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Coordinates: 51°52′19″N 0°10′21″E / 51.8720, 0.1725
Bishop's Stortford
Looking down Windhill towards the town centre.

Bishop's Stortford is located in Hertfordshire
Bishop's Stortford

 Bishop's Stortford shown within Hertfordshire
Population 34,826 (2001)
OS grid reference TL495215
Parish Bishop's Stortford
District East Hertfordshire
Shire county Hertfordshire
Region East
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Postcode district CM23
Dialling code 01279
Police Hertfordshire
Fire Hertfordshire
Ambulance East of England
EU Parliament East of England
UK Parliament Hertford and Stortford
List of places: UK • England • Hertfordshire

Bishop's Stortford is a historic market town and civil parish in the district of East Hertfordshire in the county of Hertfordshire in England. It is situated just west of the M11 motorway, on the county boundary with Essex and is the closest large town to London Stansted Airport and part of the London commuter belt. Bishop's Stortford is 29 miles (47 km) north east of Charing Cross in the centre of London and 35 miles (56 km) from Liverpool Street station where the railway line from Cambridge to London, which runs through the town, terminates. In the 2006 edition of the Channel 4 "Best and Worst Places to Live in the UK", East Hertfordshire was the seventh best district to live in. The town has a population of 34,826.[1]


Nothing of historical significance is known of the Bishop's Stortford area until it became a small Roman settlement on the Roman road of Stane Street between Braughing and Colchester. After the Roman Empire broke down, the small town was abandoned in the 5th century.

A new Saxon settlement grew up on the site. At that time, the settlement was known as Esterteferd, probably because a family called Estere owned or controlled the river stort around which the settlement was based. Over time, this became Stortford. In 1060, William, Bishop of London bought the Stortford manor and estate for eight pounds, and the town has been known as Bishop's Stortford ever since.

At the time of the Domesday book the town had a population of around 120 inhabitants. The Normans built a motte and bailey wooden castle in the town, but by the Tudor period it was in ruins (the mound still remains). Development of the town increased with the presence of a river and the roads. A weekly market was set up for farmers to sell their goods

Only the font survives from the Norman church of St Michael's, which was completely rebuilt in the early fifteenth century, followed by alterations and restoration in both the seventeenth and nineteenth centuries. Both the belfry and the spire which dominates the town and surrounding countryside were built in 1812.

Despite outbreaks of the plague in the 16th century and 17th century, the town continued to grow with an approximate population of 1,200 by this point

Unusually, the River Stort is named after the town, and not the town after the river. When early cartographers came to the town in the early 17th century, they reasoned that the town must have been named for the ford over the Stort and assumed the river was called the Stort. It has been ever since. Until then, there was no official name for the river.

After 1769, the River Stort was made navigable, and the town was made a stagecoach stop on the Mail coach road between Cambridge and London.


The Corn Exchange

By 1801, Bishop's Stortford had become a market town and a corn exchange had been established while the main industry was malting. In 1842 the railway came to Bishop's Stortford; another introduction of the Victorian era was the opening of a hospital, in 1895.

At the beginning of the 20th century, in 1901, the population was over 7,000. By 1951, Bishop's Stortford had expanded further, to 13,000. During World War II, Bishop's Stortford was the evacuation centre for many Britons, including the entire Clapton Girls Technology College. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Bishop's Stortford has seen further growth since it became a commuter town. The M11 motorway, nearby Stansted Airport, and the train links to London and Cambridge have contributed to the town having a population of around 35,000, as of the 2001 national census, but future growth is expected to increase the population to 45,000.

Bishop's Stortford has six outer suburbs: Thorley, Thorley Park, Havers, Bishops Park, St Michael's Mead and Hockerill. Hockerill is, however, a separate ecclesiastical parish comprised originally of the area east of the River Stort, centred around the old coaching inns and All Saints' Church in Stansted Road and including Bishops' Stortford Railway Station. Post-war development has enlarged this area to include the Parsonage Lane, Snowley and Collins Cross suburbs, and the Herts and Essex Hospital. Little Hallingbury and Takeley, too, are within the ambit of Bishop's Stortford; they are, however, in Essex rather than Hertfordshire.

