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Belozersk (English)
Белозерск (Russian)
-  Town[1]  -
Belozersk-view-july-2012.jpg
Belozersk with view on Beloye Lake, Vologda Oblast, Russia
Coat of arms of Belozersky District, Vologda Oblast.png
Flag Belozersk.png
Coat of arms
Flag
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Vologda Oblast[1]
Administrative district Belozersk Rayon[1]
Town of district significance Belozersk[2]
Administrative center of Belozersky District,[1] town of district significance of Belozersk[2]
Municipal status (as of April 2010)
Municipal district Belozersky Municipal District[3]
Urban settlement Belozersk Urban Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Belozersky Municipal District,[3] Belozersk Urban Settlement[3]
Representative body Town Council[4]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 9,616 inhabitants[5]
Time zone MSK (UTC+04:00)[6]
First mentioned 862[7]
Previous names Beloozero (until 1777)[8]
Postal code(s) 161200, 161201
Dialing code(s) +7 81756
Official website

Belozersk (Russian: Белозе́рск) is a town and the administrative center of Belozersk Rayon in Vologda Oblast, Russia, located on the southern bank of Lake Beloye, from which it takes the name, 214 kilometers (133 mi) northwest of Vologda, the administrative center of the oblast. Population: 9,616 (2010 Census);[5] 10,975 (2002 Census);[9] 12,352 (1989 Census).[10]

History[]

Known as Beloozero (Белоо́зеро, lit. white lake) until 1777,[8] it was first chronicled in 862[7] as one of the five original Russian towns (the other four being Murom, Novgorod, Polotsk, and Rostov).[11] According to the Primary Chronicle, Sineus, a brother of Rurik, became the prince of Beloozero in 862.[12] However, Sineus most likely never existed.[12] On several occasions, the settlement was moved from one bank of the lake to another.[7]

In the 11th century, the region was still inhabited primarily by Finno-Ugric tribes who fiercely resisted Christianization. In 1071, local pagan priests rose in rebellion, which was put down by the Kievan commander Yan Vyshatich. The Primary Chronicle reports that the dead bodies of priests were suspended from an oak tree, until they were torn to pieces by a bear (regarded by pagans as a holy animal). From the 10th to the 13th centuries, the territory was controlled by the Novgorod Republic.[11] Beloozero was the seat of a small principality between 1238 and the 1370s, but subsequently between 1380 and 1384 became subordinate to the Grand Duchy of Moscow.[8][11] On July 10, 1612, Polish and Lithuanian vagabonds (Lisowczycy) captured Belozersk without a fight, looting the town.

In the course of the administrative reform carried out in 1708 by Peter the Great, Beloozero was included into Ingermanland Governorate (known since 1710 as Saint Petersburg Governorate) and named one of the towns constituting the governorate.[13] In 1727, a separate Novgorod Governorate was split off and Belozersk became the seat of Belozersk Province in Novgorod Governorate.[14] In 1776, the territory was transferred to Novgorod Viceroyalty.[8] In 1796, the viceroyalty was abolished and Belozersky Uyezd became a part of Novgorod Governorate.[14]

In June 1918, five uyezds of Novgorod Governorate, including Belozersky Uyezd, were split off to form Cherepovets Governorate, with the administrative center in Cherepovets.[15] On August 1, 1927, Cherepovets Governorate was abolished and its territory became Cherepovets Okrug of Leningrad Oblast.[15] At the same time, uyezds were abolished and Belozersky District was established.[15] On September 23, 1937, Belozersky District was transferred to newly established Vologda Oblast.[15]

Administrative and municipal status[]

Within the framework of administrative divisions, Belozersk serves as the administrative center of Belozersk Rayon.[1] As an administrative division, it is incorporated within Belozersk Rayon as the town of district significance of Belozersk.[2]

As a municipal division, the town of district significance of Belozersk, together with four rural localities in Glushkovsky Selsoviet and two rural localities in Kunostsky Selsoviet of Belozersk Rayon, is incorporated within Belozersk Municipal Rayon as Belozersk Urban Settlement.[3]

Climate[]

Belozersk falls just within the subarctic climate range,[16] with the fourth-warmest month being just below the isotherm of 10 °C (50 °F)[17] to nearby humid continental areas. Winters are cold but not severe by Russian standards for areas north of the 60th parallel.

