The Battle of Flodden or Flodden Field or occasionally Battle of Branxton was fought in the county of Northumberland in northern England on 9 September 1513, between an invading Scots army under King James IV and an English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey. It ended in victory for the English army, and was the largest battle (in terms of numbers) fought between the two nations. James IV was himself killed in the battle, becoming the last British monarch to suffer such a fate.
This conflict began when James IV, King of Scots declared war on England to honour the Auld Alliance with France by diverting Henry VIII's English troops from their campaign against the French king Louis XII. Henry VIII had also opened old wounds by claiming to be the overlord of Scotland which angered the Scots and the King. At this time England was involved in the War of the League of Cambrai – defending Italy and the Pope from the French (see Italian Wars) as a member of the "Catholic League".
Pope Leo X, already a signatory to the anti-French treaty of Mechlin, sent a letter to James threatening him with ecclesiastical censure for breaking his peace treaties with England on 28 June 1513, and subsequently James was excommunicated by Cardinal Christopher Bainbridge. James also summoned sailors and sent the Scottish navy, including the Great Michael to join the ships of Louis XII of France.
Henry was in France with the Emperor Maximilian at the siege of Thérouanne. Catherine of Aragon was Regent in England and, on 27 August she issued warrants for the property of all Scotsmen in England to be seized.
Using the pretext of revenge for the murder of Robert Kerr, a Warden of the Scottish East March who had been killed by John "The Bastard" Heron in 1508, James invaded England with an army of about 30,000 men in 1513. In keeping with his understanding of the medieval code of chivalry, King James sent notice to the English, one month in advance, of his intent to invade. This gave the English time to gather an army and, as importantly, to retrieve the banner of Saint Cuthbert from the Cathedral of Durham, a banner which had been carried by the English in victories against the Scots in 1138 and 1346. After a muster on the Burgh Muir of Edinburgh, the Scottish host moved to Ellemford, to the north of Duns, and camped to wait for Angus and Home, and then crossed the River Tweed near Coldstream. By the 29 August, Norham Castle was taken and partly demolished. The Scots moved south capturing the castles of Etal and Ford. A later chronicler, Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, tells the story that James wasted valuable time at Ford enjoying the company of Lady Heron and her daughter.
The battle actually took place near the village of Branxton, in the county of Northumberland, rather than at Flodden — hence the alternative name is Battle of Branxton. The Scots had previously been stationed at Flodden Edge, to the south of Branxton. The Earl of Surrey, writing at Wooler Haugh on Wednesday 7 September, compared this position to a fortress in his challenge sent to James IV by Thomas Hawley, the Rouge Croix Pursuivant. He complained that James had sent his Islay Herald agreeing that they would join in battle on Friday between 12.00 and 3.00 pm, and asked that James would face him on the plain at Milfield as appointed.
Next, Surrey moved to block off the Scots' route north and so James was forced to move his army and artillery 2 miles to Branxton Hill. The Scottish artillery included 5 great curtals, 2 great culverins, 4 sakers, and 6 great serpentines. When the armies were within 3 miles of each other Surrey sent the Rouge Croix pursuivant to James who answered that he would wait till noon. At 11 o'clock Lord Howard's vanguard and artillery crossed the Twissell Bridge. (Pitscottie says the king would not allow the Scots artillery to fire on the vulnerable English during this manouevre.) The Scots army was in good order in 5 formations, after the Almain (German) manner. On Friday afternoon the Scots host descended without speaking any word to meet the English.
According to English report, first the groups commanded by the Earls of Huntly and Crawford totalling 6000 men engaged Lord Howard and were repulsed and mostly slain. Baron Dacre's company fought Huntly and the Chamberlain Lord Home's men. Then James IV himself leading a great force came on to Surrey and Lord Darcy's son who bore the brunt of the battle. Lennox and Argyll's commands were met by Sir Edward Stanley.
|Events of the 9th September 1513 - Map|
After the artillery fire ended, according to the English chronicler Edward Hall, "the battle was cruel, none spared other, and the King himself fought valiantly." James was killed within a spear length from Surrey and his body taken to Berwick upon Tweed. Hall says the King was fatally wounded by an arrow and a bill. The Earl of Surrey captured the Scottish guns, including a group of culverins made in Edinburgh by Robert Borthwick called the 'seven sisters,' which were dragged to Etal Castle. The Bishop of Durham thought them the finest ever seen.
