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Christianity (from the Ancient Greek: Χριστιανός Christianos and the Latin suffix -itas) is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus as presented in canonical gospels and other New Testament writings. It also considers the Hebrew Bible, which is known as the Old Testament, to be canonical. Adherents of the Christian faith are known as Christians.
The mainstream Christian belief is that Jesus is the Son of God, fully divine and fully human and the savior of humanity. Because of this, Christians commonly refer to Jesus as Christ or Messiah. Jesus' ministry, sacrificial death, and subsequent resurrection are often referred to as the Gospel, meaning "Good News" (from the Greek: εὐαγγέλιον euangélion). In short, the Gospel is news of God the Father's eternal victory over evil, and the promise of salvation and eternal life for all people, through divine grace.
Worldwide, the three largest groups of Christianity are the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, and the various denominations of Protestantism. The Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox patriarchates split from one another in the East–West Schism of 1054 AD, and Protestantism came into existence during the Protestant Reformation of the 16th century, splitting from the Roman Catholic Church.
Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the mid-1st century. Originating in the Levant region of the Middle East (modern Israel and Palestine), it quickly spread to Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor and Egypt. It grew in size and influence over a few centuries, and by the end of the 4th century had become the official state church of the Roman Empire, replacing other forms of religion practiced under Roman rule. During the Middle Ages, most of the remainder of Europe was Christianized, with Christians also being a sometimes large religious minority in the Middle East, North Africa, Ethiopia and parts of India. Following the Age of Discovery, through missionary work and colonization, Christianity spread to the Americas, Australasia, sub-Saharan Africa, and the rest of the world.
Christians believe that Jesus is the Messiah prophesied in the Hebrew Bible. The foundation of Christian theology is expressed in the early Christian ecumenical creeds which contain claims predominantly accepted by followers of the Christian faith. These professions state that Jesus suffered, died, was buried, and was resurrected from the dead in order to grant eternal life to those who believe in him and trust him for the remission of their sins (salvation). They further maintain that Jesus bodily ascended into heaven where he rules and reigns with God the Father. Most denominations teach that Jesus will return to judge all humans, living and dead, and grant eternal life to his followers. He is considered the model of a virtuous life, and both the revealer and physical incarnation of God.
As of the early 21st century, Christianity has approximately 2.2 billion adherents. Christianity represents about a third of the world's population and is the world's largest religion. Christianity is the state religion of several countries. Among all Christians, 37.5% live in the Americas, 25.7% live in Europe, 22.5% live in Africa, 13.1% live in Asia, 1.2% live in Oceania and 0.9% live in the Middle East. Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of sub-Saharan African and Western civilization.
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Though there are many important differences of interpretation and opinion of the Bible on which Christianity is based, Christians share a set of beliefs that they hold as essential to their faith.
Creeds (from Latin credo meaning "I believe") are concise doctrinal statements or confessions, usually of religious beliefs. They began as baptismal formulae and were later expanded during the Christological controversies of the 4th and 5th centuries to become statements of faith.
Many evangelical Protestants reject creeds as definitive statements of faith, even while agreeing with some or all of the substance of the creeds. The Baptists have been non-creedal “in that they have not sought to establish binding authoritative confessions of faith on one another.”:p.111 Also rejecting creeds are groups with roots in the Restoration Movement, such as the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), the Evangelical Christian Church in Canada and the Churches of Christ.:14-15:123
The Apostles' Creed remains the most popular statement of the articles of Christian faith that are generally acceptable to most Christian denominations that are creedal. It is widely used by a number of Christian denominations for both liturgical and catechetical purposes, most visibly by liturgical Churches of Western Christian tradition, including the Latin Rite of the Catholic Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, and Western Orthodoxy. It is also used by Presbyterians, Methodists, and Congregationalists. This particular creed was developed between the 2nd and 9th centuries. Its central doctrines are those of the Trinity and God the Creator. Each of the doctrines found in this creed can be traced to statements current in the apostolic period. The creed was apparently used as a summary of Christian doctrine for baptismal candidates in the churches of Rome.
Its main points:
- belief in God the Father, Jesus Christ as the Son of God and the Holy Spirit
- the death, descent into hell, resurrection, and ascension of Christ
- the holiness of the Church and the communion of saints
- Christ's second coming, the Day of Judgment and salvation of the faithful.
The Nicene Creed, largely a response to Arianism, was formulated at the Councils of Nicaea and Constantinople in 325 and 381 respectively and ratified as the universal creed of Christendom by the First Council of Ephesus in 431.
The Chalcedonian Creed, developed at the Council of Chalcedon in 451, though rejected by the Oriental Orthodox Churches, taught Christ "to be acknowledged in two natures, inconfusedly, unchangeably, indivisibly, inseparably": one divine and one human, and that both natures are perfect but are nevertheless perfectly united into one person.
The Athanasian Creed, received in the Western Church as having the same status as the Nicene and Chalcedonian, says: "We worship one God in Trinity, and Trinity in Unity; neither confounding the Persons nor dividing the Substance."
The Ten Commandments, are a set of biblical principles relating to ethics and worship, which play a fundamental role in Judaism and most forms of Christianity. They include instructions to worship only God and to keep the Sabbath, and prohibitions against idolatry, blasphemy, murder, theft, and adultery. Different groups follow slightly different traditions for interpreting and numbering them. According to the synoptic gospels, Christ generalised the law into two underlying principles; The first is Hear, O Israel: The Lord our God, the Lord is one; and you shall love the Lord your God with all your heart, and with all your soul, and with all your mind, and with all your strength. While the second is You shall love your neighbor as yourself.[Matthew 22:34-40][Mark 12:28-33] These are in fact quotes from Deuteronomy 6:4 and Leviticus 19:18. Barnes' Notes on the New Testament comments on these verses saying: "These comprehend the substance of what Moses in the law, and what the prophets have spoken. What they have said has been to endeavour (sic) to win men to the love of God and each other. Love to God and man comprehends the whole [of] religion; and to produce this has been the design of Moses, the prophets, the Saviour, and the apostles."
The central tenet of Christianity is the belief in Jesus as the Son of God and the Messiah (Christ). The title "Messiah" comes from the Hebrew word מָשִׁיחַ (māšiáħ) meaning anointed one. The Greek translation Χριστός (Christos) is the source of the English word "Christ".
Christians believe that Jesus, as the Messiah, was anointed by God as savior of humanity, and hold that Jesus' coming was the fulfillment of messianic prophecies of the Old Testament. The Christian concept of the Messiah differs significantly from the contemporary Jewish concept. The core Christian belief is that through belief in and acceptance of the death and resurrection of Jesus, sinful humans can be reconciled to God and thereby are offered salvation and the promise of eternal life.
While there have been many theological disputes over the nature of Jesus over the earliest centuries of Christian history, Christians generally believe that Jesus is God incarnate and "true God and true man" (or both fully divine and fully human). Jesus, having become fully human, suffered the pains and temptations of a mortal man, but did not sin. As fully God, he rose to life again. According to the Bible, "God raised him from the dead", he ascended to heaven, is "seated at the right hand of the Father" and will ultimately return[Acts 1:9–11] to fulfill the rest of Messianic prophecy such as the Resurrection of the dead, the Last Judgment and final establishment of the Kingdom of God.
