of the treaty, with an account of the proceedings. All, he said, had been conducted to the great satisfaction of the Indians. Mr. Montour, he wrote, had exerted himself very much on this occasion. " He is very capable of doing business, and is looked upon by all the Indians as one of their chiefs." He adds that, as Andrew has devoted all his time to the business, he hopes the Governor will recommend him to the Assembly for proper recompense, and that " Mr. Montour is now at my house and will wait on you when a time is appointed." In communicating the account of the proceedings of Croghan and Montour to the Assembly, the Governor said Mr. Montour was in town by his orders, to receive a recompense for his services, and that he must do him the justice to say that it appears he has well performed the business entrusted to him, and hopes the Assembly will pay him to his satisfaction. Montour was paid £80 in full for his services. Montour, being very desirous of living "over the Blue Hills," had often applied to the Governor for permission, which was given after a good deal of consideration and consultation with Mr. Weiser and Mr. Peters.1 It was thought 1" Colonial Records."

proper, as numbers had lately gone to settle there, and others were daily crowding into those parts, that Andrew Montour should be furnished with a commission under the Lesser Seal to go and reside there, in order to prevent others from settling or from dealing with the Indians for their consent to settle. Montour was granted a commission under the Lesser Seal to go and reside over the Kittochtinny Hills, at such place"as he might judge most central and convenient. His duty was to warn all settlers off and report them to the Governor. The place fixed upon by Montour was at the mouth of the stream called Montour's Run, in the present Perry County. On the same day that Montour received his commission he waited on the Governor, and requested permission to interpret for the Governor of Virginia at the ensuing treaty, to be held at Logstown, on the Ohio. The leave was granted, together with a kind message from the Governor, to be delivered to the Indians at Ohio.

In May following, the Commissioners of Virginia—Joshua Fry, L. Lomax and James Pattin—held a treaty with the Indians at Logstown. Christopher Gist, George Croghan and Andrew Montour were present, the latter as interpreter. The object of the treaty was to obtain from the Indians, if possible, a confirmation of the treaty of Lancaster of 1744, by which, the Virginians claimed, the Indians had ceded to the King of Great Britain the right to all the lands in the colony of Virginia.1

The Indians afterwards hearing the construction put upon this deed, disowned it, and it was the object of the Conference at Logstown to have the treaty explained and their objections removed. In a private Conference held on the Qth of June, with the Half King and the other chiefs, they acknowledged themselves satisfied. For Montour's services 1 " Plain Facts," pp. 38-42.

in this transaction, the Ohio company, at a meeting at Alexandria, September, 1752, resolved "to allow him thirty pistoles for his trouble at Logstown, in May last, on account of the company, and that if he will remove to Virginia and settle on the company's lands, and use his interest with the Indians to encourage and forward our settlements, that the company will make him a present of one thousand acres of land to live on, and will make him a legal title for the same."' In 1753, the Six Nations of Ohio chose him as one of their counsellors, and observed all the ceremonious forms usual on admitting members of council. He visited Onondaga early this year, 1753, by request of the Governor of Virginia, to invite the Six Nations to send a deputation to a treaty to be held at Winchester. He returned, and being in Philadelphia, informed Secretary Peters that the Six Nations were averse to either the French or English settling or building forts at Ohio, and wished them to quit their country. He said he was going a second time to Onondaga by request of the Governor of Virginia and Mr. Peters. In August, 1753, Montour was with Captain William Trent, at the forks of the Ohio, when Captain Trent viewed the ground, selecting the spot on which to build the fort. "Captain Trent and French Andrew, the heads of the Five Nations, the Picts, the Shaw- anese, the Owendats, and the Delawares, for Virginia," writes John Frazer, Indian trader, then residing at Turtle Creek, near the ground to become so famous two years later as "Brad- dock's Fields." In September a treaty was held at Winchester, Virginia, between Col. Fairfax and Chiefs of the Six Nations. Lord Thomas Fairfax was present the first day, when the Indians, over eighty in number, were received with considerable ceremony. Col. Gist, William Trent and George Croghan were present. Andrew Montour was interpreter,