Climate data for Belozersk
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 11
(52)
5.9
(42.6)
14.2
(57.6)
27.8
(82.0)
29.8
(85.6)
33.8
(92.8)
34
(93)
33.5
(92.3)
26.1
(79.0)
21.9
(71.4)
12
(54)
9.5
(49.1)
34
(93)
Average high °C (°F) −8.7
(16.3)
−7.5
(18.5)
−1
(30)
7.1
(44.8)
14.4
(57.9)
19.3
(66.7)
21.6
(70.9)
19.3
(66.7)
13.2
(55.8)
6
(43)
−2.1
(28.2)
−6.6
(20.1)
6.3
(43.25)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.6
(11.1)
−10.5
(13.1)
−4.8
(23.4)
2.8
(37.0)
9.7
(49.5)
14.8
(58.6)
17.2
(63.0)
14.9
(58.8)
9.5
(49.1)
3.4
(38.1)
−4.2
(24.4)
−8.9
(16.0)
2.7
(36.85)
Average low °C (°F) −15.3
(4.5)
−14.2
(6.4)
−8.9
(16.0)
−1.7
(28.9)
4.7
(40.5)
9.7
(49.5)
12.2
(54.0)
10.4
(50.7)
6
(43)
0.7
(33.3)
−6.8
(19.8)
−12.1
(10.2)
−1.3
(29.71)
Record low °C (°F) −40
(−40)
−37.2
(−35.0)
−33.9
(−29.0)
−22.8
(−9.0)
−10
(14)
−2.9
(26.8)
1.1
(34.0)
−2
(28)
−7.8
(18.0)
−15.8
(3.6)
−29.2
(−20.6)
−40
(−40)
−40
(−40)
Precipitation mm (inches) 57
(2.24)
51
(2.01)
44
(1.73)
29
(1.14)
61
(2.4)
53
(2.09)
74
(2.91)
71
(2.8)
47
(1.85)
62
(2.44)
49
(1.93)
61
(2.4)
659
(25.94)
Source: [18]

Economy[]

Industry[]

The economy of Belozersk is based on timber industry and food industry.

Transportation[]

Belozersk is connected by all-seasonal roads with Cherepovets, Kirillov, and Lipin Bor (connecting further to Vytegra). There are also local roads.

The Belozersky Canal, a part of the Volga–Baltic Waterway (formerly known as the Mariinsk Canal System), which connects the river courses of the Sheksna and the Kovzha, runs through Belozersk, bypassing Lake Beloye from the south.

Culture and recreation[]

The town of Belozersk is classified as a historical town by the Ministry of Culture of Russia, which implies certain restrictions on construction in the historical center.[19]

The medieval monuments in the town center are the Assumption Church (1552) and the Transfiguration Cathedral (1668). The wooden shrine of St. Elijah was built in 1690. The neighborhood is rich in old cloisters, such as Kirillo-Belozersky and Ferapontov Monasteries.

The Assumption Church in Belozersk

Belozersk Assumption Cathedral in 1909

Two of the most famous medieval icons were created in the 13th century in Belozersk: the Virgin of the White Lake and Saints Peter and Paul. They constitute an intermediate style between Novgorodian and Northern icon painting.