In March and April 1825, a number of buildings in Bishop's Stortford were set alight and caused great alarm in the town. A committee was formed and a £500 reward offered for information on the arsonist. Soon a number of threatening letters were received, warning in part that "Stortford shall be laid in ashes".[2] Thomas Rees was arrested and found guilty on the charge of sending the letters, but not of arson. He was transported to Australia as a convict.

In 1935 the parish church of All Saints' Hockerill was destroyed by fire and in 1937 a new church, to a spacious, light and airy design by the architect Stephen Dykes Bower, was erected in its place. It is a Grade II listed building and the tower dominates the eastern skyline of Bishop's Stortford. The building contains a notable rose window designed by Hugh Easton, a two manual Henry Willis II organ and is a popular venue for concerts.

Harry Roberts was arrested in a wooded area within the abandoned RAF Sawbridgeworth at nearby Thorley whilst on the run from the Police following the shooting of three policemen in London in 1966. He was taken to Bishop's Stortford police station where he was charged and later moved to London. He was found guilty and sentenced to 30 years in prison.

On 28 August 2007, two men and a teenager were shot dead at Plaw Hatch Close in Bishop's Stortford. Two women were seriously injured in the attack that was around 9:35 pm. The men killed were named as Keith Cowell, 52, and his son Matthew, 17, who died alongside 33-year-old Tony Dulieu of Billericay. Keith Cowell's wife, Nicole, had left for work at Stansted Airport 10 minutes before the attack. A three-year-old girl called 'Angel' was thought to have been in the house at the time of the shooting. Chief Superintendent Al Thomas of the Hertfordshire Police said, "We share the concern and sense of shock within the community. Early information suggests this was a targeted incident and not a random attack." Police presence was dramatically increased after the incident in and around the town. However, crime rates in the town are well below the national average.[3][4]


  • Population: 38,078
  • Median age: 36
  • Retirees: 15.93%
  • Unemployed: 1.63%
  • Educated to Degree level: 25.83%
  • Full-time students: 2.27% (864)
  • Total migrants: 12.68% (4,829)
  • Average distance travelled to fixed place of work: 19.18 km


The town centre is undergoing many changes, with the demolition of the old multi-storey car park and surrounding area to make way for a new town centre area and the building of new city-type apartments and penthouses on the riverside and around the town centre. Jackson Square (a modern shopping complex) was rebuilt and an extension added with many cafes, bars and shops. The developments are almost finished. Also, the Havers estate (an outer part of Bishop's Stortford) is being redeveloped with new houses and flats. There are many plans for further expansion and development of the town due to its continued growth and the expected enlargement of Stansted Airport.

Bishop's Stortford is useful for a large number of Herts and Essex villages in its area, as most of the nearby towns (excluding Harlow) are small and Bishop's Stortford serves as a centre for meeting, shopping, and entertainment.

Rhodes Arts Complex[]

The Rhodes Arts Complex is a state-of-the-art venue which incorporates a theatre, cinema, dance studio and conference facilities. Situated within the complex, in the house where Cecil Rhodes was born, is the Bishop's Stortford Museum. It has a local history collection, a unique collection relating to Rhodes and the British Empire in Africa as well as its temporary exhibition gallery. Bishop's Stortford Museum


The town is generally seen as a conservative area, and this can be backed up by the fact that in the 2010 national elections Mark Prisk was elected for the Conservative Party with a majority of the votes cast (53.8%). Bishop's Stortford's constituency, Hertford and Stortford, covers many other settlements including Hertford. Caroline Spelman, the Conservative Cabinet Minister, is also from the town.

The most controversial political issue for the town relates to the expansion of Stansted Airport. A long-standing protest group called Stop Stansted Expansion vehemently opposes unsustainable growth at the airport and is wholly against plans for a second runway.

The town also has a Youth Council that meets once a month. It is made up of students from the local schools, and many local and youth issues are discussed.

The International Monarchist League is based here.


Bishop's Stortford is a particularly affluent area and this is partly due to the town's status as a commuter town for the (mainly financial) workers in London. The town is also home to many people working in the tourist industry, including hotels, catering and airline staff, because it is the closest large town to Stansted Airport. In total, about 85% work in the services sector (2001 census). Bishop's Stortford is served by a variety of shops, both high street chains and long-established family firms. The main retail streets are South, Potter, North and Hockerill Streets. There is a modern shopping complex called Jackson Square. Market days are Thursday and Saturday, which comprise of a selection of stalls with a variety of goods including bags and luggage, flowers, cards and clothing.

