—  State  —
Official seal of Chhattisgarh
Location of Chhattisgarh in India
Political Map of Chhattisgarh
Coordinates (Raipur): 21°16′N 81°36′E / 21.27, 81.60Coordinates: 21°16′N 81°36′E / 21.27, 81.60
Country  India
Established 01 November 2000
Capital Raipur
Largest city Raipur
Districts 27 (9 dist. new)
 • Governor Shekhar Dutt
 • Chief Minister Raman Singh (BJP)
 • Legislature Unicameral (90 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 11 (year 2010)
 • High Court Chhattisgarh High Court
 • Total 135,194 km2 (52,199 sq mi)
Area rank 10th
Population (2011)
 • Total 25,540,196
 • Rank 16th
 • Density 190/km2 (490/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-CT
HDI increase 0.516 (medium)
HDI rank 23rd (2005)
Literacy 64.7% (23rd)
Official languages Hindi, Chhattisgarhi

Chhattisgarh (Hindi: छत्तीसगढ़, Chattīsgaṛh, [ʧʰʌttiːsgʌɽʰ]) is a state in Central India. The state was formed on November 1, 2000 by partitioning 16 Chhattisgarhi-speaking southeastern districts of Madhya Pradesh.

Raipur is the capital of Chhattisgarh, which is the 10th largest state in India, with an area of 135,190 km2 (52,200 sq mi). By population, it ranks as the 16th most-populated state of the nation. It is an important electricity and steel-producing state of India.[1] Chhattisgarh accounts for 15% of the total steel produced in the country.[2]

Chhattisgarh borders the states of Madhya Pradesh in the northwest, Maharashtra in the west, Andhra Pradesh in the south, Orissa in the east, Jharkhand in the northeast and Uttar Pradesh in the north.


There are a wide array of opinions on the origin of the word "Chhattisgarh". The name is not a very old one and has come into popular usage only in the last few centuries. In ancient times, this region was called Dakshin Kosala (South Kosala). The name Chhattisgarh was popularized during the Maratha period and was first used in an official document in 1795.[3]

In a popular and widely believed that, Chhattisgarh takes its name from the 36 pillars of Chhatishgarhin Devi temple (chhattis means "36" and garh means "pillar"). The old state had 36 districts, which were: Ratanpur, Vijaypur, Kharound, Maro, Kautgarh, Nawagarh, Sondhi, Aukhar, Padarbhatta, Semriya, Champa, Lafa, Chhuri, Kenda, Matin, Aparora, Pendra, Kurkuti-kandri, Raipur, Patan, Simaga, Singarpur, Lavan, Omera, Durg, Saradha, Sirasa, Menhadi, Khallari, Sirpur, Figeswar, Rajim, Singhangarh, Suvarmar, Tenganagarh and Akaltara.[4] However, experts do not agree with this explanation, as 36 forts couldn't be archaeologically identified in this region.[3]

British chronicler, J.B. Beglar provides a different explanation of the origins of the name. According to Beglar, "the real name is 'Chhattisghar' ("chhattis" means "36," and ghar means "houses") and not Chhattisgarh." According to him, there is "a traditional saying that ages ago, about the time of Jarasandha (age of Mahabharata), 36 families of chanmars (leather workers) emigrated southward from Jarasandha's kingdom and established themselves in this region, which after them is called Chhattisgarh."[5]

Another view, more popular with experts and historians, is that Chhattisgarh is the corrupted form of Chedisgarh which means Raj or "Empire of the Chedis" (Kalchuri Dynasty).[3]

According to Dr. Shrikant Khilari, the name Chhattisgarh comes from the time of Guru Ghasidas. Guru Ghasidas, a saint, named Chhasttisgarh and the name was officially applied by the Marathas in 1795.

One more view is that the state acquired the name Chhattisghar because it is home for 36 tribal clans: Chhattis, which is Hindi for "36," and ghar, which is Hindi for "home."


The northern and southern parts of the state are hilly, while the central part is a fertile plain. Deciduous forests of the Eastern Highlands Forests cover roughly 44% of the state.

The state animal is the van bhainsa, or wild water buffalo. The state bird is the pahari myna, or hill myna. The state tree is the Sal, or Sarai.

The State Tree of Chhattisgarh

In, the north lies the edge of the great Indo-Gangetic plain. The Rihand River, a tributary of the Ganges, drains this area. The eastern end of the Satpura Range and the western edge of the Chota Nagpur Plateau form an east-west belt of hills that divide the Mahanadi River basin from the Indo-Gangetic plain.

The central part of the state lies in the fertile upper basin of the Mahanadi river and its tributaries. This area has extensive rice cultivation. The upper Mahanadi basin is separated from the upper Narmada basin to the west by the Maikal Hills (part of the Satpuras) and from the plains of Orissa to the east by ranges of hills. The southern part of the state lies on the Deccan plateau, in the watershed of the Godavari River and its tributary, the Indravati River.

The Mahanadi is the chief river of the state. The other main rivers are Hasdo (a tributary of Mahanadi), Rihand, Indravati, Jonk, Arpa and Shivnath. It is situated in the east of Madhya Pradesh.

State animal Van Bhainsa (Wild Buffalo)
State bird Pahari Myna (Hill Myna)
State tree Sal or Sarai


The climate of Chhattisgarh is tropical. It is hot and humid because of its proximity to the Tropic of Cancer and its dependence on the monsoons for rains.

Summer in Chhattisgarh is from April to June and temperatures can reach 48°C (100°F). The monsoon season is from late June to October and is a welcome respite from the heat. Chhattisgarh receives an average of 1,292 millimetres (50.9 in) of rain. Winter is from November to January and it is a good time to visit Chhattishgarh. Winters are pleasant with low temperatures and less humidity.[6]


The temperature varies between 30 and 47 °C (86 and 117 °F) in summer and between 5 and 25 °C (41 and 77 °F) during winter. However, extremes in temperature can be obsevered with scales falling to less than 0°C to 49°C.


Road, rail and air transportation from and to Chhattisgarh can be seen from the official website of the Chhattisgarh Government.


Chhattisgarh has an excellent road network. All district headquarters, tehsils and development blocks are connected with good all-weather roads.

Road network in and around Chhattisgarh can be seen from the map of the area.