According to the Gospels of Matthew and Luke, Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit and born from the Virgin Mary. Little of Jesus' childhood is recorded in the canonical Gospels, however infancy Gospels were popular in antiquity. In comparison, his adulthood, especially the week before his death, is well documented in the Gospels contained within the New Testament. The Biblical accounts of Jesus' ministry include: his baptism, miracles, preaching, teaching, and deeds.
Death and resurrection of Jesus
Christians consider the resurrection of Jesus to be the cornerstone of their faith (see 1 Corinthians 15) and the most important event in human history. Among Christian beliefs, the death and resurrection of Jesus are two core events on which much of Christian doctrine and theology is based. According to the New Testament Jesus was crucified, died a physical death, was buried within a tomb, and rose from the dead three days later.[Jn. 19:30–31] [Mk. 16:1] Template:Bibleref2c-nb The New Testament mentions several resurrection appearances of Jesus on different occasions to his twelve apostles and disciples, including "more than five hundred brethren at once",[1Cor 15:6] before Jesus' Ascension to heaven. Jesus' death and resurrection are commemorated by Christians in all worship services, with special emphasis during Holy Week which includes Good Friday and Easter Sunday.
The death and resurrection of Jesus are usually considered the most important events in Christian Theology, partly because they demonstrate that Jesus has power over life and death and therefore has the authority and power to give people eternal life.
Christian churches accept and teach the New Testament account of the resurrection of Jesus with very few exceptions. Some modern scholars use the belief of Jesus' followers in the resurrection as a point of departure for establishing the continuity of the historical Jesus and the proclamation of the early church. Some liberal Christians do not accept a literal bodily resurrection, seeing the story as richly symbolic and spiritually nourishing myth. Arguments over death and resurrection claims occur at many religious debates and interfaith dialogues. Paul the Apostle, an early Christian convert and missionary, wrote, "If Christ was not raised, then all our preaching is useless, and your trust in God is useless."[1Cor 15:14] 
Paul of Tarsus, like Jews and Roman pagans of his time, believed that sacrifice can bring about new kinship ties, purity, and eternal life. For Paul the necessary sacrifice was the death of Jesus: Gentiles who are "Christ's" are, like Israel, descendants of Abraham and "heirs according to the promise".[Gal. 3:29]  The God who raised Jesus from the dead would also give new life to the "mortal bodies" of Gentile Christians, who had become with Israel the "children of God" and were therefore no longer "in the flesh".[Rom. 8:9,11,16] 
Modern Christian churches tend to be much more concerned with how humanity can be saved from a universal condition of sin and death than the question of how both Jews and Gentiles can be in God's family. According to both Catholic and Protestant doctrine, salvation comes by Jesus' substitutionary death and resurrection. The Catholic Church teaches that salvation does not occur without faithfulness on the part of Christians; converts must live in accordance with principles of love and ordinarily must be baptized. Martin Luther taught that baptism was necessary for salvation, but modern Lutherans and other Protestants tend to teach that salvation is a gift that comes to an individual by God's grace, sometimes defined as "unmerited favor", even apart from baptism.
Christians differ in their views on the extent to which individuals' salvation is pre-ordained by God. Reformed theology places distinctive emphasis on grace by teaching that individuals are completely incapable of self-redemption, but that sanctifying grace is irresistible. In contrast Catholics, Orthodox Christians and Arminian Protestants believe that the exercise of free will is necessary to have faith in Jesus.
Trinity refers to the teaching that the one God comprises three distinct, eternally co-existing persons; the Father, the Son (incarnate in Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. Together, these three persons are sometimes called the Godhead, although there is no single term in use in Scripture to denote the unified Godhead. In the words of the Athanasian Creed, an early statement of Christian belief, "the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God, and yet there are not three Gods but one God". They are distinct from another: the Father has no source, the Son is begotten of the Father, and the Spirit proceeds from the Father. Though distinct, the three persons cannot be divided from one another in being or in operation.
The Trinity is an essential doctrine of mainstream Christianity. "Father, Son and Holy Spirit" represents both the immanence and transcendence of God. God is believed to be infinite and God's presence may be perceived through the actions of Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit.
According to this doctrine, God is not divided in the sense that each person has a third of the whole; rather, each person is considered to be fully God (see Perichoresis). The distinction lies in their relations, the Father being unbegotten; the Son being begotten of the Father; and the Holy Spirit proceeding from the Father and (in Western Christian theology) from the Son. Regardless of this apparent difference, the three 'persons' are each eternal and omnipotent.
The word trias, from which trinity is derived, is first seen in the works of Theophilus of Antioch. He wrote of "the Trinity of God (the Father), His Word (the Son) and His Wisdom (Holy Spirit)". The term may have been in use before this time. Afterwards it appears in Tertullian. In the following century the word was in general use. It is found in many passages of Origen.
Trinitarianism denotes those Christians who believe in the concept of the Trinity. Almost all Christian denominations and Churches hold Trinitarian beliefs. Although the words "Trinity" and "Triune" do not appear in the Bible, theologians beginning in the 3rd century developed the term and concept to facilitate comprehension of the New Testament teachings of God as Father, God as Jesus the Son, and God as the Holy Spirit. Since that time, Christian theologians have been careful to emphasize that Trinity does not imply three gods, nor that each member of the Trinity is one-third of an infinite God; Trinity is defined as one God in three Persons.
Nontrinitarianism refers to beliefs systems that reject the doctrine of the Trinity. They are a small minority of Christians. Various nontrinitarian views, such as adoptionism or modalism, existed in early Christianity, leading to the disputes about Christology. Nontrinitarianism later appeared again in the Gnosticism of the Cathars in the 11th through 13th centuries, in the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century, and in some groups arising during the Second Great Awakening of the 19th century.
Christianity, like other religions, has adherents whose beliefs and biblical interpretations vary. Christianity regards the Biblical canon, the Old Testament and New Testament, as the inspired word of God. The traditional view of inspiration is that God worked through human authors so that, what they produced was what God wished to communicate. The Greek word referring to inspiration in 2 Timothy 3:16 is Theopneustos, which literally means "God-breathed". Some believe that divine inspiration makes our present Bibles "inerrant". Others claim inerrancy for the Bible in its original manuscripts, though none of those are extant. Still others maintain that only a particular translation is inerrant, such as the King James Version. Another view closely related is Biblical infallibility or Limited inerrancy, which affirms that the Bible is free of error as a guide to salvation, but may include errors on matters such as history, geography, or science.
The Books of the Bible, considered to be inspired, among Judaism, and the Catholic, Orthodox and Protestant churches vary, thus each define the canon differently, although there is substantial overlap. These variations are a reflection of the range of traditions and councils that have convened on the subject. Every version of the Bible always includes books of the Tanakh, the canon of the Hebrew Bible. This makes up what Christians regard as the Old Testament. The Catholic and Orthodox canons, in addition to the Tanakh, also include the Deuterocanonical Books, as part of the Old Testament. These Books appear in the Septuagint, but are regarded by Protestants to be apocryphal. However, they are considered to be important historical documents which help to inform the understanding of words, grammar and syntax used in the historical period of their conception. Some versions of the Bible include a separate Apocrypha section between the Old Testament and the New Testament. The New Testament, originally written in Koine Greek, contains 27 books which are agreed upon by all churches.