Transport and services[]

Bishop's Stortford owes its continued growth to developments in transport. It is well serviced by all forms of transport:

National Express East Anglia train, in the previous 'one' livery, that serves Bishop's Stortford

Bishop's Stortford station is on the London Liverpool Street to Cambridge main line operated by National Express East Anglia. The Stansted Express services take around 25 minutes to reach Tottenham Hale and 40 minutes to reach London Liverpool Street and allow Bishop's Stortford to be part of the London Commuter Belt. Epping tube station is about 12 miles away from Bishop's Stortford which means some residents use the London Underground station rather than the main line station at Bishop's Stortford.

Bishop's Stortford is close to junction 8 of the M11 motorway, which runs from London and the M25 north to Cambridge, and the town is a frequent stop-off point for travellers using the nearby Stansted airport. To the north of the town is the A120, which meets the A10 at Buntingford to the west and the A12 at Colchester to the east.

Stansted Airport is on the town's doorstep, with easy transport via rail or bus between there and the town. This airport is mainly used for flights to Europe and is the third largest airport serving London.

The town has many bus routes, including the 308 main bus route for travel within Bishop's Stortford and to Stansted Airport. Other, longer routes like the 510 (Stansted Airport - Harlow) link Bishop's Stortford with other nearby towns, and several services exist to connect the plethora of nearby villages to the town.

There used to be a park and ride system to the town centre, but this has now ceased to operate due to the lack of support.

Notable people[]

Cecil Rhodes

Arts & Media[]

  • James Frain, actor (born 1968). Attended St Joseph's Catholic Primary School, Bishop's Stortford. Best known for his portrayal of Thomas Cromwell in the Showtime series The Tudors.[5]
  • Matt Grant ABC TV The Bachelor USA Reality TV Star
  • Greg James, DJ on BBC Radio 1 (born 1985).[6]
  • Jon Thorne - Musician
  • John Mann - Comedian. Lives in the town and writes a popular column in The Herts and Essex Observer



  • Frederick Scott Archer - inventor of the collodion process, the first photographic emulsion used to create glass negatives.


  • Martin Caton - MP for Gower was born in Bishop's Stortford.
  • Sir Walter Gilbey, 1st Baronet - British Businessman. Wine merchant and philanthropist.
  • Cecil Rhodes, the son of the vicar of St. Michael's Church in the town. Rhodes was born in 1853 and was the effective founder of the state of Rhodesia (now Zambia and Zimbabwe), De Beers diamond company and the Rhodes Scholarship.
  • Caroline Spelman - Conservative MP and Cabinet Minister


  • Dean Ashton - Footballer formerly of West Ham United.
  • Dean Bowditch - Footballer, formerly of Ipswich Town F.C. and now of Yeovil Town F.C., used to attend school in Bishop's Stortford
  • Ben Clarke Ex-England Rugby Union international and British Lions representative.
  • Ernie Cooksey British footballer for Grays Athletic
  • Austin Healey Rugby Union player formerly of Leicester Tigers and briefly of Bishop's Stortford Rugby Club.
  • John Radford Ex Arsenal FC player (third highest goal scorer ever) and, most recently, ex Bishops Stortford FC manager
  • Edward Shaw (1892-1916), cricketer and British Army officer

Twin towns[]

Bishop's Stortford is twinned with the following towns:


Hertfordshire County Council is responsible for education. Bishop's Stortford follows the English schools model of primary school, secondary school, and further education college. There are 13 primary and 5 secondary schools (two of which are single sex). The town does not have any further education colleges for post-16 education, as all schools in Hertfordshire have sixth forms.

There is also an independent school, the Bishop's Stortford College, which covers the whole educational spectrum from ages 4 to 18.

Many of the secondary schools in the Bishop's Stortford area have gained special college status, variously for technology, sciences, languages, music or performing arts. Secondary schools include St Mary's Roman Catholic School, Birchwood High School, Hockerill Anglo-European College, The Bishop's Stortford High School (commonly referred to as the 'Boys High')[1] and The Hertfordshire and Essex High School. The latter two schools are single-sex schools, for boys and girls respectively, although both have mixed-sex sixth-forms.