National highways: The 11 national highways passing through Chhattisgarh together constitute 2,184 km of roads in the state.[7][8]

National Highways number Connecting cities Length in Chhattisgarh (km)
NH 6 Hajira-Dhule-Nagpur-Raipur-Sambalpur-Baharagora-Calcutta (Kolkata) 314
NH 12A The highway starting from its junction with NH 26 near Jhansi in the State of Uttar Pradesh connecting Pirthipur - Tikamgarh -

Shahgarh - Hirapur - Damoh - Jabalpur - Mandla - Kwardha and terminating at its junction with NH 200 at Shimga in the State of Chhattisgarh

NH 16 Nizamabad-Mancheral-Jagdalpur 210
NH 43 Raipur-Vizianagaram Junction with National Highway No. 5 near


NH 78 Katni-Shahdol-Manendragarh-Ambikapur-Jashpurnagar-Gumla 356
NH 111 Junction with NH-200 near Bilaspur connecting Katghora and

terminating at its junction with NH 78 near Ambikapur

NH 200 Raipur-Bilaspur-Raigarh-Kanaktora-Jharsuguda-KochindaDeogarh-Talcher-Chandhikhol 300
NH 202 Hyderabad-Warangal-Venkatapuram-Bhopalpatnam 36
NH 216 Raigarh-Sarangarh-Saraipalli 80
NH 217 Raipur-Gopalpur 70
NH 221 Junction of NH 9 near Vijaywada connecting Kondapalli Mailavaram-Tiruvuru-Penuballi-Kothagudem - Paloancha -

Bhadrachalam -Nellipaka-Chinturu - Konta and terminating at its junction with NH 16 near Jagadalpur

Total 2184

The state highways and major district roads account for more 8,031 km.

In 2008-09, 2,811 km of roads and 68 bridges were constructed. As of 2008-09, the total road length in the state was 45,988 km.

The National Highway 6 (Mumbai to Kolkata) passes through the state. The state also hosts National Highway 43, which starts from Raipur and goes up to Vishakhapatnam. National Highway 16 from Hyderabad ends at Bhopalpatnam in Dantewada district. National Highway 78 From Katni (MP) ends at Gumla (Jharkhand) pass through Koria, Surajpur, Sarguja, Jashpur District. The state has 11 National Highways (2,225 kilometres).

Rail network[]

The rail network in Chhattisgarh is centered around Bilaspur, which is the zonal headquarters of South East Central Railway of Indian Railways. The other main railway junction is Raipur, followed by the Durg Junction, which is also a starting point of many long distance trains. These three junctions are well-connected to the major cities of India.

Narrow Gauge Train in Chhattisgarh


The air infrastructure in Chhattisgarh is minor. The sole commercially operating airport is in Raipur which of late, has shown an upsurge in passenger traffic. It has links to top cities of the country, i.e. Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Bhopal and Indore. It is also connected to Jaipur, Nagpur, Bhubaneshwar, Ahmedabad, Gwalior, Chandigarh, Hyderabad and Bangalore.


  • Raipur Airport
  • Bilaspur Airport
  • Jagdalpur Airport

Other airstrips

  • Nandini Airport, Bhilai
  • Baikunth Airstrip, Baikunth
  • Kondatarai Airstrip, Raigarh
  • JSPL’s Airstrip, Raigarh
  • Darima Airstrip, Ambikapur
  • Korba Airstrip, Korba
  • Agdih Airstrip, Jashpur
  • Dondi Airstrip, Dondi, Durg

Some new airstrips that have been proposed for more connectivity:

  • Kanker
  • Kabirdham
  • Surajpur
  • Dantewada
  • Bijapur
  • Korba
  • Balrampur
  • Rajnandgaon
  • Raigarh


Ancient and medieval history[]

In ancient times, this region was known as Dakshin-Kausal. This area also finds mention in Ramayana and Mahabharata. Between the sixth and twelfth centuries, Sarabhpurias, Panduavanshi, Somvanshi, Kalchuri and Nagvanshi rulers dominated this region. Kalchuris ruled in Chhattisgarh from 980 to 1741 AD.

Modern history[]

The area constituting the new state merged into Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 1956, under the States Re-organization Act and remained a part of that state for 44 years. Prior to its becoming a part of the new state of Madhya Pradesh, the region was part of old Madhya Pradesh State, with its capital at Nagpur. Prior to that, the region was part of the Central Provinces and Berar province (CP and Berar) under the British rule. Some areas constituting the Chhattisgarh state were princely states under the British rule, but later on were merged into Madhya Pradesh.[9]

Chhattisgarh was under Maratha rule (Bhonsales of Nagpur) from 1741 to 1845 AD. It came under British rule from 1845 to 1947. Raipur gained prominence over the of capital Ratanpur with the advent of the British in 1845. In 1905, the Sambalpur district was transferred to Orissa and the estates of Sarguja were transferred from Bengal to Chhattisgarh.

Separation of Chhattisgarh[]

Mantralaya in Naya (New) Raipur

The present state of Chhattisgarh was carved out of Madhya Pradesh on November 1, 2000.

The demand for a separate state was first raised in the 1920s. Similar demands kept cropping up at regular intervals; however, a well-organized movement was never launched. Several all-party platforms were formed and they usually resolved around petitions, public meetings, seminars, rallies and strikes.[10]

A demand for separate Chhattisgarh was raised in 1924 by the Raipur Congress unit and also discussed in the Annual Session of the Indian Congress at Tripuri. A discussion also took place of forming a Regional Congress organization for Chhattisgarh. When the State Reorganisation Commission was set up in 1954, the demand for a separate Chhattisgarh was put forward, but was not accepted. In 1955, a demand for a separate state was raised in the Nagpur assembly of the then state of Madhya Bharat.[10]

The 1990s saw more activity for a demand for the new state, such as the formation of a state-wide political forum, especially the Chhattisgarh Rajya Nirman Manch. Chandulal Chadrakar led this forum, several successful region-wide strikes and rallies were organized under the banner of the forum, all of which were supported by major political parties, including the Indian National Congress and the Bharatiya Janata Party.[10]

The new National Democratic Alliance (NDA) government sent the redrafted Separate Chhattisgarh Bill for the approval of the Madhya Pradesh Assembly, where it was once again unanimously approved and then it was tabled in the Lok Sabha. This bill for a separate Chhattisgarh was passed in the Lok Sabha and the Rajya Sabha, paving the way for the creation of a separate state of Chhattisgarh. The President of India gave his consent to the Madhya Pradesh Reorganisation Act 2000 on August 25, 2000. The Government of India subsequently set November 1, 2000, as the day the state of Madhya Pradesh would be divided into Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh.[10]

Government and administration[]

The State Legislative assembly is composed of 90 members of the Legislative Assembly. There are 11 members of the Lok Sabha from Chhattisgarh. The Rajya Sabha has five members from the state.