1 "Colonial Records."

and also efficient in arranging the business.1 The Indians, by the Half King, Scarrooyady, declaring that they took back the consent they had given at Logstown, in May, to any settlement of their country, but they desired a strong house to store goods in. The Virginia authorities promised the Indians to supply them with ammunition to defend themselves against the French. George Croghan, William Trent and Andrew Montour were appointed to distribute it at the Ohio. After the close of the Conference at Winchester, the Indians took their way to Carlisle, where they met the Commissioners of Pennsylvania, Mr. Peters, Isaac Morris and Benjamin Franklin, and held a conference with them, having been encouraged to make the visit by the frequent solicitations of Andrew Montour. 2 The Conference at Carlisle lasted four days, with the usual ceremonies; the Indians repeated their determination given at Winchester, respecting keeping settlements from extending west of the mountains, and as to the strong house which the Governor of Virginia intends to build on the Ohio, they thought that intention occasioned the Governor of Canada to invade their country, but as soon as they knew his intention, " as he speaks with two tongues, they (the Indians) well know what to do;" evidently they were unsettled in their minds respecting the "strong house," but as to settlements west of the Allegheny hills, there could be no doubt they were decidedly opposed to it. Towards the close of the Conference Scarrooyady, the Oneida chief, said it was with a great deal of pleasure he informed them "that you may believe that what Andrew Montour says to be true between the Six Nations and you, they have made him one of their counsellors and a great man among them and love him dearly." Scarrooyady gave a large belt to Andrew Montour, and the 1 " Plain Facts." i 2 Report of Commission.

Commissioners agreed to it. In January, Montour was at Shannopin's Town and Logstown with Croghan and James Pattin, where, between the drunkenness of the Indians and the presence of a detachment of French soldiers, with whom they had high words, their situation was dangerous. In February, Montour was at Philadelphia and underwent a close examination by the Governor and Committee of Assembly relative to the location of Shannopin, Logstown and Venango. 1754.—George Washington, having sent for Montour to meet him at Ohio, the latter wrote to Secretary Peters, from his residence on Sherman's Creek, on the i6th of May, 1754, urging the immediate necessity of Pennsylvania sending men and arms to join the Indian Allies, to resist the impending French invasion. Ward had surrendered the little fort at the Forks of the Ohio, on the I7th of April, to Contrecoeur. Croghan and Montour proceeded to the Monongahela, and there on the gth of June found Washington ; and Montour was with him at his surrender of Fort Necessity, July 3, 1754. He had a company under Washington, of both Whites and Indians. On the 2ist of July, Montour wrote to the Governor of Pennsylvania, from Winchester, saying that the Half King and Monakatootha, with a body of Six Nations,1 had gone to Aucquick to settle, where the other Indians, as fast as they can get off from the French, are to join them; and as there is a large body of them and no ground there to hunt to support their families, they expect the Governor to provide for their families, as their men will be engaged in the war. On August 3ist he met Weiser at Harris' Ferry, on his way to a great meeting at Aucquick. 1755.—During the campaign of Braddock, that General wrote, on May 20, to Governor Morris, that he had engaged between forty and fifty Indians from the frontier of the pro- 1 " Colonial Records."

vince, to go over the mountains, and would take Croghan and Montour into service.1 Montourwasat Philadelphia on the 8th of August, acting as interpreter with Weiser and a few Indians, who had been in the fatal defeat of Braddock. Scarroyady commented, with great severity, on the pride and ignorance of the great English General. On the French and Indian invasion of the settlements, in 1755, after Braddock's defeat, Montour was active and zealous in gaining intelligence of their movements.

He was at Shannopin, with Scarroyady, in October, and warned John Harris of his great danger; "there were forty Indians out many days, and intended to burn my house, and destroy myself and family." At Shamokin,'-' " painted as the rest" of the Indians, he warned the inhabitants, that an attack might very soon be expected. He had been at the Big Island, with Manoquetotha, at the request of the Dela- wares.