In July 2008, Herts and Essex High School and Bishop's Stortford High School submitted a planning application to merge to a single site funded by the building of new residential estates on their existing land. This met with vigorous opposition, most notably from the Bishop's Stortford Civic Federation.[7] Over 930[8] letters of objection were received and eventually the plan collapsed in September 2009 just prior to the planning hearing when the schools withdrew their application.[9]

Education Charity Inclusion Trust is based in Bishop's Stortford.

Leisure and entertainment[]


Bishop's Stortford has many sports facilities, including the Grange Paddocks Swimming Pool & Gym, and various leagues are based in the town. Sporting facilities consist of the Bishop's Stortford Rugby Club, the hockey club, the tennis club, the squash club, the swimming club and the Bishop's Stortford Golf Club. In the town centre there is also a Cannons Health Club (now Nuffield Health Fitness & Wellbeing), this is situated by the cinema.

Bishop's Stortford Cricket Club play their home matches at Cricket Field Lane, which is also a home venue for Hertfordshire County Cricket Club. Hockerill Cricket Club play at their ground on Beldams Lane which they share with Bishop's Stortford Running Club (BSRC) supports road running and cross-country running, organising four training sessions a week (two coached), and also has an active multi-sports section for those interested in triathlon, duathlon and adventure racing.

Bishop's Stortford Hockey Club (BSHC) share the Cricket Field Lane clubhouse with Bishop's Stortford Cricket Club, and boasts a full 10 senior sides - 6 mens and 4 ladies - along with a thriving junior section. The Club has a number of former international players still involved with coaching or playing including Rob Clift (Great British Gold Medalist), in addition to a number of senior members who still represent their country at Masters level.

Bishop's Stortford also boasts two association football clubs - Bishop's Stortford F.C., who play in the Conference North [10], and Bishop's Stortford Swifts, who play in the Essex Olympian Football League.

In nearby Thorley, there is also a cricket club: Thorley CC, and at Birchwood High School on Parsonage Lane, Shotokan Karate Classes are run every Saturday at 9.30am by the KSTSK Association [11]

Youth organisations[]

The town is home to various youth organisations and youth groups, including an Army Cadet Force detachment and an Air Training Corps Squadron. The ACF detachment is located at the Northgate Activities Centre and parades on Monday nights from 17:15 to 21:30. The Air Cadet unit, 1096 (Bishop's Stortford) Squadron is based in Waytemore Road (CM23 3GR) and parades on Monday and Thursday evenings and caters for cadets aged between 13-18. GAP Youth Group is affiliated with St James the Great Church in Thorley and is for teenagers from school year 8. The group offers fun, friendship and discussion on challenging everyday issues. This group meets every Sunday between 7:30pm and 9pm at the Barnabus centre, Church Lane, Thorley.[12]

Live music[]

The Rhodes Arts Complex benefited from a lottery grant in 2006 and is now the town's biggest venue for live music and theatre, hosting the town's most popular rock and indie night "Rhodes Rocks!" every month, as well as appearances from many international artists including Midge Ure, The Beat, Ade Edmondson and many others.

Another live music venue in Bishop's Stortford, supporting rock, blues and folk bands is The Half Moon at the top end of North Street. It is a traditional and somewhat untouched pub that has a small back-room with stage. The Half Moon is also home to The Acoustic Club every Thursday, a monthly blues club and Club Blub, a monthly live showcase for both established acts and new bands.

Among the notable appearances at Club Blub have been Billy Lunn of UK indie act The Subways, Turin Brakes, The Rifles, Ed Drewett and Morning Parade.

Bishops's Stortford is where the youth choir Cantate is based. The choir holds concerts in the surrounding area, including many in the town itself.

Stortford Film Festival[]

The Stortford Film Festival started in 2010 with a one day showcase of short films. The 2nd Stortford Film Festival, which takes place between 21st and 26th May 2011 at Rhodes Arts Complex, features over sixty feature films, shorts, animations, documentaries and music videos from over twenty countries. The 2nd Stortford Film Festival jury features screenwriter and author Hanif Kureishi and award winning filmmaker Eran Creevy.


Being a market town and major coach stop between London and Cambridge, Bishop's Stortford has many large public houses within the town centre, one of which is the Star Inn on Bridge Street, which serves hand-pulled ales and hot and cold food.