Chattisgarh state consists of 27 districts:[12][13][14][15][16]

Bastar Division Durg Division Raipur Division Bilaspur Division Surguja Division

Municipal corporations[]

  • Ambikapur
  • Bhilai
  • Bilaspur
  • Chirmiri
  • Durg
  • Jagdalpur
  • Korba
  • Raigarh
  • Raipur
  • Rajnandgaon

Human Development Indicators (HDIs)[17][]

HDI Value[]

Chhattisgarh with a HDI value of 0.358, has the dubious distinction of being an Indian state with the lowest HDI Value. The national average HDI Value is 0.467 according to 2011 Indian NHDR report.

Standard of living[]

Chhattisgarh has one of the lowest standard of living in India as per the Income Index (0.127) along with the states of Assam, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Uttar Pradesh. These states have incomes below the national average, with Bihar having the lowest income per capita.

These poor states, despite low absolute incomes, have witnessed high Net State Domestic Product (NSDP) growth rates especially Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Uttarakhand which had growth rates above 10 per cent per annum during the Tenth Five Year Plan period (2002–7).

Education Index[]

Chhattisgarh has an Education Index of 0.526 according to 2011 NHDR which is higher than that of states like Bihar, Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan which are below the 0.5 mark. Though, it is lower than the national average of 0.563.

With respect to literacy, the state fared just below the national average. The recent estimates from Census (2011) also depict a similar picture with the literacy rate of 71 per cent (81.4% Males & 60.5% Females), which is close to the all India literacy rate of 74 per cent.

According to NSS (2007–8), the literacy rate for STs and SCs was better than the corresponding national average and this is a positive sign.

Among the marginalized groups, STs are at the bottom of the rankings, further emphasizing the lack of social development in the state. Bastar and Dantewada in south Chhattisgarh are the most illiterate districts and the drop out ratio is the highest among all the districts. The reason for this is the extreme poverty in rural areas.

Health Index[]

Health Index of Chhattisgarh is less than 0.49, one of the lowest in the country. The Health Index is defined in terms of life expectancy at birth since a higher life expectancy at birth reflects better health outcomes for an individual.

Despite different health related schemes and programmes, the health indicators such as percentage of women with BMI<18.5, Under Five Mortality Rate and underweight children are poor. This may be due to the difficulty in accessing the remote areas in the state. The prevalence of female malnutrition in Chhattisgarh is higher than the national average—half of the ST females are malnourished. The performance of SCs is a little better than the corresponding national and state average. The Under Five Mortality Rate among STs is significantly higher than the national average. The percentage of under-weight children in Chhattisgarh is also higher than the national average, further underlining the appalling health condition of the state’s population.

Net State Domestic Product (NSDP)[]

Chhattisgarh is one of the emerging states with relatively high growth rates of NSDP (8.2% vs. 7.1% All India over 2002-2008) and per capita NSDP(6.2% vs. 5.4% All India over 2002-2008). The growth rates of the said parameters are above the national averages and thus it appears that Chhattisgarh is catching up with other states in this respect. However, Chhattisgarh still has very low levels of per capita income as compared to the other states.


The demographic profile shows that about 80 per cent of the total population lived in rural areas.

Sex Ratio[]

The sex ratio in the state is one of the best in India with 991 females per 1,000 males, as is the child sex-ratio with 964 females per 1,000 males (Census 2011)

Fertility Rate[]

Chhattisgarh has a fairly high fertility rate (3.1) as compared to All India (2.6) and the replacement rate (2.1). Chhattisgarh has rural fertility rate of 3.2 and urban fertility rate of 2.1.

ST Population[]

With the exception of the hilly states of the north-east, Chhattisgarh has one of highest shares of Scheduled Tribe (ST) population within a state, accounting for about 10 per cent of the STs in India. Scheduled Castes and STs together constitute more than 50 per cent of the state’s population. The tribals of Chhattisgarh are an important part of the population and mainly inhabit the dense forests of Bastar and other districts of south Chhattisgarh.


The incidence of poverty in Chhattisgarh is very high but is better than Orissa and Bihar. The estimated poverty ratio in 2004–5 based on uniform reference period consumption was around 50 per cent, which is approximately double the all India level. The incidence of poverty in the rural and urban areas is almost the same.

More than half of the rural STs and urban SCs are poor. In general, the proportion of poor SC and ST households in the state is higher than the state average and their community’s respective national averages (except for rural SC households). Given that more than 50 per cent of the state’s population comprises STs and SCs, the high incidence of income poverty among them is a matter of serious concern in the state.

This indicates that the good economic performance in recent years has not percolated to this socially deprived group, which is reflected in their poor performance in human development indicators.

Access to drinking water[]

In terms of access to improved drinking water sources, at the aggregate level, Chhattisgarh fared better than the national average and the SCs of the state performed better than the corresponding national average. Scheduled Tribes are marginally below the state average, but still better than the STs at the all India level.

The proportion of households with access to improved sources of drinking water in 2008–9 was 91 per cent. This proportion was over 90 per cent even in states like Bihar, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. This was largely because these states had over 70 per cent of their households accessing tube wells/ handpumps as sources of drinking water.

Victim of Fluorosis in Raigarh


Sanitation facilities in the state are abysmally low with only about 27 per cent having toilet facilities, which is far below the all-India average of 44%.[18][19] The STs are the most deprived section in this regard with only 18 per cent of the ST households having toilet facilities, which is lower than the all India average for STs. The SCs also have a lower proportion of households with toilet facilities as compared to the all India average.

States with low sanitation coverage in 2001 that improved coverage by 4-10% points are Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Bihar, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Himachal Pradesh, Daman and Diu, Haryana, Sikkim, Punjab, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Goa and Uttarakhand registered increased coverage by more than 20 percentage points.[18]


Across states, it has been found that teledensity was below 10 per cent in 2010 for Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand, reflecting a lack of access to telephones in these relatively poorer states. On the other hand, for states like Delhi and Himachal Pradesh and metropolitan cities like Kolkata, Mumbai and Chennai, teledensity was over 100 per cent in 2010 implying that individuals have more than one telephone connection.