The biggest error the Scots made was placing their officers in the front line, medieval style. A Scottish letter of January 1514 contrasts this loss of the nobility with the English great men who took their stand with the reserves and at the rear. The English generals stayed behind the lines in the Renaissance style. The loss of so many Scottish officers meant there was no one to coordinate a retreat.
Tactics and aftermath
Flodden was essentially a victory of bill used by the English over the pike used by the Scots. As a weapon, the pike was effective only in a battle of movement, especially to withstand a cavalry charge. The Scottish pikes were described by the author of the Trewe Encounter as "keen and sharp spears 5 yards long." Although the pike had become a Swiss weapon of choice and represented modern warfare, the hilly terrain of Northumberland, the nature of the combat, and the slippery footing did not allow it to be employed to best effect. Bishop Ruthall reported to Wolsey, 'the bills disappointed the Scots of their long spears, on which they relied.' The infantrymen at Flodden, both Scots and English, had fought in a fashion that in essence would have been familiar to their ancestors, and it has rightly been described as the last great medieval battle in the British Isles. This was the last time that bill and pike would come together as equals in battle. Two years later Francis I defeated the Swiss pikemen at the Battle of Marignano, using a combination of heavy cavalry and artillery, ushering in a new era in the history of war. An official English diplomatic report issued by Brian Tuke noted the Scots' iron spears but concluded: 'the English halberdiers decided the whole affair, so that in the battle the bows and ordnance were of little use.'
Despite Tuke's comment (he was not present), tactically, this battle was one of the first major engagements on the British Isles where artillery was significantly deployed. John Lesley, writing sixty years later, noted the Scottish bullets flew over the English heads while the English cannon was effective, the one army placed so high and the other so low. The battle is considered the last decisive use of the longbow, yet through the 16th century the English longbowmen continued to have success, as in the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh. Many of these archers were recruited from Lancashire and Cheshire. Sir Richard Assheton raised one such company from Middleton, near Manchester. In gratitude for his safe return, he rebuilt St. Leonard's, the local parish church. It contains the unique "Flodden Window" depicting each of the archers, and the priest who accompanied them, by name in stained glass. The success of the Cheshire yeomanry, under the command of Richard Cholmeley, led to his later appointment as Lieutenant of the Tower of London.
As a reward for his victory, Howard was subsequently restored to the title of "Duke of Norfolk", lost by his father's support for Richard III. The arms of the Dukes of Norfolk still carry an augmentation of honour awarded on account of their ancestor's victory at Flodden, a modified version of the Royal coat of arms of Scotland with an arrow through the lion's mouth.
Legends of a lost king
Thomas Hawley, the Rouge Croix pursuivant, was first with news of the victory. He brought the 'rent surcoat of the King of Scots stained with blood' to Catherine of Aragon at Woburn Abbey. She sent news of the victory to Henry VIII at Tournai with Hawley, and then sent James's coat (and iron gauntlets) on 16 September, with a detailed account of the battle written by Lord Howard. Brian Tuke mentioned in his letter to Cardinal Bainbridge that the coat was lacerated and chequered with blood. Catherine suggested Henry should use the coat as his battle-banner, and wrote that she had thought to send him the body too, but 'Englishmen's hearts would not suffer it.'
James's body was taken first to Berwick on Tweed, where according to Hall's Chronicle, it was viewed by the captured Scottish courtiers William Scott and John Forman who acknowledged it was the King's. The body was then embalmed and taken to Newcastle upon Tyne. From York, a city that James had promised to capture before Michaelmas, the body was brought to Sheen Priory near London. James's banner, sword and his cuisses, thigh-armour, were taken to the shrine of Saint Cuthbert at Durham Cathedral. Much of the armour of the Scottish casualties was sold on the field, and 350 suits of armour were taken to Nottingham Castle. A list of horses taken at the field runs to 24 pages.