Modern scholarship has raised many issues with the Bible. While the Authorized King James Version is held to by many because of its striking english prose, in fact it was translated from the Erasmus Greek Bible which in turn "was based on a single 12th Century manuscript that is one of the worst manuscripts we have available to us". Much scholarship in the past several hundred years has gone into comparing different manuscripts in order to reconstruct the original text. Another issue is that several books are considered to be forgeries. The injunction that women "be silent and submissive" in 1 Timothy 12 is thought by many to be a forgery by a follower of Paul, a similar phrase in 1 Corinthians 14, which is thought to be by Paul, appears in different places in different manuscripts and is thought to originally be a margin note by a copyist. Other verses in 1 Corinthians contradict this verse such as 1 Corinthians 11:2-16 where women are instructed to wear a covering over their hair "when they pray or prophesies". Clearly when they are not silent! A final issue with the Bible is the selection of which books were included in the New Testament. Other texts have been recovered, such as the Gnostic Gospels of Nag Hammadi. While some of these texts are quite different to what modern Christians are used to, it should be understood that they existed simultaneously in early Christianity with those later selected as canon. The Gospel of Thomas contains much that is familiar with existing Gospels, while it has a gnostic twist so that rather than being completely different there is an element of overlap. The Gospel of John, described as the "gnostic Gospel", is believed to have been a response to the Gospel of Thomas which makes it closer to the original events. And while the Gospel of Thomas verse 113 states: "the Father's kingdom is spread out upon the earth, and people don't see it" the same verse can be found in Luke 17:20-21.
Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox interpretations
In antiquity, two schools of exegesis developed in Alexandria and Antioch. Alexandrine interpretation, exemplified by Origen, tended to read Scripture allegorically, while Antiochene interpretation adhered to the literal sense, holding that other meanings (called theoria) could only be accepted if based on the literal meaning.
The literal sense of understanding scripture is the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture. The spiritual sense is further subdivided into:
- the allegorical sense, which includes typology. An example would be the parting of the Red Sea being understood as a "type" (sign) of baptism.[1Cor 10:2]
- the moral sense, which understands the scripture to contain some ethical teaching.
- the anagogical sense, which applies to eschatology, eternity and the consummation of the world
Regarding exegesis, following the rules of sound interpretation, Catholic theology holds:
- the injunction that all other senses of sacred scripture are based on the literal
- that the historicity of the Gospels must be absolutely and constantly held
- that scripture must be read within the "living Tradition of the whole Church" and
- that "the task of interpretation has been entrusted to the bishops in communion with the successor of Peter, the Bishop of Rome".
- Clarity of Scripture
- Protestant Christians believe that the Bible is a self-sufficient revelation, the final authority on all Christian doctrine, and revealed all truth necessary for salvation. This concept is known as sola scriptura. Protestants characteristically believe that ordinary believers may reach an adequate understanding of Scripture because Scripture itself is clear (or "perspicuous"), because of the help of the Holy Spirit, or both. Martin Luther believed that without God's help Scripture would be "enveloped in darkness". He advocated "one definite and simple understanding of Scripture". John Calvin wrote, "all who...follow the Holy Spirit as their guide, find in the Scripture a clear light." The Second Helvetic Confession, composed by the pastor of the Reformed church in Zurich (successor to Protestant reformer Zwingli) was adopted as a declaration of doctrine by most European Reformed churches.
- Original intended meaning of Scripture
- Protestants stress the meaning conveyed by the words of Scripture, the historical-grammatical method. The historical-grammatical method or grammatico-historical method is an effort in Biblical hermeneutics to find the intended original meaning in the text. This original intended meaning of the text is drawn out through examination of the passage in light of the grammatical and syntactical aspects, the historical background, the literary genre as well as theological (canonical) considerations. The historical-grammatical method distinguishes between the one original meaning and the significance of the text. The significance of the text includes the ensuing use of the text or application. The original passage is seen as having only a single meaning or sense. As Milton S. Terry said: "A fundamental principle in grammatico-historical exposition is that the words and sentences can have but one significance in one and the same connection. The moment we neglect this principle we drift out upon a sea of uncertainty and conjecture." Technically speaking, the grammatical-historical method of interpretation is distinct from the determination of the passage's significance in light of that interpretation. Taken together, both define the term (Biblical) hermeneutics.
Some Protestant interpreters make use of typology.
The end of things, whether the end of an individual life, the end of the age, or the end of the world, broadly speaking is Christian eschatology; the study of the destiny of humans as it is revealed in the Bible. The major issues in Christian eschatology are the Tribulation, death and the afterlife, the Rapture, the Second Coming of Jesus, Resurrection of the Dead, Heaven and Hell, Millennialism, the Last Judgment, the end of the world, and the New Heavens and New Earth.
Christians believe that the second coming of Christ will occur at the end of time after a period of severe persecution (the Great Tribulation). All who have died will be resurrected bodily from the dead for the Last Judgment. Jesus will fully establish the Kingdom of God in fulfillment of scriptural prophecies.
Death and afterlife
Most Christians believe that human beings experience divine judgment and are rewarded either with eternal life or eternal damnation. This includes the general judgment at the Resurrection of the dead as well as the belief (held by Roman Catholics, Orthodox and most Protestants) in a judgment particular to the individual soul upon physical death.
In Roman Catholicism, those who die in a state of grace, i.e., without any mortal sin separating them from God, but are still imperfectly purified from the effects of sin, undergo purification through the intermediate state of purgatory to achieve the holiness necessary for entrance into God's presence. Those who have attained this goal are called saints (Latin sanctus, "holy").
Some Christian groups, including Anglicans, Lutherans and Seventh-day Adventists hold to mortalism, the belief that the human soul is not naturally immortal, and is unconscious during the intermediate state between bodily death and resurrection. These Christians also hold to Annihilationism, the belief that subsequent to the final judgment, the wicked will cease to exist rather than suffer everlasting torment. Jehovah's Witnesses hold to a similar view.
Justin Martyr described 2nd century Christian liturgy in his First Apology (c. 150) to Emperor Antoninus Pius, and his description remains relevant to the basic structure of Christian liturgical worship:
And on the day called Sunday, all who live in cities or in the country gather together to one place, and the memoirs of the apostles or the writings of the prophets are read, as long as time permits; then, when the reader has ceased, the president verbally instructs, and exhorts to the imitation of these good things. Then we all rise together and pray, and, as we before said, when our prayer is ended, bread and wine and water are brought, and the president in like manner offers prayers and thanksgivings, according to his ability, and the people assent, saying Amen; and there is a distribution to each, and a participation of that over which thanks have been given, and to those who are absent a portion is sent by the deacons. And they who are well to do, and willing, give what each thinks fit; and what is collected is deposited with the president, who succours the orphans and widows and those who, through sickness or any other cause, are in want, and those who are in bonds and the strangers sojourning among us, and in a word takes care of all who are in need.