Road Density[]

The road length per 100 km2 (62,000 mi) was less than the national average of 81 km (81,000 m) per 100 km2 (62,000 mi) in Chhattisgarh. The rural areas of Chhattisgarh failed to meet their targets of constructing new roads under PMGSY.


Chhattisgarh is primarily a rural state with only 20% of population residing in urban areas. According to the report from the government of India,[21] at least 34% are Scheduled Tribes, 12% are Scheduled Castes and over 50% belong to official list of OBC. Plain area is numerically dominated by castes such as Teli, Satnami and Kurmi; while forest area is mainly occupied by tribes such as Gond, Halba and Kamar/Bujia and Oraon.

Tribal Youth of Bastar


There were 20.8 million people in Chhattisgarh as per the census 2001 of which 94.7% were Hindu, 2% Muslim and 1.9% Christian.[22]

Native of Chhattisgarh Plains with Neem Branches and Leaves on Hareli Festival


The official language of the state is Hindi and is used by non-rural population of the state. Chhattisgarhi, a dialect of Hindi language, is spoken and understood by the majority of people in Chhattisgarh. Telugu is also spoken as a minority language in parts of Chhattishgarh.

Chhattisgarhi was known as "Khaltahi" to the surrounding hill-people and as "Laria" to Sambalpuri and Oriya speakers. Kosali and Oriya are also spoken by a lot of people.

Adivasi woman and child

Status of women[]

Chhattisgarh has a high female-male sex ratio (991)[23] ranking at the 5th position among other states of India. Although this ratio is small compared to other states, it is unique in India because Chhattisharh is — the 10th largest state in India.

The gender ratio (number of females per 1000 males) has been steadily declining over 20th century in Chhattisgarh. But it is conspicuous that Chhattisgarh always had a better female-to-male ratio compared with national average.

Year 1901 1911 1921 1931 1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2011
India 972 964 955 950 945 946 941 930 934 927 933 940
Chhattisgarh 1046 1039 1041 1043 1032 1024 1008 998 998 985 989 991

Probably, such social composition also results in some customs and cultural practices that seem unique to Chhattisgarh: The regional variants are common in India's diverse cultural pattern.

Rural women, although poor, are independent, better organized, socially outspoken.[24] According to another local custom, women can choose to terminate a marriage relationship through a custom called chudi pahanana, if she desires. Most of the old temples and shrines here are related to 'women power' (e.g., Shabari, Mahamaya, Danteshwari) and the existence of these temples gives insight into historical and current social fabric of this state. However, a mention of these progressive local customs in no way suggests that the ideology of female subservience does not exist in Chhattisgarh. On the contrary, the male authority and dominance is seen quite clearly in the social and cultural life.

Detailed information on aspects of women's status in Chhattisgarh can be found in 'A situational analysis of women and girls in Chhattisgarh' prepared in 2004 by the National Commission of Women, a statutory body belonging to government of India.


In order to bring about social reforms and with a view to discourage undesirable social practices, Chhattisgarh government has enacted the Chhattisgarh Tonhi Atyachar (Niwaran) Act, 2005 against witchery.[25] Much has to be done on the issue of law enforcement by judicial authorities to protect women in this regard, bringing such prosecution to an end.[26]

Some sections of tribal population of Chhattisgarh state believe in witchcraft.[26] Women are believed to have access to supernatural forces and are accused of being witches (tonhi) often to settle personal scores. They are barbarically persecuted, particularly older women, widows, women with deformities or with abnormal facial features.

As of 2010, they are still hounded out of villages on the basis of flimsy accusations by male village sorcerers paid to do so by villagers with personal agendas, such as property and goods acquisition.[26] According to National Geographic Channel’s investigations, those accused are fortunate if they are only verbally bullied and shunned or exiled from their village. Humiliations are common such as being forced to eat human excreta and in the recent years, 2,500 women were accused of witchcraft who were murdered by stoning, hanging and beheading by neighbours.

Social Mission Against Blind Faith

Adivasi Woman at Farasgaon Market

Natives of Kamar Tribe


A carving in the 10th or 11th century Hindu temple of Malhar village. This area, 40 km from Bilaspur, was supposedly a major Buddhist center in ancient times.

The state hosts many religious sects such as Satnami Panth, Kabirpanth, Ramnami Samaj and others. Champaran (Chhattisgarh) is a small town with religious significance as the birthplace of the Saint Vallabhacharya, increasingly important as a pilgrimage site for the Gujarati community.

The Oriya culture is prominent in the eastern parts of Chhattisgarh bordering Orissa.


Chattisgarh is known for "Kosa silk" and "lost wax art". Besides saris and salwar suits, the fabric is used to create lehengas, stoles, shawls and menswear including jackets, shirts, achkans and sherwanis. International sculptor, Sushil Sakhuja's Dhokra Nandi is famous and available at government's Shabari handicrafts emporium, Raipur.


Panthi, Rawat Nacha, Karma, Pandwani, Chaitra, Kaksar, Saila and Soowa are the several indigenous dance styles of Chhattisgarh.


Panthi, the folk dance of the Satnami community, has religious overtones. Panthi is performed on Maghi Purnima, the anniversary of the birth of Guru Ghasidas. The dancers dance around a jaitkhamb set up for the occasion, to songs eulogizing their spiritual head. The songs reflect a view of nirvana, conveying the spirit of their guru's renunciation and the teachings of saint poets like Kabir, Ramdas and Dadu. Dancers with bent torsos and swinging arms dance, carried away by their devotion. As the rhythm quickens, they perform acrobatics and form human pyramids.[27]


Pandavani is a folk ballad form performed predominantly in Chhattisgarh. It depicts the story of the Pandavas, the leading characters in the epic Mahabharata. The artists in the Pandavani narration consist of a lead artist and some supporting singers and musicians. There are two styles of narration in Pandavani, Vedamati and Kapalik. In the Vedamati style the lead artist narrates in a simple manner by sitting on the floor throughout the performance. The Kaplik style is livelier, where the narrator actually enacts the scenes and characters.[28]


Rawat Nacha[]

Rawat Nacha, the folk dance of cowherds, is a traditional dance of Yaduvanshis (clan of Yadu) as symbol of worship to Krishna at the time of Dev Uthani Ekadashi (day of awakening of the gods after a brief rest) which is the 11th day after Diwali according to the Hindu calendar. The dance closely resembles Krishna's dance with the gopis (milkmaids).[29][30]

In Bilaspur, the Rawat Nach Mahotsav folk dance festival is organized annually since 1978. Tens of hundreds of Rawat dancers from remote areas participate.[31]