Soon after the battle there were legends that James IV had survived; a Scottish merchant at Tournai in October claimed to have spoken with him, Lindsay of Pitscottie records two myths; "thair cam four great men upon hors, and every ane of thame had ane wisp upoun thair spear headis, quhairby they might know one another and brought the king furth of the feild, upoun ane dun hackney," and also that the king escaped from the field but was killed between Duns and Kelso. Similarly, John Lesley adds that the body taken to England was "my lord Bonhard" and James was seen in Kelso after the battle and then went secretly on pilgrimage in far nations.
A legend arose that James had been warned against invading England by supernatural powers. While he was praying in St Michael's Kirk at Linlithgow, a man strangely dressed in blue had approached his desk saying his mother had told him to say James should not to go to war or take the advice of women. Then before the King could reply, the man vanished. David Lindsay of the Mount and John Inglis could find no trace of him. The historian R. L. Mackie wondered if the incident really happened as a masquerade orchestrated by an anti-war party: Norman MacDougall doubts if there was a significant anti-war faction.
Scotland after Flodden
The wife of James IV, Margaret Tudor, is said to have awaited news of her husband at Linlithgow Palace, where a room at the top of a tower is called 'Queen's Margaret's bower.' Her 17 month old son became King James V. The Parliament of Scotland met at Stirling on 21 September 1513, where the infant King was crowned. Margaret Tudor was guardian or 'tutrix' of the King, but not made Regent of Scotland. Instead, John Stewart, Duke of Albany, a grandson of James II of Scotland who lived in France was invited to be Regent in December. Margaret gave birth to James's posthumous son Alexander in April 1514.
Surrey's army lost 1,500 men killed. There were various conflicting accounts of the Scottish loss. A contemporary French source, the Gazette of the Battle of Flodden, said that about 10,000 Scots were killed, a claim made by Henry VIII on 16 September while he was still uncertain of the death of James IV. William Knight sent the news from Lille to Rome on 20 September, claiming 12,000 Scots had died with less than 500 English casualties. Italian newsletters put the Scottish losses at 18 or 20 thousand and the English at 5000. Brian Tuke, the English Clerk of the Signet, sent a newsletter stating 10,000 Scots killed and 10,000 escaped the field. Tuke reckoned the total Scottish invasion force to have been 60,000 and the English army at 40,000. George Buchanan wrote in his History of Scotland (published in 1582) that, according to the lists that were compiled throughout the counties of Scotland, there were about 5,000 killed. A plaque on the monument to the 2nd Duke of Norfolk (as the Earl of Surrey became in 1514) at Thetford put the figure at 17,000. Edward Hall, thirty years after, wrote in his Chronicle that "12,000 at the least of the best gentlemen and flower of Scotland" were slain.
As the nineteenth century antiquarian John Riddell supposed, nearly every noble family in Scotland would have have lost a member at Flodden. The dead are remembered by the song (and pipe tune) "The Flowers of the Forest";
- We'll hae nae mair lilting, at the yowe-milking,
- Women and bairns are dowie and wae.
- Sighing and moaning, on ilka green loaning,
- The flowers of the forest are all wede away.
Contemporary English ballads also recalled the tragedy of the Scottish losses;
- To tell you plaine, twelve thousand were slaine,
- that to the fight did stand;
- And many prisoners tooke that day,
- the best in all Scotland.
- That day made many a fatherlesse childe,
- and many a widow poore;
- And many a Scottish gay Lady,
- sate weeping in her bowre.
A legend grew that while the artillery was being prepared in Edinburgh before the battle, a demon called Plotcock had read out the names of those who would be killed at the Mercat Cross on the Royal Mile. According to Pitscottie, a former Provost of Edinburgh, Richard Lawson, who lived nearby threw a coin at the Cross to appeal from this summons and survived the battle.
Notable men who died included:
- James IV , King of Scots (1488–1513); died in battle
- Alexander Stewart, Archbishop of St. Andrews and Lord Chancellor of Scotland; died in battle
- Lieutenant General Archibald Campbell, 2nd Earl of Argyll; died in battle
- William Adair of Kihilt
- Andrew Aytoun of Dunmure, Master of Works to James IV and his son John.