– Justin Martyr
Thus, as Justin described, Christians assemble for communal worship on Sunday, the day of the resurrection, though other liturgical practices often occur outside this setting. Scripture readings are drawn from the Old and New Testaments, but especially the Gospels. Often these are arranged on an annual cycle, using a book called a lectionary. Instruction is given based on these readings, called a sermon, or homily. There are a variety of congregational prayers, including thanksgiving, confession, and intercession, which occur throughout the service and take a variety of forms including recited, responsive, silent, or sung. The Lord's Prayer, or Our Father, is regularly prayed. The Eucharist (called Holy Communion, or the Lord's Supper) is the part of liturgical worship that consists of a consecrated meal, usually bread and wine. Justin Martyr described the Eucharist:
And this food is called among us Eukaristia [the Eucharist], of which no one is allowed to partake but the man who believes that the things which we teach are true, and who has been washed with the washing that is for the remission of sins, and unto regeneration, and who is so living as Christ has enjoined. For not as common bread and common drink do we receive these; but in like manner as Jesus Christ our Savior, having been made flesh by the Word of God, had both flesh and blood for our salvation, so likewise have we been taught that the food which is blessed by the prayer of His word, and from which our blood and flesh by transmutation are nourished, is the flesh and blood of that Jesus who was made flesh.
– Justin Martyr
Some Christian denominations practice closed communion. They offer communion to those who are already united in that denomination or sometimes individual church. Catholics restrict participation to their members who are not in a state of mortal sin. Most other churches practice open communion since they view communion as a means to unity, rather than an end, and invite all believing Christians to participate.
Some groups depart from this traditional liturgical structure. A division is often made between "High" church services, characterized by greater solemnity and ritual, and "Low" services, but even within these two categories there is great diversity in forms of worship. Seventh-day Adventists meet on Saturday, while others do not meet on a weekly basis. Charismatic or Pentecostal congregations may spontaneously feel led by the Holy Spirit to action rather than follow a formal order of service, including spontaneous prayer. Quakers sit quietly until moved by the Holy Spirit to speak. Some Evangelical services resemble concerts with rock and pop music, dancing, and use of multimedia. For groups which do not recognize a priesthood distinct from ordinary believers the services are generally led by a minister, preacher, or pastor. Still others may lack any formal leaders, either in principle or by local necessity. Some churches use only a cappella music, either on principle (for example, many Churches of Christ object to the use of instruments in worship) or by tradition (as in Orthodoxy).
Worship can be varied for special events like baptisms or weddings in the service or significant feast days. In the early church, Christians and those yet to complete initiation would separate for the Eucharistic part of the worship. In many churches today, adults and children will separate for all or some of the service to receive age-appropriate teaching. Such children's worship is often called Sunday school or Sabbath school (Sunday schools are often held before rather than during services).
In Christian belief and practice, a sacrament is a rite, instituted by Christ, that mediates grace, constituting a sacred mystery. The term is derived from the Latin word sacramentum, which was used to translate the Greek word for mystery. Views concerning both what rites are sacramental, and what it means for an act to be a sacrament vary among Christian denominations and traditions.
The most conventional functional definition of a sacrament is that it is an outward sign, instituted by Christ, that conveys an inward, spiritual grace through Christ. The two most widely accepted sacraments are Baptism and the Eucharist, however, the majority of Christians recognize seven Sacraments or Divine Mysteries: Baptism, Confirmation (Chrismation in the Orthodox tradition), and the Eucharist, Holy Orders, Reconciliation of a Penitent (confession), Anointing of the Sick, and Matrimony. Taken together, these are the Seven Sacraments as recognised by churches in the High church tradition—notably Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Independent Catholic, Old Catholic most Anglicans, and some Lutherans. Most other denominations and traditions typically affirm only Baptism and Eucharist as sacraments, while some Protestant groups, such as the Quakers, reject sacramental theology. Most Protestant Christian denominations who believe these rites do not communicate grace prefer to call them ordinances.
Roman Catholics, Anglicans, Eastern Christians, and traditional Protestant communities frame worship around a liturgical calendar. This includes holy days, such as solemnities which commemorate an event in the life of Jesus or the saints, periods of fasting such as Lent, and other pious events such as memoria or lesser festivals commemorating saints. Christian groups that do not follow a liturgical tradition often retain certain celebrations, such as Christmas, Easter and Pentecost. A few churches make no use of a liturgical calendar.
The cross, which is today one of the most widely recognised symbols in the world, was used as a Christian symbol from the earliest times. Tertullian, in his book De Corona, tells how it was already a tradition for Christians to trace repeatedly on their foreheads the sign of the cross. Although the cross was known to the early Christians, the crucifix did not appear in use until the 5th century.
Among the symbols employed by the primitive Christians, that of the fish seems to have ranked first in importance. From monumental sources such as tombs it is known that the symbolic fish was familiar to Christians from the earliest times. The fish was depicted as a Christian symbol in the first decades of the 2nd century. Its popularity among Christians was due principally, it would seem, to the famous acrostic consisting of the initial letters of five Greek words forming the word for fish (Ichthys), which words briefly but clearly described the character of Christ and the claim to worship of believers: Iesous Christos Theou Yios Soter, meaning, Jesus Christ, Son of God, Savioufr.
Christians from the very beginning adorned their tombs with paintings of Christ, of the saints, of scenes from the Bible and allegorical groups. The catacombs are the cradle of all Christian art. The first Christians had no prejudice against images, pictures, or statues. The idea that they must have feared the danger of idolatry among their new converts is disproved in the simplest way by the pictures, even statues, that remain from the 1st centuries. Other major Christian symbols include the chi-rho monogram, the dove (symbolic of the Holy Spirit), the sacrificial lamb (symbolic of Christ's sacrifice), the vine (symbolising the necessary connectedness of the Christian with Christ) and many others. These all derive from writings found in the New Testament.
Baptism is the ritual act, with the use of water, by which a person is admitted to membership of the Church. Beliefs on baptism vary among denominations. Differences occur firstly, on whether the act has any spiritual significance, some churches hold to the doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration, which affirms that baptism creates or strengthens a person’s faith, and is intimately linked to salvation, this view is held by Catholic and Eastern Orthodox churches as well as Lutherans and Anglicans, while others simply acknowledge it as a purely symbolic act, an external public declaration of the inward change which has taken place in the person. Secondly, there are differences of opinion on the methodology of the act. These methods being: Baptism by Immersion; if immersion is total, Baptism by Submersion; and Baptism by Affusion (pouring) and Baptism by Aspersion (sprinkling). Those who hold the first view may also adhere to the tradition of Infant Baptism.
Jesus' teaching on prayer in the Sermon on the Mount displays a distinct lack of interest in the external aspects of prayer. A concern with the techniques of prayer is condemned as 'pagan', and instead a simple trust in God's fatherly goodness is encouraged.[Mat. 6:5–15] Elsewhere in the New Testament this same freedom of access to God is also emphasized.[Phil. 4:6][Jam. 5:13–19] This confident position should be understood in light of Christian belief in the unique relationship between the believer and Christ through the indwelling of the Holy Spirit.
In subsequent Christian traditions, certain physical gestures are emphasized, including medieval gestures such as genuflection or making the sign of the cross. Kneeling, bowing and prostrations (see also poklon) are often practiced in more traditional branches of Christianity. Frequently in Western Christianity the hands are placed palms together and forward as in the feudal commendation ceremony. At other times the older orans posture may be used, with palms up and elbows in.
Intercessory prayer is prayer offered for the benefit of other people. There are many intercessory prayers recorded in the Bible, including prayers of the Apostle Peter on behalf of sick persons[Acts 9:40] and by prophets of the Old Testament in favor of other people.[1Ki 17:19–22] In the New Testament book of James no distinction is made between the intercessory prayer offered by ordinary believers and the prominent Old Testament prophet Elijah.[Jam 5:16–18] The effectiveness of prayer in Christianity derives from the power of God rather than the status of the one praying.
