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Battle of Bortenevo
Part of War between the Grand Principality of Moscow and the Grand Principality of Tver
Date 22 Dec 1317
Location village of Bortenevo, Staritsa Rayon, Tver Oblast, Russia
56°24′24″N 35°25′32″E / 56.40667, 35.42556
Result Victory of Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver
Belligerents
Grand Principality of Tver Grand Principality of Moscow
Golden Horde
Commanders and leaders
Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver Yuri Danilovich
Kavgady

The Battle of Bortenevo - a battle that took place on December 22, 1317 near the village of Bortenevo, in which the Prince of Tver Mikhail Yaroslavich defeated the united army of Moscow Prince Yuri Danilovich and the temnik of the Golden Horde Kavgady, invading the borders of the principality of Tver . In this battle, the Tverichs captured Konchaka, wife of Prince Yuri Danilovich (the sister of theGolden Horde Uzbek and Prince Boris Danilovich, the brother of Yuri Danilovich.

Background[]

After the death in 1304 of the previous grand duke, Andrei Aleksandrovich, Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver and Yuri Danilovich of Mosvcow claimed the grand duke’s jarlig issued by the khan of the Golden Horde, who, according to the law of succession of the throne, did not have any rights to the grand throne, Grand Prince's throne. They went to the Horde to Khan Tokhta , who appointed Mikhail Yaroslavich the Grand Prince. Upon his return from the Horde in 1305, Mikhail Yaroslavich went with the army to Moscow, but failed to take it.

Michael became the first prince, which was entrusted to collect a tribute to the Horde from that part of Russia , which was subject to the Grand Duke of Vladimir (except for the Principality of Ryazan). The new Horde ruler, Öz Beg Khan, in 1315 confirmed the rights of Mikhail Yaroslavich, who returned with the Tatar army and defeated the people of Novgorod. Novgorod sent ambassadors to the Horde to complain about Mikhail Yaroslavich, but the Tverches caught them along the way.

Yuri Danilovich in 1317 married Uzbek's sister Konchaka, who had adopted Orthodoxy, and achieved for himself a great reign. He brought the Horde army with him under the command of the commander Kavgady. Under Kostroma Mikhail Yaroslavich lost the great reign to Yuri Danilovich without a fight. But soon Yuri Danilovich convinced Kavgady to invade the land of Tver. By order of Kavgady, the Novgorod army also came to fight with Tver. Under Torzhkom, the Novgorod army was defeated by Mikhail Yaroslavich, after which Mikhail Yaroslavichl moved against the Muscovites.

Battle[]

The event of December 22, 1317 occurred on the territory of the modern Stepurinsky rural settlement of Staritsa Rayon, Tver Oblast of the Tver region, near the village of Balashutino, near the former village of Bortenevo , near the Ostraganets (Strogananets) stream, which flows into the Shoshu river .

The allies of Prince Yuri Danilovich were Novgorod. To connect with them, Yuri and Kavgady rushed to the ford through the Volga (in the Staritsa region ). Mikhail Yaroslavich of Tver led the army to the present Ivanishch, and then, preempting Yuri, went east to the Tatarko area. A meeting of the two parties took place here, in the bend of the Shoshi River, near the Ostraganets creek.

Results[]

As a result of the battle, the Tver army captured Konchaka, the wife and Boris Danilovich the brother of Yuri Danilovich of Moscow. Kavdagy himself surrendered to Michael the next day.

In the Horde, they did not forgive the shame of the prince of Tver, the fact that Yuri's wife Konchaka, Uzbek's sister, died in captivity in Tver played a role. The following 1318, Mikhail Yaroslavich was summoned to the Horde. Khan's court was held, after which the prince was imprisoned in pads. A month later, Mikhail Yaroslavich was killed by the people of Yuri Danilovich and Kavgady. The prince knew that death was waiting for him in the Horde, and nevertheless preferred to voluntarily go to death, thereby saving the lives of thousands of his subjects in Tver land.

Memory Bortenevskoe field is located 30 km south-east of Staritsa . This is one of the most revered places of the Tver region .

Until 1917, a chapel stood on the edge of the village of Bortenevo, a thanksgiving prayer service in honor of the victory of Michael of Tver in the Battle of Bortenev was served. Now a memorial complex has been created at the battle site: a memorial granite cross has been erected and the chapel of Michael of Tver has been recreated.

In the village of Stepurino, Staritsa Rayon, Tver Oblast, near the site of the Bortenevo Battle, a museum of St. Michael of Tver is being created, and the anniversary of this battle will be an annual inter-regional holiday.

Bortenevo battle field

Memorial monument of the battle

Plate on the memorial monument

Chapel of Mikhail Yaroslavich

Plate near the chapel
























Bibliography[]

  • Татищев В. Н. История российская: В 5 Ч.-М.: Адепт, 2003. Часть третья.
  • Соловьёв С. М. История России с древнейших времён. Глава 5 // Сочинения: В 18 кн. — М.: Голос; Колокол-Пресс, 1993—1998.
  • Пономарев Г.Н. Бортеневская битва. Мифы и реалии / Георгий Пономарев. - Тверь : Людмила Юга, 2007. - 125 с. : ил., карт., фот. Библиогр.: с. 119-125. - ISBN: 978-5-903535-05-7
  • www.staritsa-pilgrim.ru Бортеневская битва
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