- Sir Alexander Boswell of Balmuto; died in battle
- Thomas Boswell of Auchinleck; died in battle
- William Bunche, Abbot of Kilwinning
- John Campbell of Auchreoch; died in battle
- Donald Campbell of Duntroon; said to have died in battle
- Sir Duncan Campbell, 2nd of Glenorchy; died in battle
- George Campbell of Cessnock; died in battle
- Niall Campbell of Melfort; died in battle
- John Carnegie, 5th of Kinnaird; died in battle
- Alan Cathcart, Master of that ilk; died in battle
- John Cornwall of Bonhard; later Scottish legends claimed his body was mistaken for that of James IV.
- William Craig of Craigfintry; died in battle
- George Douglas, Master of Angus; died in battle
- Sir William Douglas of Drumlanrig
- Sir William Douglas of Glenbervie; died in battle
- John Douglas, 2nd Earl of Morton; died in battle
- Alexander Elphinstone, 1st Lord Elphinstone
- Robert Elliott, chief of the Elliotts; died in battle
- Robert Erskine, 4th Lord Erskine
- William Graham, 1st Earl of Montrose; led part of the Scottish vanguard; died in battle
- Archibald Graham, 3rd of Garvock, cousin of Montrose, and Gt. Grandson of Princess Mary Stuart; died in battle
- Sir Alexander Guthrie of that ilk.
- William Haig of Bemersyde
- John Hay, 2nd Lord Hay of Yester; presumed died in battle, body not recovered
- William Hay, 4th Earl of Erroll, Constable of Scotland
- James Henderson of Fordell, Fife; Lord Justice Clerk; died in battle.
- Robert Henderson, younger of Fordell; killed with his father.
- Adam Hepburn, 2nd Earl of Bothwell
- Adam Hepburn of Craggis
- George Hepburn, Bishop of the Isles and commendator of Arbroath and Iona.
- Andrew Herries, 2nd Lord Herries of Terregles
- Cuthbert Home of Fast Castle
- Sir Peter Houstoun, of Houston, Knight, died defending James IV
- John Huntar (clan chief)
- David Kennedy, 1st Earl of Cassilis
- Alexander Lauder of Blyth
- George Leslie, 2nd Earl of Rothes
- John Lindsay, 6th Earl of Crawford, Scottish field commander.
- Sir John Logan of Restalrig, died in battle.
- Uchtred MacDowall, 9th of Garthland; died in battle
- Thomas MacDowall of Renfrewshire son of Uchtred; died in battle.
- Sir Iain MacFarlane, 11th Captain of Clan Pharlane; died in battle
- Lachlan MacLean, 10th Captain of Clan MacLean
- John Maxwell, 4th Lord Maxwell
- Monsieur de la Motte, French ambassador to Scotland
- John Mure of Rowallan; died in battle
- Laurence Oliphant, Abbot of Inchaffray; died in battle
- Colin Oliphant, Master of Oliphant; died in battle
- Thomas Otterburn; died in battle
- Sir Alexander Napier; died in battle
- David Pringle, son of the Laird of Smailholm, killed in battle alongside his four sons.
- Alexander Ramsay of Dalhousie; died in battle
- Sir John Ramsay of Trarinzeane;died in battle.
- Sir John Rattray, Lord of that Ilk; died in battle
- John Ross, 2nd Lord Ross of Halkhead; died in battle
- William Ruthven of that ilk; died in battle
- Sir Christopher Savage; died in battle
- John Sempill, 1st Lord Sempill of Eliotstoun; died in battle
- George Seton, 5th Lord Seton; died in battle
- William Sinclair, 2nd Earl of Caithness
- Henry Sinclair, 3rd Lord Sinclair
- Sir John Somerville of Cambusnethan; died in battle
- Andrew Stewart, Lord Avandale; died in battle
- James Stewart, laird of Traquair; died in battle
- Thomas Stewart, 2nd Lord Innermeath
- Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox; died in battle
- Alexander Strathauchin of Balmady.