The ancient church, in both Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity, developed a tradition of asking for the intercession of (deceased) saints, and this remains the practice of most Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and some Anglican churches. Churches of the Protestant Reformation however rejected prayer to the saints, largely on the basis of the sole mediatorship of Christ. The reformer Huldrych Zwingli admitted that he had offered prayers to the saints until his reading of the Bible convinced him that this was idolatrous.
According to the Catechism of the Catholic Church: "Prayer is the raising of one's mind and heart to God or the requesting of good things from God." The Book of Common Prayer in the Anglican tradition is a guide which provides a set order for church services, containing set prayers, scripture readings, and hymns or sung Psalms.
Early Church and Christological Councils
Christianity began as a Jewish sect in the Levant of the middle east in the mid-1st century. Its earliest development took place under the leadership of the Twelve Apostles, particularly Saint Peter and Paul the Apostle, followed by the early bishops, whom Christians consider the successors of the Apostles.
According to the scriptures, Christians were from the beginning subject to persecution by some Jewish religious authorities, who disagreed with the apostles' teachings (See Split of early Christianity and Judaism). This involved punishments, including death, for Christians such as Stephen[Acts 7:59] and James, son of Zebedee.[Acts 12:2] Larger-scale persecutions followed at the hands of the authorities of the Roman Empire, first in the year 64, when Emperor Nero blamed them for the Great Fire of Rome. According to Church tradition, it was under Nero's persecution that early Church leaders Peter and Paul of Tarsus were each martyred in Rome. Further widespread persecutions of the Church occurred under nine subsequent Roman emperors, most intensely under Decius and Diocletian. From the year 150, Christian teachers began to produce theological and apologetic works aimed at defending the faith. These authors are known as the Church Fathers, and study of them is called Patristics. Notable early Fathers include Ignatius of Antioch, Polycarp, Justin Martyr, Irenaeus, Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, and Origen. However, Armenia is considered the first nation to accept Christianity in 301 AD.
State persecution ceased in the 4th century, when Constantine I issued an edict of toleration in 313. On 27 February 380, Emperor Theodosius I enacted a law establishing Nicene Christianity as the state church of the Roman Empire. From at least the 4th century, Christianity has played a prominent role in the shaping of Western civilization.
Constantine was also instrumental in the convocation of the First Council of Nicaea in 325, which sought to address the Arian heresy and formulated the Nicene Creed, which is still used by the Roman Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodoxy, Anglican Communion, and many Protestant churches. Nicaea was the first of a series of Ecumenical (worldwide) Councils which formally defined critical elements of the theology of the Church, notably concerning Christology. The Assyrian Church of the East did not accept the third and following Ecumenical Councils, and are still separate today. In 395, the most Christianized regions of the world were Crete, Cyprus, Anatolia, Armenia, the Nile delta, and Numidia (present-day Tunisia and Algeria).
The presence of Christianity in Africa began in the middle of the 1st century in Egypt, and by the end of the 2nd century in the region around Carthage. Mark the Evangelist started the Orthodox Church of Alexandria in about 43 AD. Important Africans who influenced the early development of Christianity includes Tertullian, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria, Cyprian, Athanasius and Augustine of Hippo. The later rise of Islam in North Africa reduced the size and numbers of Christian congregations, leaving only the Coptic Church in Egypt, the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church in the Horn of Africa, and the Nubian Church in the Sudan (Nobatia, Makuria, and Alodia).
Early Middle Ages
With the decline and fall of the Roman Empire in the west, the papacy became a political player, first visible in Pope Leo's diplomatic dealings with Huns and Vandals. The church also entered into a long period of missionary activity and expansion among the various tribes. Whilst arianists instituted the death penalty for practicing pagans (see Massacre of Verden as example), Catholicism also spread among the Germanic peoples, the Celtic and Slavic peoples, the Hungarians, and the Baltic peoples. Christianity has been an important part of the shaping of Western civilization, at least since the 4th century.
Around 500, St. Benedict set out his Monastic Rule, establishing a system of regulations for the foundation and running of monasteries. Monasticism became a powerful force throughout Europe, and gave rise to many early centers of learning, most famously in Ireland, Scotland and Gaul, contributing to the Carolingian Renaissance of the 9th century.
In the 7th century Muslims conquered Syria (including Jerusalem), North Africa and Spain. Part of the Muslims' success was due to the exhaustion of the Byzantine empire in its decades long conflict with Persia. Beginning in the 8th century, with the rise of Carolingian leaders, the papacy began to find greater political support in the Frankish Kingdom.
The Middle Ages brought about major changes within the church. Pope Gregory the Great dramatically reformed ecclesiastical structure and administration. In the early 8th century, iconoclasm became a divisive issue, when it was sponsored by the Byzantine emperors. The Second Ecumenical Council of Nicaea (787) finally pronounced in favor of icons. In the early 10th century, Western Christian monasticism was further rejuvenated through the leadership of the great Benedictine monastery of Cluny.
Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.
High and Late Middle Ages
In the west, from the 11th century onward, older cathedral schools developed into universities (see University of Oxford, University of Paris, and University of Bologna.) The traditional medieval universities — evolved from Catholic and Protestant church schools — then established specialized academic structures for properly educating greater numbers of students as professionals. Prof. Walter Rüegg, editor of A History of the University in Europe, reports that universities then only trained students to become clerics, lawyers, civil servants, and physicians. Originally teaching only theology, these steadily added subjects including medicine, philosophy and law, becoming the direct ancestors of modern institutions of learning. The university is generally regarded as an institution that has its origin in the Medieval Christian setting. Prior to the establishment of universities, European higher education took place for hundreds of years in Christian cathedral schools or monastic schools (Scholae monasticae), in which monks and nuns taught classes; evidence of these immediate forerunners of the later university at many places dates back to the 6th century AD.
Accompanying the rise of the "new towns" throughout Europe, mendicant orders were founded, bringing the consecrated religious life out of the monastery and into the new urban setting. The two principal mendicant movements were the Franciscans and the Dominicans founded by St. Francis and St. Dominic respectively. Both orders made significant contributions to the development of the great universities of Europe. Another new order were the Cistercians, whose large isolated monasteries spearheaded the settlement of former wilderness areas. In this period church building and ecclesiastical architecture reached new heights, culminating in the orders of Romanesque and Gothic architecture and the building of the great European cathedrals.
From 1095 under the pontificate of Urban II, the Crusades were launched. These were a series of military campaigns in the Holy Land and elsewhere, initiated in response to pleas from the Byzantine Emperor Alexios I for aid against Turkish expansion. The Crusades ultimately failed to stifle Islamic aggression and even contributed to Christian enmity with the sacking of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade.
Over a period stretching from the 7th to the 13th century, the Christian Church underwent gradual alienation, resulting in a schism dividing it into a so-called Latin or Western Christian branch, the Roman Catholic Church, and an Eastern, largely Greek, branch, the Orthodox Church. These two churches disagree on a number of administrative, liturgical, and doctrinal issues, most notably papal primacy of jurisdiction. The Second Council of Lyon (1274) and the Council of Florence (1439) attempted to reunite the churches, but in both cases the Eastern Orthodox refused to implement the decisions and the two principal churches remain in schism to the present day. However, the Roman Catholic Church has achieved union with various smaller eastern churches.