Famous Raut Nacha

Soowa Nacha[]

Soowa or Suwa tribal dance in Chhattisgarh is also known as Parrot Dance. It is a symbolic form of dancing related to worship. Dancers keep a parrot in a bamboo-pot and form a circle around it. Then performers sing and dance, moving around it with clapping. This is one of the main dance form of tribal women of Chhattisgarh.[32]

Sua Nacha at Khudmudi Village, Chhattisgarh


Tribal groups like Gonds, the Baigas and the Oraons in Chattisgarh have Karma dance as part of their culture. Both men and women arrange themselves in two rows and follow the rhythmic steps, directed by the singer group. The Karma tribal dance marks the end of the rainy season and the advent of spring season.[33][34]

Other State people cultural contribution[]

  • Lata mangeshkar sing song for Chhattisgarhi film Bhakla of Dhriti pati sarkar.
  • Mohmd Rafi sing song for Chhattisgarhi film. He had also sung songs for various chhattisgarhi films like Ghardwaar, Kahi Debe Sandes, Punni Ke Chanda, etc.


Theater is known as Gammat in Chhattisgarh. Pandavani is one of the lyrical forms of this theater. Several acclaimed plays of Habib Tanvir, such as Charandas Chor, are variations of Chhattisgarhi theater.

Natya Samaroh by IPTA

Traditional food[]

The State of Chhattisgarh is known as the rice bowl of Central India and has a rich tradition of food culture.

Most of the traditional and tribal foods are made of rice and rice flour, curd and a variety of green leaves like lal bhaji, chech bhaji, kohda and bohar bhaji. Badi and Bijori are optional food categories; gulgula, pidiya, dhoodh fara, balooshahi, khurmi fall in sweet categories.

The tribal and village population enjoys delicacy brew made of small, creamy white fruit of a local tree called Mahuwa.

Red Velvet Mite is used as Medicine in Traditional Healing of Chhattisgarh


Chhattisgarh's gross state domestic product for 2010 is estimated at INR 60,079 crore in current prices. The economy of Chhattisgarh has grown rapidly in recent years with a growth rate of 11.49 per cent in GDP for 2009–2010.[35] Chhattisgarh’s success factors in achieving high growth rate are growth in agriculture and industrial production.


Agriculture is counted as the chief economic occupation of the state. According to a government estimate, net sown area of the state is 4.828 million hectares and the gross sown area is 5.788 million hectares.[36] Horticulture and animal husbandry also engage a major share of the total population of the state.[37] About 80% of the population of the state is rural and the main livelihood of the villagers is agriculture and agriculture-based small industry.

The majority of the farmers are still practicing the traditional methods of cultivation, resulting in low growth rates and productivity. The farmers have to be made aware of modern technologies suitable to their holdings. Providing adequate knowledge to the farmers is essential for better implementation of the agricultural development plans and to improve the productivity.[38]

Chloroxylon is used for Pest Management in Organic Rice Cultivation in Chhattisgarh, India

Considering this and a very limited irrigated area, the productivity of not only rice but also other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now.

Medicinal Rice of Chhattisgarh used as Immune Booster

Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Aloe vera

Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Gulbakawali

Herbal Farming in Chhattisgarh: Safed Musli with Arhar

Agricultural products[]

The main crops are rice, maize, kodo-kutki and other small millets and pulses (tuar and kulthi); oilseeds, such as groundnuts (peanuts), soybeans and sunflowers, are also grown. In the mid-1990s, most of Chhattisgarh was still a monocrop belt. Only one-fourth to one-fifth of the sown area was double-cropped. When a very substantial portion of the population is dependent on agriculture, a situation where nearly 80% of a state's area is covered only by one crop, immediate attention to turn them into double crop areas is needed. Also, very few cash crops are grown in Chhattisgarh, so there is a need to diversify the agriculture produce towards oilseeds and other cash crops. Chhattisgarh is also called the "rice bowl of central India".[36]

Kodo Millet is used as Life Saving Medicine in Chhattisgarh, India

Bastar Beer prepared from Sulfi


In Chhattisgarh, rice, the main crop, is grown on about 77% of the net sown area. Only about 20% of the area is under irrigation; the rest depends on rain. Of the three agroclimatic zones, about 73% of the Chhattisgarh plains, 97% of the Bastar plateau and 95% of the northern hills are rainfed. The irrigated area available for double cropping is only 87,000 ha in Chhattisgarh plains and 2300 ha in Bastar plateau and northern hills. Due to this, the productivity of rice and other crops is low, hence the farmers are unable to obtain economic benefits from agriculture and it has remained as subsistence agriculture till now, though agriculture is the main occupation of more than 80% of the population.[38]

In Chhattisgarh region about 22% of net cropped area was under irrigation as compared to 36.5% in Madhya Pradesh in 1998-99, whereas the average national irrigation was about 40%. The irrigation is characterized by a high order of variability ranging from 1.6% in Bastar to 75.0% in Dhamtari. Based on an average growth trend in irrigated area, about 0.43% additional area is brought under irrigation every year as compared to 1.89% in Madhya Pradesh and 1.0% in the country as a whole. Thus, irrigation has been growing at a very low rate in Chhattisgarh and the pace of irrigation is so slow, it would take about 122 years to reach the 75% level of net irrigated area in Chhattisgarh at the present rate of growth.[38]

Chhattisgarh has a limited irrigation system, with dams and canals on some rivers. Average rainfall in the state is around 1400 mm and the entire state falls under the rice agroclimatic zone. Large variation in the yearly rainfall directly affects the production of rice. Irrigation is the prime need of the state for its overall development and therefore the state government has given top priority to development of irrigation.[36]

A total of four major, 33 medium and 2199 minor irrigation projects have been completed and five major, 9 medium and 312 minor projects are under construction, as of 31 March 2006.

Industrial sector[]

Power sector[]

Chhattisgarh is one of the few states of India where the power sector is effectively developed. Based on the current production of surplus electric power, the position of the State is comfortable and profitable. The Chhattisgarh State Electricity Board (CSEB) is in a strong position to meet the electricity requirement of the new state and is in good financial health. Chhattisgarh provides electricity to several other states because of surplus production and its power hubs are Korba and Bilaspur.