- Sir Brian Tunstall of Thurland Castle; died in battle
The battlefield still looks much as it probably did at the time of the battle, but the burn and marsh which so badly hampered the Scots advance is now drained. A monument, erected in 1910, is easily reached from Branxton village by following the road past St Paul's Church. There is a small car park and a clearly marked and signposted battlefield trail with interpretive boards which make it easy to visualise the battle. Only the chancel arch remains of the medieval church where James IV's body was said to have rested after the battle – the rest is Victorian, dating from 1849 in the "Norman" style.
Since 2008, there have been plans afoot to mark the Quincentennial of the battle on, and before the 9th September 2013.
- "Marmion: A Tale of Flodden Field" (1808), an epic poem in six cantos by Sir Walter Scott
- The Battle of Flodden Field, told from several different perspectives, is the subject of the novel, "Flodden Field", by Elisabeth McNeill, pub.2007
- The Flowers of the Forest, a historical novel by Elizabeth Byrd, chronicles the life of Queen Margaret Tudor of Scotland and culminates in the Battle of Flodden
- Arthur Sullivan wrote an overture, his Overture Marmion (1867), inspired by the Scott poem.
- There is no historical record of anyone from the Clan Munro taking part in the Battle of Flodden Field, however there is an old tradition that the Munros of Argyll are descended from a Flodden survivor. One of these descendants was Neil Munro (writer).
- ^ this is based on average population in scotland at the time
- ^ a b Paterson, p. 147
- ^ a b c Elliot, p. 117
- ^ a b Elliot, p. 118
- ^ a b ”The Seventy Greatest Battles of All Time”. Published by Thames & Hudson Ltd. 2005. Edited by Jeremy Black. Pages 95 to 97.ISBN 978-0-500-25125-6.
- ^ Hannay, Robert Kerr, ed., Letters of James IV, SHS (1953), 307-8, 315-6, 318-9.
- ^ Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.1 (1920), no. 2222, item 16.
- ^ Schwarz, Arthur L., VIVAT REX! An Exhibition Commemorating the 500th Anniversary of the Accession of Henry VIII (The Grolier Club, 2009), p.76 "Flodden Field".
- ^ Archaeologia Aeliana, Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-Upon-Tyne, Series 2: Vol. 2 (1858), "The Banner and Cross of Saint Cuthbert", page 61; accessed 4 SEP 2010.
- ^ Macdougal, Norman, James IV, 272-3.
- ^ Lindsay of Pitscottie, Robert, History and Chronicle of Scotland, various editions.
- ^ Ellis, Henry, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 1st Series, vol.1, Richard Bentley, London (1825), 85-87.
- ^ Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell, (1997), 274.
- ^ Petrie, George, 'An account of Floddon,' PSAS, (1866-7), 146.
- ^ Lindsay of Pitscottie, Robert, History of Scotland, vol. 1, Edinburgh (1814),276-7.
- ^ State Papers Henry VIII, vol. iv part iv (1836), 1: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol 1 (1920), no. 2246 modern spelling.
- ^ Letters and Papers Henry VIII, vol.1 (1920), no. 2913 Dacre to Council 17 May 1514.
- ^ State Papers Henry, vol. iv part iv, (1836), 1-2: Letters Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), no. 2246.
- ^ Hall, Chronicle, (1809), 562.
- ^ State Papers Henry, vol. iv part iv, (1836), 2: Ellis, Henry, ed., (1846), 164, has regem occisum fuisse non longius latitudine lanceae ab illo: Hall (1809), 564.
- ^ Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), no. 2283, 2284: Pitscottie, Robert Lindsay of, The History and Chronicles of Scotland, vol.1, Edinburgh (1814), 266: Lord Herbert also calls the guns the seven sisters.
- ^ Hay, Denys, Letters of James V, HMSO (1954), 4-5, instructions for Sir Andrew Brownhill sent to Christian II of Denmark, 16 January 1514: Ruddiman, Thomas, Epistolae Regum Scotorum, vol. 1 (1722), 186-187: Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1864), no. 2578.