1756.—Andrew Montour, with Scarroyady, one of the chiefs of the Oneida Nation, was sent on a mission, to the Six Nations, by Governor Morris. They passed up the Susque- hanna, to Onondaga; on their way, while among the hostile Delawares, their lives were in great danger. Montour and Scarroyady met the Provincial Council, in their chamber in Philadelphia, on March 27th, when they made full report of their mission to the Six Nations. They had been present at Fort Johnston, at a conference held with the Six Nation chiefs, and Sir William Johnston, February, 1756. The chiefs expressed great resentment at the conduct of the Delawares, etc. The Council decided to offer rewards for Indian scalps. The Provincial Assembly highly commended the conduct of Montour and Scarroyady. 1 "Colonial Records." 1 Shamokin is at the Forks of the Susquehanna, on the east side.

On the igth to the 2ist of April a conference was held at Philadelphia, at the house of Israel Pemberton, between the Quakers of Philadelphia and the heads of the Six Nations. Weiser and Montour were interpreters. On the 20th the Indians had a long conference with the Governor.

"They put Andrew Montour's children under his care; as well the

three that are here, to be independent of the mother, as a boy of twelve years old, that he had by a former wife, a Delaware, a grand-daughter of Allompis." They added that he had a girl among the Delawares called Kayodaghscroony, or Made- lina, and desired she might be distinguished, enquired after, and sent for, which was promised. John Montour's name (one of Andrew's children, in the care of the Province) appears in the " Items of Accounts, votes of Assembly," 1758, p. 75 ; this boy was the same, afterwards living on, and claiming the Island, near Pittsburgh, now Neville; possibly the same who died in 1830.

On May l0th, Montour was interpreter, at a meeting at Fort Johnston, between Scarroyady and other Oneida chiefs, and Sir Wm. Johnston. In June, he was at the camp on Lake Onondaga, as interpreter.

On the 2$th of July Sir William Johnston held a conference, at Fort Johnston, with the chiefs of the Six Nations, Shawnese, Delawares, Mohickons, etc. After the usual ceremonies, he told them, that as Lord Loudon, the new Commander-in-Chief, had not arrived, he would have some Six Nation warriors go to Canada, to try whether the edge of the hatchet he sharpened at Onondaga would cut. Some chiefs sang the war song. Montour was appointed the captain of a party of Indians. He rose up and sang his war song. Some warriors joined his party, and the war dance was danced.1 Some of these warriors, forty-eight in number, indulging too freely in rum, squandered all of their outfit. 1 " New York Colonial History." 12

Scarroyady and Montour came to the council room, at Fort Johnston, on the I4th of August, and Sir William Johnston, for the second time, fitted them out with arms and clothes, in place of those they had sold to some River Indians and Tuscarawas. News having arrived of the capture of Oswego, by Montcalm's army, Sir Wm. Johnston spoke to the two war parties, and desired them to march to General Webb's rendezvous, at the Oneida carrying place. August 26th that General, however, beat a rapid retreat to the Flats. On the loth of September, Montour appears as interpreter at Fort Johnston. On the 20th of September Sir Wm. Johnston, with all the Indians he could gather, with Croghan and Montour, marched to the relief of the-army besieged at Fort Edward. He was ordered back by General Webb, and reached Fort Johnston on the 2d of November.

1757.—At Fort Johnston, on the i2th of September, Andrew Montour appears as interpreter at a meeting of Sir William Johnston, a few Mohican and Seneca chiefs and four Cherokee Indians.1 "Sir William lighted the Calumet of Peace, and after smoking a whiff, passed it to the Cherokee Deputies, holding it to them while each drew a whiff," and then Mr. Montour, "handed it round to every Indian present." After delivering belts and long speeches, etc., at several meetings, they left on the 2Oth. In November Croghan and Montour were despatched to the German Flats, by Sir Wm. Johnston, to call upon the Oneidas there, to explain why they had not given warning of the raid and massacre, shortly before committed by the French and their Indian allies, on the German inhabitants. They met the Oneida Sachems, at Fort Harkimer, on the 30th November; they held a conference with some Germans and returned as reported.2 1 " New York Colonial History," Vol. VII. 2 "Colonial Records," Vol. VIII, 1738.