In Chhattisgarh, NTPC has a thermal plant with the capacity of 2100 MW at Sipat, Bilaspur, while CSEB's units have a thermal capacity of 1240 MW and hydel capacity of 130 MW. Apart from NTPC and CSEB, there are a number of private generation units of large and small capacity. The state government has pursued a liberal policy with regard to captive generation which has resulted in a number of private players coming up.[39]

As per a study made by the Power Finance Corporation Ltd., New Delhi, the state has potential of 61000 MW of additional thermal power in terms of availability of coal for more than 100 years and more than 2500 MW hydel capacity. To use this vast potential, substantial additions to the existing generation capacity are already under way.[39]

Steel sector[]

The steel industry is one of the biggest heavy industries of Chhattisgarh. Bhilai Steel Plant, Bhilai operated by SAIL, with a capacity of 5.4 million tonnes per year, is regarded as a significant growth indicator of the state. More than 100 steel rolling mills, 90 sponge iron plants and ferro-alloy units are in Chhattisgarh. Along with Bhilai, today Raipur, Bilaspur, Korba and Raigarh have become the steel hub of Chhattisgarh. Today, Raipur has become the center of the steel sector, the biggest market for steel in India.[40]

Aluminium sector[]

The aluminium industry of Chhattisgarh was established by Bharat Aluminum Company Limited, which has a capacity of around one million tonnes each year.[40]

Natural resources[]


Forests occupy 41.33% of the total area (as per the latest report by the Indian Forest Service) and the rich forest resources include wood, tendu leaves, honey and lac.

Flora of Kabirdham District

Indian Luna Moth in Chhattisgarh Forest

Ventilago in Biodiversity Rich Chhattisgarh Forest


Tendu Patta (Leaf) Collection

Mineral deposits[]

Chhattisgarh is rich in minerals. It produces 20% of the country's total cement produce. It ranks first in the nation for coal production and second in reserves, third in iron ore production and first in tin production. Limestone, dolomite and bauxite are abundant. It is the only tin-ore producing state in the country. Other minerals include corandum, garnet, quartz, marble, alexandrite and diamonds.

Maikal Hills in Chhattisgarh

Mineral Wealth from Chandidongri, Chhattisgarh

Information and technologies[]

In recent years, Chhattisgarh is also getting exposure in information technologty (IT) projects and consultancy. Its government is also promoting IT and has set up a body to take care of the IT solutions. The body, known as CHIPS, is providing large IT projects such as Choice, Swan, etc.

Major companies[]

Major companies with a presence in the state include:


Chhattisgarh’s total exports were US$ 353.3 million in 2009-10. Nearly 75 per cent of exports comes from Bhilai and the remaining from Urla, Bhanpuri and Sirgitti. The major exports products include steel, handicrafts, handlooms, blended yarn, food and agri-products, iron, aluminium, cement, minerals and engineering products. CSIDC (Chhattisgarh State Industrial Development Corporation Limited) is the nodal agency of the Government of Chhattisgarh for export promotion in the state.

Issues with development and insurgency[]

It is one of the Red Corridor states.

Chhattisgarh state is rich in timber and mineral resources. There are disagreements between indigenous peoples and the national government over the use of these resources.

Also, an ongoing insurgency between Maoists and the central Government of India has resulted in much bloodshed. The controversy surrounding the arrest of Dr Binayak Sen is related to the insurgency. Maoist insurgency has been main source of instability.

Maoist rebels[]

The rebels abducted Alex Paul Menon after killing his two guards in Sukma district on 21 April 2012

Mr Menon was holding a meeting with local tribal people when the incident happened. Maoist rebels have a strong presence in Chhattisgarh and neighbouring Orissa. The rebels have said their demands of releasing some of the their top cadres from prison and withdrawing security forces from the restive Bastar region of Chhattisgarh will have to be met by Wednesday in exchange for Mr Menon.

In a pre-recorded statement issued to the BBC, Vijay, identified as secretary of the South Bastar divisional committee of the CPI (Maoist), alleged that excesses were being committed against tribal people by security forces in the name of counter insurgency operations.

Mr. Menon, an officer of the Indian Administrative Service, is the senior-most official - district magistrate - of Sukma district, which is located in the Bastar region.


Authorities said Mr Menon had gone to Manjhipara village to attend a meeting of local tribal villagers when Maoist insurgents surrounded the area and opened fire.

District official, SP Vaidya, who was present at the spot, told the BBC by telephone that even as Mr. Menon was interacting with the villagers, the insurgents first targeted his bodyguard.

"Then they asked who the district magistrate was. Mr. Menon came forward and told them that he was the person they were looking for. Later, they forced him to accompany them into the deep woods," Mr. Vaidya said.

Mr. Menon's wife Asha Menon has appealed to the rebels to release her husband on "humanitarian grounds".

She told the BBC that Mr. Menon was suffering from asthma and needed medical care.

Saturday's incident came barely 24 hours after another district magistrate and a local legislator came under attack by rebels who triggered off a powerful landmine blast in nearby Bijapur.

While district magistrate Rajat Kumar and politician Mahesh Ghaghra escaped unhurt, a vehicle behind them was ripped apart by the blast.

Two leaders of the ruling Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) in the state were killed in the incident.

In neighbouring Orissa state, legislator Jhina Hikaka, who was seized on 23 March by another group of Maoists, remains in custody.

Earlier this month Italian hostage Paolo Bosusco was freed by rebels in Orissa after nearly a month in captivity.

Mr. Bosusco, 54, was abducted on 14 March, along with fellow Italian Claudio Colangelo, 61, while trekking in a tribal area of Orissa state. Mr. Colangelo was released on 25 March.


Chhattisgarh, situated in the heart of India, is endowed with a rich cultural heritage and attractive natural diversity. The state is full of ancient monuments, rare wildlife, exquisitely carved temples, Buddhist sites, palaces, water falls, caves, rock paintings and hill plateaus. Most of these sites are untouched and unexplored and offer a unique and alternate experience to tourists, compared to traditional destinations which have become overcrowded. For tourists who are tired of the crowds at major destinations will like the Bastar district, with its unique cultural and ecological identity. The green state of Chhattisgarh has 41.33% of its area under forests and is one of the richest bio-diversity areas in the country.

Panoramic view of Chitrakot Falls, Jagdalpur
Panoramic view of Chitrakot Falls, Jagdalpur


Beautiful waterfalls in Chhattisgarh are Akuri Nala and Amrit Dhara waterfalls, Gavar Ghat waterfall, Ramdaha waterfall in Koriya district, Tiger point waterfall at Mainpat in Sarguja district and Chitrakot and Tirathgarh waterfalls in Bastar district.