- ^ Jeffrey Regan, Military Blunders
- ^ Laing, David, PSAS, vol.7, 151.
- ^ Macdougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997), 274-5.
- ^ Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912), 407, (translated from Latin).
- ^ Lesley, John, Cody ed., Dalrymple trans., Historie of Scotland 1578, vol. 2, Scottish Text Society (1895), 145.
- ^ Chamley, Benson (June 2003). "Sir Richard Cholmondeley, Cheshire's most famous unknown". The Family History Society of Cheshire Magazine.
- ^ Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912) p.408 no. 660 and CSP Venice, vol. 2, (1867) no. 316, Brian Tuke to Richard Pace, Bainbridge's secretary, 22 September 1513, lacerata paludamenta Regis Scotorum hue missa fuerunt, tincta sanguine et variegatijs (sic) more nostro.: Ellis, Henry, ed., (1846), 164, has majesta regia accepit paludamentum eius, the queen was sent his coat.
- ^ Ellis, Henry, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 1st Series, vol.1, Richard Bentley, London (1825), 82-84, 88-89: (The idea was a kind of exchange for the Duke of Longueville, Henry's prisoner from Thérouanne sent to Catherine in London; see, Letters & Papers, vol. (1920), no.2261, written before news of the battle)
- ^ Hall, (1809), 564.
- ^ Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.1 (1920), no. 2313: Ellis, Henry, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 1st series, vol. 1, London (1824), 88: Aikman, James, Buchanan's History of Scotland, vol. 2 (1827), 259 note, quoting Stow's Survey of London on St Michael, Cripplegate ward.
- ^ Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol. 1 (1920), no. 2283, no. 2287.
- ^ Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.1 (1920), no. 2325, no. 2460.
- ^ Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912), 419.
- ^ Lindsay of Pitscottie, Robert, History of Scotland, vol. 1, Edinburgh, (1814), 279.
- ^ Lesley, John, Cody ed., Dalrymple trans., Historie of Scotland 1578, vol. 2, Scottish Text Society, (1895), 146.
- ^ Pitscottie, Robert Lindsay of, The History and Chronicles of Scotland, vol.1, Edinburgh (1814), 264-265: MacDougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997), 265-6, 303: Mackie, R.L., James IV, (1958) 243-4.
- ^ Bingham, Caroline, James V, King of Scots, Collins, (1971), 27-31.
- ^ Ellis, Henry, ed., (1846), p.164.
- ^ Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912), 397, 404, 406.
- ^ Hall (1809), p. 563, with 1500 English killed.
- ^ A number of names collected from the manuscript Acts of the Lords of Council and other sources are printed in The Scottish Antiquary, or, Northern Notes and Queries, vol.13 no.51 (Jan.1899), pp.101-111, quotes Riddell, and, vol.13, no.52 (April 1899), pp.168-172.
- ^ Published in Thomas Deloney, The Pleasant Historie of Jack of Newbery London (1626), chapter 2, as a song made by the commons of England and "to this day not forgotten of many."
- ^ Pitscottie, Robert Lindsay of, The History and Chronicles of Scotland, vol.1, Edinburgh (1814), 266-7: MacDougall, Norman, James IV, Tuckwell (1997), 265
- ^ McDonald, Craig, ed., Meroure of Wysdome, vol. 3, STS (1990), 166
- ^ Sir James Balfour Paul, The Scots Peerage, volume VI (David Douglas, Edinburgh, 1909), at page 478
- ^ The Peerage of Scotland (new edition by James Balfour Paul), vol. VI, p.542
- ^ The Peerage of Scotland (new edition by James Balfour Paul), vol. VI, p.543
- ^ McDonald, Craig, ed., Meroure of Wysdome, vol. 3, STS (1990), 166
- ^ http://www.iflodden.info/
- ^ C. I. Fraser of Reeling. "The Clan Munro". page 21. ISBN 717945359
The earliest accounts of the battle are English. These contemporary sources include; the Articles of the Bataill bitwix the Kinge of Scottes and therle of Surrey in Brankstone Field said to be a field despatch; Brian Tuke's news-letter to Cardinal Bainbridge; an Italian poem, La Rotta de Scosesi in part based on Tuke's letters; a news-sheet printed in London, The Trewe Encountre; another lost news-sheet printed by Richard Pynson which was the source used in Edward Hall's Chronicle. These sources are compared and contrasted in the 1995 English Heritage report.