Beginning around 1184, following the crusade against the Cathar heresy, various institutions, broadly referred to as the Inquisition, were established with the aim of suppressing heresy and securing religious and doctrinal unity within Christianity through conversion and prosecution.
Protestant Reformation and Counter-Reformation
The 15th-century Renaissance brought about a renewed interest in ancient and classical learning. Another major schism, the Reformation, resulted in the splintering of the Western Christendom into several Christian denominations. Martin Luther in 1517 protested against the sale of indulgences and soon moved on to deny several key points of Roman Catholic doctrine. Others like Zwingli and Calvin further criticized Roman Catholic teaching and worship. These challenges developed into the movement called Protestantism, which repudiated the primacy of the pope, the role of tradition, the seven sacraments, and other doctrines and practices. The Reformation in England began in 1534, when King Henry VIII had himself declared head of the Church of England. Beginning in 1536, the monasteries throughout England, Wales and Ireland were dissolved.
Partly in response to the Protestant Reformation, the Roman Catholic Church engaged in a substantial process of reform and renewal, known as the Counter-Reformation or Catholic Reform. The Council of Trent clarified and reasserted Roman Catholic doctrine. During the following centuries, competition between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism became deeply entangled with political struggles among European states.
Meanwhile, the discovery of America by Christopher Columbus in 1492 brought about a new wave of missionary activity. Partly from missionary zeal, but under the impetus of colonial expansion by the European powers, Christianity spread to the Americas, Oceania, East Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa.
Throughout Europe, the divides caused by the Reformation led to outbreaks of religious violence and the establishment of separate state churches in Europe: Lutheranism in parts of Germany and in Scandinavia and Anglicanism in England in 1534. Ultimately, these differences led to the outbreak of conflicts in which religion played a key factor. The Thirty Years' War, the English Civil War, and the French Wars of Religion are prominent examples. These events intensified the Christian debate on persecution and toleration. Christianity has played a role in shaping of Western civilization.
In the era known as the Great Divergence, when in the West the Age of Enlightenment and the Scientific revolution brought about great societal changes, Christianity was confronted with various forms of skepticism and with certain modern political ideologies such as versions of socialism and liberalism. Events ranged from mere anti-clericalism to violent outbursts against Christianity such as the Dechristianisation during the French Revolution, the Spanish Civil War, and general hostility of Marxist movements, especially the Russian Revolution.
Especially pressing in Europe was the formation of nation states after the Napoleonic era. In all European countries, different Christian denominations found themselves in competition, to greater or lesser extents, with each other and with the state. Variables are the relative sizes of the denominations and the religious, political, and ideological orientation of the state. Urs Altermatt of the University of Fribourg, looking specifically at Catholicisms in Europe, identifies four models for the European nations. In traditionally Catholic countries such as Belgium, Spain, and to some extent Austria, religious and national communities are more or less identical. Cultural symbiosis and separation are found in Poland, Ireland, and Switzerland, all countries with competing denominations. Competition is found in Germany, the Netherlands, and again Switzerland, all countries with minority Catholic populations who to a greater or lesser extent did identify with the nation. Finally, separation between religion (again, specifically Catholicism) and the state is found to a great degree in France and Italy, countries where the state actively opposed itself to the authority of the Catholic Church. The combined factors of the formation of nation states and ultramontanism, especially in Germany and the Netherlands but also in England (to a much lesser extent), often forced Catholic churches, organizations, and believers to choose between the national demands of the state and the authority of the Church, specifically the papacy. This conflict came to a head in the First Vatican Council, and in Germany would lead directly to the Kulturkampf, where liberals and Protestants under the leadership of Bismarck managed to severely restrict Catholic expression and organization.
Christian commitment in Europe dropped as modernity and secularism came into their own in Europe, particularly in the Czech Republic and Estonia, while religious commitments in America have been generally high in comparison to Europe. The late 20th century has shown the shift of Christian adherence to the Third World and southern hemisphere in general, with the western civilization no longer the chief standard bearer of Christianity.
Some Europeans (including diaspora), Indigenous peoples of the Americas, and natives of other continents have revived their respective peoples' historical folk religions. (see Neo-paganism, Native Americans in the United States#Religion) Approximately 7.1 to 10% of Arabs are Christians most prevalent in Egypt, Syria and Lebanon.
With around 2.2 billion adherents, split into 3 main branches of Catholic, Protestant and Orthodox, Christianity is the world's largest religion. The Christian share of the world's population has stood at around 33% for the last hundred years, which says that one in three persons on earth are Christians. This masks a major shift in the demographics of Christianity; large increases in the developing world (around 23,000 per day) have been accompanied by substantial declines in the developed world, mainly in Europe and North America (around 7,600 per day). It is still the predominant religion in Europe, the Americas and Southern Africa. In Asia, it is the dominant religion in Georgia, Armenia, East Timor and the Philippines. However, it is declining in many areas including the Northern and Western United States, Oceania (Australia and New Zealand), northern Europe (including Great Britain, Scandinavia and other places), France, Germany, the Canadian provinces of Ontario, British Columbia, and Quebec, and parts of Asia (especially the Middle East, South Korea, Taiwan, The Philippines and Macau). The Christian population is not decreasing in Brazil, the Southern United States and the province of Alberta, Canada, but the percentage is decreasing. In countries such as Australia and New Zealand, the Christian population are declining in both numbers and percentage. Despite the declining numbers, Christianity remains the dominant religion in the Western World, where 70% are Christians, in Europe 76.2% of the population considering themselves Christians, and 86.0% of the Americas and 73.36% in Oceania still practice Christianity.
However, there are many charismatic movements that have become well established over large parts of the world, especially Africa, Latin America and Asia. A leading Saudi Arabian Muslim leader Sheikh Ahmad al Qatanni reported on Aljazeera that every day 16,000 African Muslims convert to Christianity. He claimed that Islam was losing 6 million African Muslims a year to becoming Christians, including Muslims in Algeria, France, Iran, India, Morocco, Russia, and Turkey, and Central Asia. It is also reported that Christianity is popular among people of different backgrounds in India (mostly Hindus), and Malaysia, Mongolia, Nigeria, Vietnam, Singapore, Indonesia, China, Japan, and South Korea.
In most countries in the developed world, church attendance among people who continue to identify themselves as Christians has been falling over the last few decades. Some sources view this simply as part of a drift away from traditional membership institutions, while others link it to signs of a decline in belief in the importance of religion in general.
Christianity, in one form or another, is the sole state religion of the following nations: Costa Rica (Roman Catholic), Denmark (Evangelical Lutheran), El Salvador (Roman Catholic), England (Anglican), Finland (Evangelical Lutheran & Orthodox), Georgia (Georgian Orthodox), Greece (Greek Orthodox), Iceland (Evangelical Lutheran), Liechtenstein (Roman Catholic), Malta (Roman Catholic), Monaco (Roman Catholic), and Vatican City (Roman Catholic).
Major denominations within Christianity
The three primary divisions of Christianity are Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, and Protestantism.:14 There are other Christian groups that do not fit neatly into one of these primary categories. The Nicene Creed is "accepted as authoritative by the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Anglican, and major Protestant churches." There is a diversity of doctrines and practices among groups calling themselves Christian. These groups are sometimes classified under denominations, though for theological reasons many groups reject this classification system. Another distinction that is sometimes drawn is between Eastern Christianity and Western Christianity.