The first mention of the Star was in 1636 when it was held by one John Ward, and though the brick exterior gives it the appearance of being a much later building, they cover a timber-frame structure the foundations of which were likely to have been laid in the 16th century. Former town brewers Hawkes & Co bought the Star in 1808. An entrance at the corner of the building that once opened onto Water Lane was bricked-up in the early 20th century, perhaps to protect departing patrons from potential accidents due to increased traffic. The side of the building is half covered in traditional weatherboard, while at the rear can be found the inn’s old water pump and former stables. The stable yard later became a car park but is now a small pub garden. And in the early 20th century the Star advertised accommodation for cyclists, making it particularly popular with people from local villages who would stop overnight to ensure an early start to Thursday’s market. Former celebrated local artist, John Kynnersley Kirby, a painter of many local scenes and characters in the early 20th century, once used the interior of the Star for a painting entitled ‘The Slate Club Secretary’. In it he portrayed a freelance journalist named Jimmy Sell set against the pub’s smoke-laden Victorian wallpaper.


Located in the town centre is Anchor Street Entertainment, a multiplex which hosts an Empire cinema and a Nuffield House Health Club. There have been many changes at the Anchor Street Leisure Complex resulting in many of the units now lying empty. Kentucky Fried Chicken was the first business to shut down. The Chicago Rock Café went into administration causing its closure at the end of February 2010.[13] Newbury Leisure Ltd., the operator of the Lakeside Bowling Alley, decided to close its Bishops Stortford site in November 2010 to save the other 9 sites they have in the UK.[14] The McDonalds closed at this site on the 11th December 2010.[15] The reporter at Herts and Essex Observer, Burton (2010) stated that ‘this has led to concerns that Bishops Stortford may become a town of ‘two halves’, this was the view of civic federation chairman Richard Hannah, who feared for the entire South Street area’s future after the Lakeside Superbowl in nearby Anchor Street closed.

The businesses left at the Anchor Street Leisure Complex are the Empire Cinema and the Nuffield Health Fitness and Wellbeing Centre. A new nightclub was bidding (November 2010) to open in the former Chicago Rock Cafe premises as well as a new seafood eatery, called Fishy Biz in the former KFC branch, which opened in November 2010.[16]

The Lemon Tree restaurant in Water Lane is listed in both The Good Food Guide and the Michelin Guide. In late 2006, town centre restaurant, Host, opened a private members' bar above its restaurant in the Corn Exchange building.

Nightlife spots in Bishop's Stortford include Scorch Nightclub, The Fountain and many other late opening wine bars. There is also The Terrace wine bar open during the summer months with food and live music.

There is also a concrete skateboard park and metal halfpipe located in the town park opposite Waitrose. It is easily reachable from Bishop's Stortford railway station.

The Water Lane Theatre Group, an amateur drama group, has been based in the town since 1951.

Bishop's Stortford Musical Theatre Company, an amateur musical theatre group, has been based in the town since 1963 performing every year.

Cromarty Vets was founded in Bishop’s Stortford in 2007. The group has a Christian ethos and is particularly geared at the 35 plus age group. The aim of the group is to support, mentor and encourage men in tackling the pressures of being a father, husband, lone parent or any other aspect of family and working life. This is achieved through fellowship and friendship via a number of veteran team sports and social events. There are regular football matches played at the Hockerill Anglo-European School’s all weather pitches on Mondays at 7.45pm pitch side ready for an 8pm kick-off. Afterwards there is the opportunity to enjoy a drink and chat at the Red Cow Public House.[17]

Street Pastors in Bishops Stortford began in September 2008 with an original team of 16 volunteers; this has now grown to 20. The team of volunteers has regularly been out in Bishop's Stortford on alternate Friday and Saturday nights between 10pm and 3am.[18] This is a nationwide scheme, run by Ascension Trust, that Bishop's Stortford has become affiliated to, providing practical support in the form of water and flipflops, and an opportunity for people to talk. It is supported by the members of the local churches in Bishops Stortford, the local council, and the Hertfordshire police force.


Climate graph of Bishop's Stortford.

Bishops Stortford has grown around the River Stort valley, with the town centre lying about 60 metres above sea level, rising to over 100 metres above sea level on the Eastern and Western margins of the town. Being in South East England, the town enjoys a warmer climate than most of the United Kingdom and has some of the hottest summers in Britain; it is also one of the driest places in the country. Temperatures may sometimes reach the mid-30s Celsius in the summer. Snow is often seen in the winter months because the town is near to the east coast, where cold, moist air is brought in from the North Sea and cold fronts from northern Europe. In recent years there has been up to three inches of snow early in the year which has resulted in minor disruption to transport and caused some schools to close for several days. However, the snow tends not to persist in any noticeable quantity.