The Virgin of White Lake, the icon of the 13th century

The Belozersky Local Museum located in Belozersk is an umbrella organization which not only hosts ethnographic and historical exhibits, but also manages the most important architectural monuments in Belozersk such as the Transfiguration Cathedral.[20]

See also[]

  • Northern Thebaid

References[]

Notes[]

  1. ^ a b c d e Resolution #178
  2. ^ a b c Law #371-OZ
  3. ^ a b c d e Law #1107-OD
  4. ^ Official website of Belozersk. Powers of the Town Council (Russian)
  5. ^ a b "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  7. ^ a b c Энциклопедия Города России. Moscow: Большая Российская Энциклопедия. 2003. p. 44. ISBN 5-7107-7399-9. 
  8. ^ a b c d Н. В. Солдатова (2006). Г. В. Судаков. ed (in Russian). Вологда: ВГПУ, Русь. p. 57. ISBN 5-87822-305-8. http://www.booksite.ru/fulltext/sud/ako/vsk/aya/1.pdf. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 
  9. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  10. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  11. ^ a b c Янин, Валентин Лаврентьевич (2008) (in Russian). ISBN 978-5-9551-0256-6. http://www.e-reading.biz/bookreader.php/137788/Yanin_-_Ocherki_istorii_srednevekovogo_Novgoroda.html. 
  12. ^ a b Рюрик - Синеус - Трувор. Great Soviet Encyclopedia. http://bse.sci-lib.com/article098532.html. 
  13. ^ Указ об учреждении губерний и о росписании к ним городов (Russian)
  14. ^ a b Снытко, О. В. (2009). С .Д. Трифонов. ed (in Russian). Saint Petersburg. pp. 16–23. http://novarchiv.org/images/novarchiv/nsa/adm_delenie_novg_obl.pdf. Retrieved November 22, 2013. 
  15. ^ a b c d "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in Russian). Архивы России. http://portal.rusarchives.ru/guide/voanpi/126sia.shtml. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 
  16. ^ "Belozërsk, Russia, Climate Summary". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather-summary.php3?s=592216&cityname=Beloz%EBrsk%2C+Vologda%2C+Russia&units=. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  17. ^ "Belozërsk, Russia, Temperature Averages". http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=592216&cityname=Beloz%EBrsk-Vologda-Russia. 
  18. ^ "Belozërsk, Russia, Temperature Averages". Weatherbase. http://www.weatherbase.com/weather/weather.php3?s=592216&cityname=Beloz%EBrsk-Vologda-Russia. Retrieved 24 January 2015. 
  19. ^ Министерство культуры Российской Федерации. Приказ №418/339 от 29 июля 2010 г. «Об утверждении перечня исторических поселений». Вступил в силу 10 октября 2010 г. Опубликован: "Российская газета", №219, 29 сентября 2010 г.. (Ministry of Culture of the Russian Federation. Order #418/339 of July 29, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Historic Settlements. Effective as of October 10, 2010.).
  20. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}" (in Russian). Белозерский областной краеведческий музей. http://www.belozermus.ru/. Retrieved November 21, 2013. 

Sources[]

  • Законодательное Собрание Вологодской области. Закон №371-ОЗ от 4 июня 1999 г. «О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области», в ред. Закона №2916-ОЗ от 7 декабря 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон области "О вопросах административно-территориального устройства Вологодской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №124–125, 29 июля 1999 г. (Legislative Assembly of Vologda Oblast. Law #371-OZ of June 4, 1999 On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Law #2916-OZ of December 7, 2012 On Amending the Oblast Law "On the Matters of the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Vologda Oblast". Effective as of the day of the official publication.).
  • Правительство Вологодской области. Постановление №178 от 1 марта 2010 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц Вологодской области», в ред. Постановления №686 от 25 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в некоторые Постановления Правительства области». Вступил в силу 20 марта 2010 г. Опубликован: "Красный Север", №29, 20 марта 2010 г. (Government of Vologda Oblast. Resolution #178 of March 1, 2010 On Adopting the Registry of the Administrative-Territorial Units of Vologda Oblast, as amended by the Resolution #686 of June 25, 2012 On Amending Various Resolutions of the Oblast Government. Effective as of March 20, 2010.).
  • Template:RussiaAdmMunRef/vlg/munlist/belozersky

Template:Vologda Oblast


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