Template:Denominations of Christianity The Catholic Church comprises those particular churches, headed by bishops, in communion with the Pope, the Bishop of Rome, as its highest authority in matters of faith, morality and Church governance. Like the Eastern Orthodox, the Roman Catholic Church through Apostolic succession traces its origins to the Christian community founded by Jesus Christ. Catholics maintain that the "one, holy, catholic and apostolic church" founded by Jesus subsists fully in the Roman Catholic Church, but also acknowledges other Christian churches and communities and works towards reconciliation among all Christians. The Catholic faith is detailed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
The 2,834 sees are grouped into 23 particular rites, the largest being the Latin Rite, each with distinct traditions regarding the liturgy and the administering the sacraments. With more than 1.1 billion baptized members, the Catholic Church is the largest church representing over half of all Christians and one sixth of the world's population.
Various smaller communities, such as the Old Catholic and Independent Catholic Churches, include the word Catholic in their title, and share much in common with Roman Catholicism but are no longer in communion with the See of Rome. The Old Catholic Church is in communion with the Anglican Communion.
Eastern Orthodoxy comprises those churches in communion with the Patriarchal Sees of the East, such as the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople. Like the Roman Catholic Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church also traces its heritage to the foundation of Christianity through Apostolic succession and has an episcopal structure, though the autonomy of the individual, mostly national churches is emphasized. A number of conflicts with Western Christianity over questions of doctrine and authority culminated in the Great Schism. Eastern Orthodoxy is the second largest single denomination in Christianity, with over 200 million adherents.
The Oriental Orthodox Churches (also called Old Oriental Churches) are those eastern churches that recognize the first three ecumenical councils—Nicaea, Constantinople and Ephesus—but reject the dogmatic definitions of the Council of Chalcedon and instead espouse a Miaphysite christology. The Oriental Orthodox communion comprises six groups: Syriac Orthodox, Coptic Orthodox, Ethiopian Orthodox, Eritrean Orthodox, Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church (India) and Armenian Apostolic churches. These six churches, while being in communion with each other are completely independent hierarchically. These churches are generally not in communion with Eastern Orthodox Churches with whom they are in dialogue for erecting a communion.
In the 16th century, Martin Luther, Huldrych Zwingli, and John Calvin inaugurated what has come to be called Protestantism. Luther's primary theological heirs are known as Lutherans. Zwingli and Calvin's heirs are far broader denominationally, and are broadly referred to as the Reformed Tradition. Most Protestant traditions branch out from the Reformed tradition in some way. In addition to the Lutheran and Reformed branches of the Reformation, there is Anglicanism after the English Reformation. The Anabaptist tradition was largely ostracized by the other Protestant parties at the time, but has achieved a measure of affirmation in more recent history. Some but not most Baptists prefer not to be called Protestants, claiming a direct ancestral line going back to the apostles in the 1st century.
The oldest Protestant groups separated from the Catholic Church in the 16th century Protestant Reformation, followed in many cases by further divisions. For example, the Methodist Church grew out of Anglican minister John Wesley's evangelical and revival movement in the Anglican Church. Several Pentecostal and non-denominational Churches, which emphasize the cleansing power of the Holy Spirit, in turn grew out of the Methodist Church. Because Methodists, Pentecostals, and other evangelicals stress "accepting Jesus as your personal Lord and Savior", which comes from John Wesley's emphasis of the New Birth, they often refer to themselves as being born-again.
Estimates of the total number of Protestants are very uncertain, partly because of the difficulty in determining which denominations should be placed in these categories, but it seems clear that Protestantism is the second largest major group of Christians after Catholicism in number of followers (although the Orthodox Church is larger than any single Protestant denomination). Often that number is put at 800 million. Protestantism, along with the Orthodox Church (appx. 200 million) and the Catholic Church (appx. 1.1 billion) form a total of 2.1 billion Christianity followers.
A special grouping are the Anglican churches descended from the Church of England and organised in the Anglican Communion. Some Anglican churches consider themselves both Protestant and Catholic. Some Anglicans consider their church a branch of the "One Holy Catholic Church" alongside of the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches, a concept rejected by the Roman Catholic Church and some Eastern Orthodox.
Some groups of individuals who hold basic Protestant tenets identify themselves simply as "Christians" or "born-again Christians". They typically distance themselves from the confessionalism and/or creedalism of other Christian communities by calling themselves "non-denominational". Often founded by individual pastors, they have little affiliation with historic denominations.
Non-Trinitarianism includes all Christian belief systems that reject, wholly or partly, the doctrine of the Trinity, namely, the teaching that God is three distinct yet coeternal and coequal hypostases who are indivisibly united in one essence. In antiquity, sporadically in the Middle Ages, and again following the Reformation until today, differing views existed concerning the Godhead from those of Trinitarians and the related traditional Christology. Though diverse, these views may be generally classified into those that hold Christ to be only divine and not differing from the Father hypostatically; those that hold Christ to be less fully God than the Father; in other forms being completely human and a messenger as the perfect created human.
Esoteric Christianity is a term which refers to an ensemble of spiritual currents which regard Christianity as a mystery religion, and profess the existence and possession of certain esoteric doctrines or practices, hidden from the public but accessible only to a narrow circle of "enlightened", "initiated", or highly educated people. A special characteristic common in these mystical denominations is the belief in reincarnation. Some of the esoteric Christian institutions include the Rosicrucian Fellowship, the Anthroposophical Society and the Martinism.
The Second Great Awakening, a period of religious revival that occurred in the U.S. during the early 1800s, saw the development of a number of unrelated churches. They generally saw themselves as restoring the original church of Jesus Christ rather than reforming one of the existing churches. A common belief held by Restorationists was that the other divisions of Christianity had introduced doctrinal defects into Christianity, which was known as the Great Apostasy.
Some of the churches originating during this period are historically connected to early-19th century camp meetings in the Midwest and Upstate New York. American Millennialism and Adventism, which arose from Evangelical Protestantism, influenced the Jehovah's Witnesses movement (with 7 million members), and, as a reaction specifically to William Miller, the Seventh-day Adventists. Others, including the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ), Evangelical Christian Church in Canada, Churches of Christ, and the Christian churches and churches of Christ, have their roots in the contemporaneous Stone-Campbell Restoration Movement, which was centered in Kentucky and Tennessee. Other groups originating in this time period include the Christadelphians and The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the largest denomination of the Latter Day Saint movement with over 14 million members. While the churches originating in the Second Great Awakening have some superficial similarities, their doctrine and practices vary significantly.
Cultural Christian is a broad term for people with either ethnic or religious Christian heritage who may not believe in the religious claims of Christianity, but who retain an affinity for the culture, art, music, and so on related to it.
Many of the population of the Western hemisphere could broadly be described as cultural Christians, due to the predominance of the Christian faith in Western culture, as well as widely celebrated religious holidays such as Easter and Christmas. Another frequent application of the term is to distinguish political groups in areas of mixed religious backgrounds.
Western culture, throughout most of its history, has been nearly equivalent to Christian culture. Though Western culture contained several polytheistic religions during its early years under the Greek and Roman empires, as the centralized Roman power waned, the dominance of the Catholic Church was the only consistent force in Europe. Until the Age of Enlightenment, Christian culture was the predominant force in western civilization, guiding the course of philosophy, art, and science.