Hot spring[]

Known as Taat Pani, (taat means hot, pani means water) the hot spring flows in Sarguja district. This hot spring flows throughout the year. It is reputed to have medicinal properties.


Gadiya mountain in Kanker district, Kutumsar cave and Kailash Gufa in Bastar district, Ramgarh and Sita Bengra in Sarguja district and Singhanpur cave in Raigarh district with pre-historic paintings are very famous.

National parks and wildlife sanctuary[]

Achanakmar Wildlife Sanctuary in Bilaspur district, Gamarda Reserve forest at Sarangarh in Raigarh district, Indravati National Park and Kanger valley national park in Bastar district and Barnawapara Wildlife Sanctuary in Mahasamund district are good places for eco-tourism.

Archaeological sites[]

Archaeological sites worth seeing are Barsoor in Dantewada district, Malhar and Ratanpur in Bilaspur district, Sirpur in Mahasamund district and Surguja in Surguja district. A small picnic spot with waterfall on the extremity of Satpura ranga along with a stone inscription of c. 1st century CE is found at Damau dhara in Janjgir-Champa district.


Famous and ancient temples in Chhattisgarh are Bhoramdeo temple near Kawardha in Kabirdham district, Rajivlochan temple at Rajim and Champaran in Raipur district, Chandrahasini Devi temple at Chandrapur, Vishnu temple at Janjgir, Damudhara (Rishab Tirth) and Sivarinarayana Laxminarayana temple in Janjgir-Champa district, Bambleshwari Temple at Dongargarh in Rajnandgaon district, Danteshwari Temple in Dantewada district, Deorani-Jethani temple at Tala gram and Mahamaya temple at Ratanpur in Bilaspur district, Laxman temple at Sirpur in Mahasamund district, Uwasaggaharam Parshwa Teerth at Nagpura in Durg district, Pali with Lord Shiva temple and Kharod with Lakshmaneswar temple.

Giraudhpuri is a religious place for the Satnamis. They are the followers of Satnam Panth.

Sirpur is proposed world heritage site and Malhar are of historical significance, as they were visited by Xuanzang, the Chinese historian.


Hasdev Bango Dam (105 km from Bilaspur), Khudiya Dam, Lormi and Khutaghat Dam, Ratanpur and Gangrel Dam, Dhamtari are some dams which are found in Chhattisgarh.


According to the census of 2011, Chhattisgarh's literacy, the most basic indicator of education was at 71.04 percent. Female literacy is at 60.59 percent.

Absolute literates and literacy rate[]

Data from Census of India,2011.[42]

Description 2001 Census 2011 Census
Total 1,11,73,149 1,55,98,314
Male 67,11,395 89,62,121
Female 44,61,754 66,36,193
% Total 64.66 71.04
% Male 77.38 81.45
% Female 55.85 60.59

% Chatinaya || 0.85 || 99.59


Bastar Vishwavidyalaya, is one of the new universities erected at the same time as Sarguja university. Bastar University is bifurcated from Pt. Ravishankar Shukla University, Raipur.

Premier institutes in Chattisgarh[]

There are four premier Professional Institutes in the state of Chattisgarh.

Indian Institute of Management Raipur (IIM RP)[]

The Indian Institute of Management Raipur,(Hindi: भारतीय प्रबंध संस्थान, रायपुर ) is a Premium Business School in the state of Chhattisgarh. It is the tenth Indian Institute of Management in the country.[43] The first batch of Post Graduate Programme of the institute was inaugurated by Dr Raman Singh, Chief Minister of Chhattisgarh on October 11, 2010.

National Institute of Technology[]

National Institute of Technology, Raipur is an important technical university located in Raipur, Chhattisgarh. Originally founded in 1956 as Govt. College of Mining & Metallurgy, this institute is one of the oldest of its kind in India. Currently it is one of the 20 National Institutes of Technology, which have been accorded Institute of National Importance status by the NIT Act of the Indian Government.

The institute offers 2 undergraduate (B.Tech. and B.Arch.) and 2 post graduate programmes M.Tech. and M.C.A. in 11 engineering disciplines and architecture.

All India Institute of Medical Science[]

Raipur is all set to get a new All India Institute of Medical Sciences in next two years. It will be a huge leap in availability of top notch medical education and remarkable milestone in the availability of health services in Chhattisgarh.[44]

Hidayatullah National Law University[]

It is one of the national law schools established in India. It was established by the Government of Chhattisgarh under the Hidayatullah National University of Law, Chattisgarh, Act (Act No.10 of 2003). HNLU being one of the centres for legal education in India offers opportunities for the students to interact with academicians, lawyers, Judges, firms, banking and other related institutions. The University offers B.A. L.L.B. (Hons.). L.L.M. and Ph. D. degrees. It is a residential University and is sixth in the series of National Law Schools in India.

Other universities[]

Guru Ghasidas Central University[]

Formally known as Guru Ghasidas Vishwavidyalaya, is a Central University located in Bilaspur, established under Central Universities Act 2009, No. 25 of 2009. Formerly called Guru Ghasidas University(GGU), established by an Act of the State Legislative Assembly, was formally inaugurated on June 16, 1983. It covers almost the entire spectrum of the higher education requirements of the local people. It has several University Teaching Department (UTDs) on its campuses and about 125 colleges affiliated to it.[45]

Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University[]

Pandit Ravishankar Shukla University(RSU) is Chhattisgarh's largest and one of the oldest institution of higher education, founded in 1964. There are 5000 students enrolled for variety of courses offered by the departments who are steered under the guidance of more than 100 faculty members. Jurisdiction of RSU covers entire central and southern part of Chhattisgarh. There are 180 educational institutions affiliated to the University. The University plays a major role in the educational, cultural and economic life of the region.[46]

Pandit Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur[]

Pandit Sundarlal Sharma (Open) University (PSSOU) Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur, was established by the Chhattisgarh legislature and was granted the assent of the state's governor on 20 January 2005. Dr. T.D. Sharma joined this university as the first Vice-Chancellor on 2 March 2005, while Dr. Sharad Kumar Vajpai took office as Registrar on 15 March 2005.[47]

Sarguja University[]

Sarguja Vishwavidyalaya was established and incorporated by Chhattisgarh Vishwavidyalaya Adhiniyam No. 18 of 2008. The territorial jurisdiction of the University is the entire Sarguja division comprising the revenue districts of Koriya, Sarguja, and Jaspur. It started functioning from September 2, 2008. In 2005, the Guru Ghasidas University in Bilaspur started a branch campus in Ambikapur by permission of the State Higher Education Department, with two diploma courses: Pharmacy (30 students) and Post Graduate Computer Application (30 students). It was hoped that the branch could be upgraded to a university by the Government as soon as necessary infrastructures were developed. This came true in 2008: the state government allotted 220 acres of land near Ambikapur Ramanujganj Road just 10 kilometers away from Ambikapur town. Sarguja is a fast growing industrial area, having a large number of small industrial units. The jurisdiction is the nerve centre of business, especially coal, forestry, and natural resources, including medicinal trees.