In October, at Easton, was held a great conference between Governor Denny, the Provincial Council, Committee from the Assembly, and Indians of the Six Nations. Croghan as Deputy Agent for Indian Affairs, Weiser as Provincial Interpreter, Montour as Interpreter for the Six Nations and Delawares. October 21, Montour, Croghan and others signed, as witnesses, the Deed of Confirmation for Lands. The treaty closed on the 25th ; it was very important, as General Forbes was then moving near to Fort Du Quesne, and a great object was to soothe the Indians, by presents, and to settle the complaints of the Delawares, respecting their lands. Immediately after the close of the last Treaty at Easton, Montour and Croghan left for the Ohio, where, at Saukon, the Indian village at the mouth of the Beaver, on the 2Qth of November, they met Christian Fred. Post, who had just come down the creek from Kuskuskis.1 At Saukon they met and conferred with King Beaver, his brother, Shingiss, and the chiefs and warriors, respecting General Forbes' message to them; that General, with the army, was now at Fort Du- Quesne, having captured it on the 24th. On December ad they reached Logstown, and on the 3d the island, since known as Killbuck or Smoky Island, opposite Pittsburgh, where they encamped. On the 4th they got over late, there was snow, and the river running with ice. Croghan, Montour, and Col. John Armstrong held conference with Col. Bouquet, the Indians, etc." On the $th, Post seems to have had an altercation with Croghan and Montour, relative to the Indians', talk. On February 8th, 1759, Secretary Peters, at the request of General Forbes, held a conference at Philadelphia with the Six Nation Chiefs and other Indians from Bowlunee, on the Upper Allegheny, Andrew Montour, interpreter. On the 2Oth he 1 " Post's Second Journal, 1758." * " Pennsylvania Archives," 1759.

informed the Secretary that the Indians were dissatisfied. They said it was absolutely necessary Andrew should return to Ohio with them, but he told them he was an officer, subject to the General, and could not go without written orders from him.1 These Indians wished to know the intentions of the English, and what was done at the Easton Treaty, etc. In July a great conference with all the Indian tribes of the Ohio was held at Pittsburgh, by George Croghan, Deputy Agent, Col. Hugh Mercer, commanding Fort Pitt, Captain William Trent, Captain Thomas McKee,2 Captain Henry ; Montour, interpreter. It lasted from July 4th to nth, 1759. King Beaver was the principal speaker of the Indians. Guyasuta (Kiashuta), was present. Another conference was held at Pittsburgh, on October 24th, between General Stanwix, the officers, George Croghan, William Trent, McKee, Captain Henry, Montour interpreter, Six Nations, Shawanese, Wyandots, Miamis, and Delawares. Captain Montour lit the Pipe of Peace left here by the warriors of the Ottawas, handing it to General Stanwix and the other officers of the army, and Indians, to smoke, then acquainted the Indians by whom the pipe was left, and upon what occasion, showing them the belts left at the same time. At the camp before Pittsburgh General Moncton held a conference with the Western Indians on August I2th, 1760,' Captain Andrew Montour, interpreter, George Croghan, Deputy Agent. On September 4th Montour arrived at Presqu" Isle with Shingiss.4 Canada having capitulated, an expedition was ' " Colonial Records." 2 For many years Chief Indian Trader on the Susquehanna. He built Fort McKee. Alexander McKee was his son. 3 "Pennsylvania Archives," 1760. 4 Massachusetts Historical Society.