- Grafton, Richard, Grafton's Chronicle, or History of England: The Chronicle at Large, 1569, vol.2, London (1809) pp.268-277
- Hall, Edward, Chronicle of England, (1809) pp.561-565
- Pitscottie, Robert Lindsay of, The History and Chronicles of Scotland, vol.1, Edinburgh (1814) pp.264-282.
- The Trewe Encountre or Batayle Lately Don Between England and Scotland etc., Flaque (1513) in Petrie, George, 'Account of Floddon in the 'Trewe Encountre' manuscript', Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries Scotland, vol. 7, Edinburgh (1866-7), 141-152
- Letters & Papers Henry VIII, vol.1, (1920) for the Articles of Batail and Tuke's letter, Calendar State Papers Venice, vol.2 (1867) and see Calendar State Papers Milan, vol. 1 (1912)
- La Rotta de Scosesi, in, Mackay Mackenzie, W., The Secret of Flodden, (1931)
- Barr, N., Flodden 1513, 2001.
- Barret, C. B., Battles and Battlefields in England, 1896.
- Bingham, C., "Flodden and its Aftermath", in The Scottish Nation, ed. G. Menzies, 1972.
- Burke's Landed Gentry of Scotland under Henderson of Fordell
- Caldwell, D. H., Scotland's Wars and Warriors, Edinburgh TSO,(1998) ISBN 011495786X
- Elliot, Fitzwilliam (1911). The Battle of Flodden and the Raids of 1513. Edinburgh: Andrew Elliot.
- Ellis, Henry, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 1st Series, vol.1, Richard Bentley, London (1825) pp.82-99, Catherine of Aragon's letters.
- Ellis, Henry, ed., Original Letters Illustrative of English History, 3rd Series, vol.1, Richard Bentley, London (1846) pp. 163-164, Dr. William Knight to Cardinal Bainbridge, 20 September 1513, Lille (Latin)
- English Heritage Battlefield Report: Flodden, (1995), 13pp
- Hodgkin, T., "The Battle of Flodden", in Arcaeologia Aeliania, vol. 16, 1894.
- Kightly, C., Flodden-the Anglo-Scots War of 1513, 1975.
- Leather, G. F. T., "The Battle of Flodden", in History of the Berwickshire Naturalists Club, vol. 25, 1933.
- Macdougall, N., James IV, 1989.
- Mackie, J. D., "The English Army at Flodden", in Miscellany of the Scottish History Society, vol 8 1951.
- Mackie, J.D., "The Auld Alliance and the Battle of Flodden", in Transactions of the Franco-Scottish Society, 1835.
- Paterson, Raymond Campbell (1997). My Wound is Deep: A History of the Later Anglo-Scottish Wars, 1380-1560. Edinburgh: John Donald Publishers Ltd. ISBN 0-85976-465-6.
- Story of Inverkeithing & Rosyth by Rev. W.M.Stephen, 1921 Brit.Lib. No.0190370.f.78
- Sadler, John, Flodden 1513: Scotland's Greatest Defeat, Osprey Publishing (May 2006), Campaign Series 168; 96 pages; ISBN 978181769592.
- Tucker, M. J., The Life of Thomas Howard, Earl of Surrey and Second Duke of Norfolk, 1443–1524, 1964.
- White, R. H. , "The Battle of Flodden", in Archaeologia Aeliania, vol. 3, 1859.
- Percy Folio
- Selkirk Common Riding
- Teribus ye teri odin
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- A monument of the Battle of Flodden
- Flodden 1513, the remembering Flodden project
- A detailed account of the battle
- Coldstream civic week. Main event is the rideout to the Flodden Memorial
- Flodden 500 years anniversary (2013): Follow the community archaeological project excavating in and around Flodden battlefield
- John Skelton's Flodden poem, A Ballade of the Scottyshe Kynge
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