Water for the town is supplied by Three Valleys Water. The water is classed as very hard with over 345 mg/l of minerals and 0.225 mg/l of fluoride.


Bishops Stortford, along with the rest of the United Kingdom, has a temperature maritime climate, with cool summers and mild winters. The nearest weather station for which averages and extremes are available is Stansted airport, about 2.5 miles due east of Bishops Stortfords town centre. Located at over 100m, the weather station, and parts of Bishops Stortford in general are marginally cooler throughout the year than the Cambridgeshire area to the North or the London area to the south, nonetheless, Bishops Stortford is still warmer than the English average.

The highest temperature recorded at Stansted was 35.0c(95.0f)[19] during the August 2003 heatwave. In an average year the hottest day should reach 28.8c(83.8f),[20] and 12.3 days[21] will record a temperature of 25.1c (77.2f) or more. The lowest temperature recorded at Stansted was -14.7c(5.5f)[22] during December 1981. The lowest in recent years. Notably cold minimum temperatures tend not to occur due to the lack of higher terrain meaning little cold air drainage occurs. The average annual coldest night should fall to -7.6c(18.3f),[23] with 47.3[24] air frosts being recorded in an 'average' year.

Typically, the Bishops Stortford area will receive an average of 622mm[25] of rain during the course of the year [26] 1mm or more of rain will be recorded on 114.7 days[27] of the year. Temperature averages refer to the period 1971-00, rainfall averages 1961-90.

Climate data for Stansted, elevation 101m, 1971-2000, Rainfall 1961-1990
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 6.5
Average low °C (°F) 0.9
Precipitation mm (inches) 53.97
Source #1: YR.NO[28]
Source #2: KNMI[29]

Location grid[]


  1. ^ Office for National Statistics : Census 2001 : Parish Headcounts : East Hertfordshire Retrieved 2009-12-26
  2. ^
  3. ^ Marsden, Sam (11 September 2007). "Two men arrested over Bishop's Stortford shooting". The Independent (London). 
  4. ^ "Girl, 3, survives fatal shooting". BBC Online News. 29 August 2007. 
  5. ^ "Is James the new Doctor Who?". Herts and Essex Observer. 18 November 2008. 
  6. ^ "Kelly Osbourne to hit the airwaves on Radio 1". Daily Mail (London). 6 September 2007. 
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^ “Schools withdraw plan to move to Green Belt”, Bishop's Stortford Observer, Dec 4 2008
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ "GAP Youth Group". Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  13. ^ "Staff made redundant as Chicago Rock Cafe closes in Stortford". Herts and Essex Observer. 2 March 2010. 
  14. ^ "Ghost town fears for Stortford after bowling alley closes". Herts and Essex Observer. 12 March 2010. 
  15. ^ "Stortford cinema boss denies closure rumours". Herts and Essex Observer. 23 November 2010. 
  16. ^ "Stortford McDonalds to close". Herts and Essex Observer. 18 November 2010. 
  17. ^ "Cromarty Vets". Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  18. ^ "Bishop's Stortford Street Pastors". Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  19. ^ "August 2003 Maximum". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  20. ^ "Mean annual warmest day". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  21. ^ "August >25c days". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  22. ^ "1981 minimum". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  23. ^ "Annual average coldest night". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  24. ^ "Annual average air frost". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  25. ^ "August 2003 Maximum". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  26. ^ "Rainfall data". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  27. ^ "Rainfall data". Retrieved 2011-02-25. 
  28. ^ "Climate Normals 1971–2000". YR.NO. Retrieved 25 Feb 2011. 
  29. ^ "Climate Normals 1961–1990". KNMI.**&indexid=RR1&periodidselect=1961-1990&seasonid=0&scalelogidselect=no&minx=-588333.333336&miny=-4650000.000001&maxx=278333.333335&maxy=-3999999.999998&MapSize=560%2C420&imagewidth=560&imageheight=420&mainmap.x=394&mainmap.y=272&CMD=QUERY_POINT&CMD=QUERY_POINT#bottom. Retrieved 25 feb 2011. 

External links[]

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