fitted out to take possession of the different French posts on the lakes, Detroit, etc. On November 4th the Flotilla, of nineteen whale-boats and batteaux, sailed. The shore party consisted of forty-two Rangers, fifteen Royal Americans, and twenty Indians, Six Nations, Shawanese and Delawares, under the command of Captain Montour, the shore party commanded by Captain Brewer, the whole land and water forces under Major Robert Rogers. Croghan commanded one of the boats. Detroit was surrendered, after some parley, on November 29th.1 On December 8th Major Rogers and Captain Montour, with a party of Indians set off to take possession of Mackinaw. After proceeding on their voyage about ninety miles to a point on the west side of Lake Huron, they found it impossible to get through the ice. To go by land the Indians declared was impossible without snow-shoes, so much to Rogers' mortification they returned, reaching Detroit on the 2ist. On May 22d, 1761, at a conference held at the State House, Philadelphia, between the Governor and several Indians from Allegheny, Andrew Montour was interpreter. Governor Hamilton held a conference at Lancaster, August 23d, 1762, with the Northern Indians, Andrew Montour was State interpreter. 1763.—The Pontiac war was now raging.2 Andrew Montour was at Fort Augusta (Shamokin), on his way up the west branch of the Susquehanna on July 23d, 1763, returning August 7th, with news of the Indians' attack on Loyalhanna, Ligonier and Fort Pitt being reported captured.8 1 " Massachusetts Historical Collection." * " Pennsylvania Archives." 8 "Colonial Records."

December igth, Captain Montour delivered to Governor John Penn an address of welcome from the Conestoga Indians at Conestoga Town, Lancaster County. 1764.—Against the hostile Delawares, residing on the upper Susquehanna, Sir William Johnston sent a party of nearly two hundred Indians—Six Nations, Tuscarawas and Oneidas, and a few Rangers—under the command of Captain Montour.1 In the middle of February they left their castles with the intention of falling upon the towns of the Delawares and Shawanese, lying near the forks and branches of the Ohio and Susquehanna. They seized here in their encampment a party of forty Delawares under the command of the famous Captain Bull, a son of the ill-fated Teedyus- cung. Captain Bull was a remarkable Indian and in capacity as leader had done considerable damage during the war. The prisoners were sent by way of Fort Stanwix, to Johnston Hall. Captain Bull and .thirteen of the warriors were sent by way of Albany to New York, and there confined in jail. The others were distributed among the friendly Indians to supply the places of lost relations—an Indian custom.1 On April 1st, Captain Montour, with 140 Indians and some Rangers, set out for Kanestio, and after passing several high creeks and rivers, they destroyed two large towns, which were built of square logs. After this Montour proceeded to Kanestio, where they destroyed sixty good houses and killed a number of cattle. 1768.—A conference was held at Fort Pitt between George Croghan, Deputy Agent of Indian Affairs, and the chiefs and warriors of the Six Nations, Delawares, Shawnese, and Mun- cies, residing on the Ohio River. " Henry " Montour, interpreter. 1 Stone's "Life of Sir William Johnston.1' a " New York Colonial History."

On October 24th the great Congress with the Indians at Fort Stanwix opened. Andrew Montour was one of the interpreters ; the others were John Butler and Philip Phillips. 1769.—A tract of land, at the junction of Loyalsock Creek, on the west branch of the Susquehanna, in the present county of Lycoming, was surveyed November 3, 1769, for Andrew Montour, called Montour's Reserve. It contained 880 acres.

It seems also that "Henry" Montour claimed, settled on, and built a house on a tract of 600 acres on or near Chillis- quaque Creek, about four or five miles above Fort Augusta. The Indian name of Montour was " Sattelihu."

At the time of the visit of Zinzendorf to Shamokin, in the autumn of 1742, he met Andrew for the first time, and thus describes him : " His cast of countenance is decidedly European, and had not his face been encircled with a broad band of paint, applied with bear's fat, I would certainly have taken him for one. He wore a brown broadcloth coat, a scarlet damasken lappel waist-coat, breeches, over which his shirt hung, a black Cordovan neckerchief decked with silver bugles, shoes and stockings, and a hat. His ears were hung with pendants of brass and other wires plaited together like the handles of a basket. He was very cordial, but on addressing him in French, he, to my surprise, replied in English."


DOB: c1705 Madam Montour and Carodwana aka Robert Hunter are presumed to have married prior to 1711 because Madam Montour appears as an interpreter at a Philadelphia conference in that year. She would have been about 27, and so may have been married for ten years or more at the time. If Madame Montour married at age 16, then Andrws earliest DOB would have been c1700. Andrew is known to have been their eldest son, but there may have been several older daughters at his birth. Assuming two elder daughters, and a two year interval between children, places his likely DOB as c1705.




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