The region has a very rich historical and cultural heritage. The first effort of Open Theatre was made in Ramgarh. Relics and old temples with statues and building built-up by various dynasties are found in surrounding areas. The whole division is full of natural beauty, flora and fauna, tribal and folk culture. The university is situated in a tribally enriched, socially and economically challenged area of Chhattisgarh State. At present the university is partially residential and fully one, having its jurisdiction spread over the Sarguja revenue division. At present the university has 42 affiliated colleges offering various courses in arts, science, commerce, education, law, management, and social science. Ambikapur town is a Municipal Corporation and is well connected with all parts of the country by road and rail also. Recently this town is connected with Durg, Raipur, Bilaspur and Anuppur of SECR. The railway station is 4 km away from town. Frequent local transport is available for reaching the university. The nearest railway zone and main railway is Bilaspur in SECR, 235 km away. Raipur, the capital of Chhattishgarh is 350 km away which is the nearest airport.[48]

Dr. C. V. Raman University[]

Dr. C.V. Raman University was inaugurated on October 14, 2007 by Hon. Shri Suresh Pachouri (Minister of State for Personnel and Parliamentary Affairs, Government of India), in the presence of Senior Ministers of GoCG - Shri Amar Agarwal (Minister of Commerce) and Dr. Krishnamurti Bandhi (Minister of Higher Education), Shri Santosh Kumar Choubey (Chancellor), Dr. A.S. Zadgaonkar (Vice Chancellor) along with other Members of the Parliament and MLAs of various constituencies. The Dr. C.V. Raman University, Chhattisgarh is a premium University that maintains a unique pedagogy and innovative teaching methodology. The cool serene ambience of the campus provides an ideal academic environment for the students, away from the concrete jungle of the city.

Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University[]

Chhattisgarh Swami Vivekanand Technical University (CSVTU) is a public university located in the city of Bhilai. The university was established on 21 January 2005. The University incorporates the purpose of ensuring systematic, efficient and qualitative education in engineering and technological subjects including Architecture and Pharmacy at Research at Postgraduate, Degree and Diploma level.

Media & communications[]

  • Print media: Times of India, Hindustan Times, The Statesman, Dainik Bhaskar, Nai Dunia, Patrika etc.


  • Airtel, Aircell, BSNL, Idea Cellular, Reliance Mobile, Tata Docomo, Vodafone etc.


  • Airtel digital TV, Dish TV, Reliance Digital TV, TATA Sky.


  • All India Radio

See also[]

Terrestrial globe.svg Geography


  1. ^ "Chhatisgarh State – Power Hub". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "Chhattisgarh -Steel". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c "Origin of Name of Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  4. ^ Dr. Bhagvan Singh Verma, Chhattisgarh ka Itihas (A History of Chattisgarh – in Hindi), Madhya Pradesh Hindi Granth Academy, Bhopal (M.P.), 4th edition (2003), p.7
  5. ^ "J.B.Beglar's Views". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  6. ^ Pragati Infosoft Pvt. Ltd.. "Chhattisgarh Climate, Climate of Chhattisgarh, Chhattisgarh Temperature, Temperature of Chhattisgarh". Retrieved 29 August 2011. 
  7. ^ Welcome to NHAI
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  12. ^ "Chhattisgarh carves out nine more districts". The Times Of India. 1 January 2012. 
  13. ^ "Electoral rolls". Office of the Chief Electoral Officer, Chhatisgarh. 
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  15. ^ List of Chhattisgarh District Centres at NIC, Chhatisgarh official Portal
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  21. ^ "NCW Report, page 4". National Commission of Women, Government of India. Retrieved 22 August 2010. 
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  23. ^ "Chhattisgarh, At a glance". Census 2011, Ministry of Home Affair, India. Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
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  25. ^ "Dark Spell". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  26. ^ a b c "India: Protective Laws Fall Short for Women Charged with Witchcraft". Retrieved 22 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "Panthi Dance". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
  28. ^ "Pandawani". Retrieved 27 July 2011. 
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  47. ^ Pt. sundarlal sharma (Open) University Chhattisgarh, Bilaspur
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  • Books on Chhattisgarh
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की जनजातियाँ Tribes और जातियाँ Castes (मानसी पब्लीकेशन,दिल्ली 6, ISBN 978-81-89559-32-8)
    • ड़ा.संजय अलंग-छत्तीसगढ़ की पूर्व रियासतें और जमीन्दारियाँ (वैभव प्रकाशन,रायपुर 1, ISBN 81-89244-96-5)
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "सन्दर्भ छत्तीसगढ़"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "छत्तीसगढ़ के तीर्थ और पर्यटन स्थल"
    • Deshbandhu Publication Division, "Chhattisgarh: Beautiful & Bountiful (Study in Biodiversity of Chhattisgarh)"
    • Ramesh Dewangan & Sunil Tuteja, "Chhattisgarh Samagra"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Shabadkosh" ....
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Manak Chhattisgarhi Vyakaran"
    • C.K. Chandrakar, "Chhattisgarhi Muhawara Kosh"
    • Lawrence Babb, "The Divine Hierarchy: Popular Hinduism in Central India"
    • Saurabh Dube, "Untouchable Pasts: Religion, Identity and Power among a Central Indian Community, 1780–1950" (on the Satnamis)
    • Ramdas Lamb, "Rapt in the Name: Ramnamis, Ramnam and Untouchable Religion in Central India"
    • Chad Bauman, "Identifying the Satnam: Hindu Satnamis, Indian Christians and Dalit Religion in Colonial Chhattisgarh, India (1868–1947) (Ph. D. dissertation, Princeton Theological Seminary, 2005)
  • Books by Indologist Prof H. L. Shukla:
  • Folktales of Chhattisgarh
  • "Tribal History of Central India" by R.K. Sharma and S.K. Tiwari, Other link

External links[]

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