Most churches have long expressed ideals of being reconciled with each other, and in the 20th century Christian ecumenism advanced in two ways. One way was greater cooperation between groups, such as the Edinburgh Missionary Conference of Protestants in 1910, the Justice, Peace and Creation Commission of the World Council of Churches founded in 1948 by Protestant and Orthodox churches, and similar national councils like the National Council of Churches in Australia which includes Roman Catholics.
The other way was institutional union with new United and uniting churches. Congregationalist, Methodist, and Presbyterian churches united in 1925 to form the United Church of Canada, and in 1977 to form the Uniting Church in Australia. The Church of South India was formed in 1947 by the union of Anglican, Methodist, Congregationalist, Presbyterian, and Reformed churches.
Steps towards reconciliation on a global level were taken in 1965 by the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches mutually revoking the excommunications that marked their Great Schism in 1054; the Anglican Roman Catholic International Commission (ARCIC) working towards full communion between those churches since 1970; and the Lutheran and Roman Catholic churches signing the Joint Declaration on the Doctrine of Justification in 1999 to address conflicts at the root of the Protestant Reformation. In 2006, the Methodist church adopted the declaration.
Another example of ecumenism is the invention of and growing usage of the Christian Flag, which was designed to represent all of Christendom. The flag has a white field, with a red Latin cross inside a blue canton.
Criticism of Christianity and Christians goes back to the Apostolic age, with the New Testament recording friction between the followers of Jesus and the Pharisees and scribes (e.g. Mark 7:1-23 and Matthew 15:1-20). In the second century Christianity was criticized by the Jews on various grounds, e.g. that the prophecies of the Hebrew Bible could not have been fulfilled by Jesus, given that he did not have a successful life. By the third century criticism of Christianity had mounted, partly as a defense against it, and the 15 volume Adversus Christianos by Porphyry was written as a comprehensive attack on Christianity, in part building on the pre-Christian concepts of Plotinus.
By the 12th century, the Mishneh Torah (i.e., Rabbi Moses Maimonides) was criticizing Christianity on the grounds of idol worship, in that Christians attributed divinity to Jesus who had a physical body. In the 19th century, Nietzsche began to write a series of attacks on the "unnatural" teachings of Christianity (e.g. avoidance of temptations), and continued anti-Christian attacks to the end of his life. In the 20th century, the philosopher Bertrand Russell expressed his criticism of Christianity in Why I Am Not a Christian, formulating his rejection of Christianity in the setting of logical arguments. Criticism of Christianity continues to date, e.g. Jewish and Muslim theologians criticize the doctrine of the Trinity held by most Christians, stating that this doctrine in effect assumes that there are three Gods, running against the basic tenet of monotheism. New Testament scholar Robert M. Price has outlined the possibility that some Bible stories are based partly on myth in "The Christ Myth Theory and its problems".
- ^ a b c The term "Christian" (Greek Χριστιανός) was first used in reference to Jesus' disciples in the city of Antioch[Acts 11:26] about 44 AD, meaning "followers of Christ". The name was given by the non-Jewish inhabitants of Antioch, probably in derision, to the disciples of Jesus. In the New Testament the names by which the disciples were known among themselves were "brethren", "the faithful", "elect", "saints", "believers". The earliest recorded use of the term "Christianity" (Greek Χριστιανισμός) was by Ignatius of Antioch, around 100 AD. See Elwell/Comfort. Tyndale Bible Dictionary, pp. 266, 828.
- ^ Christianity's status as monotheistic is affirmed in, amongst other sources, the Catholic Encyclopedia (article "Monotheism"); William F. Albright, From the Stone Age to Christianity; H. Richard Niebuhr; About.com, Monotheistic Religion resources; Kirsch, God Against the Gods; Woodhead, An Introduction to Christianity; The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia Monotheism; The New Dictionary of Cultural Literacy, monotheism; New Dictionary of Theology, Paul, pp. 496–99; Meconi. "Pagan Monotheism in Late Antiquity". p. 111f.
- ^ "Religion: Christianity". bbc.co.uk. 2012-08-13. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- ^ Briggs, Charles A. The fundamental Christian faith: the origin, history and interpretation of the Apostles' and Nicene creeds. C. Scribner's sons, 1913. Books.Google.com
- ^ N. T. Wright, from the Glossary in Wright’s For Everyone series, via article "Gospel definitions": "The idea of 'good news...'" "...it mean the news of YHWH’s long-awaited victory over evil and rescue of his people." http://thegospelcoalition.org/blogs/trevinwax/2008/09/04/gospel-definitions-nt-wright/
- ^ Epistle to the Romans 6:23: "For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord."
- ^ S. T. Kimbrough, ed (2005). Orthodox and Wesleyan Scriptural understanding and practice. St Vladimir's Seminary Press. ISBN 978-0-88141-301-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=q-vhwjamOioC&pg=PA23&dq=anagignoskomena#v=onepage&q=anagignoskomena&f=true.
- ^ a b Robinson, Essential Judaism: A Complete Guide to Beliefs, Customs and Rituals, p. 229.
- ^ a b Esler. The Early Christian World. p. 157f.
- ^ Religion in the Roman Empire, Wiley-Blackwell, by James B. Rives, page 196
- ^ Catholic encyclopedia New Advent
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, pp. 301–03.
- ^ Muslim-Christian Relations. Amsterdam University Press. 2006. ISBN 978-90-5356-938-2. http://books.google.com/books?id=g2AtOlJMPTUC&pg=PA52. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "The enthusiasm for evangelization among the Christians was also accompanied by the awareness that the most immediate problem to solve was how to serve the huge number of new converts. Simatupang said, if the number of the Christians were double or triple, then the number of the ministers should also be doubled or tripled and the tole of the laity should be maximized and Christian service to society through schools, universities, hospitals and orphanages, should be increased. In addition, for him the Christian mission should be involved in the struggle for justice amid the process of modernization."
- ^ Fred Kammer (2004-05-01). Doing Faith Justice. Paulist Press. ISBN 978-0-8091-4227-9. http://books.google.com/?id=WmuV6g0yR3sC&pg=PA77&dq=christianity+serve+others+hospitals+orphanages+schools#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "Theologians, bishops, and preachers urged the Christian community to be as compassionate as their God was, reiterating that creation was for all of humanity. They also accepted and developed the identification of Christ with the poor and the requisite Christian duty to the poor. Religious congregations and individual charismatic leaders promoted the development of a number of helping institutions-hospitals, hospices for pilgrims, orphanages, shelters for unwed mothers-that laid the foundation for the modern "large network of hospitals, orphanages and schools, to serve the poor and society at large.""
- ^ Christian Church Women: Shapers of a Movement. Chalice Press. 1994-03. ISBN 978-0-8272-0463-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=dz_EM2ofIb4C&pg=PA132. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "In the central provinces of India they established schools, orphanages, hospitals, and churches, and spread the gospel message in zenanas."
- ^ Defined to avoid the ambiguous term "orthodox"
- ^ Sheed, Frank. Theology and Sanity. (Ignatius Press: San Francisco, 1993), pp. 276.
- ^ "Christianity". Knowledge Resources. Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs. http://berkleycenter.georgetown.edu/resources/traditions/christianity. Retrieved 2011-11-22.
- ^ a b McGrath, Christianity: An Introduction, pp. 4–6.
- ^ a b 33.2% of 6.7 billion world population (under the section 'People') "World". CIA world facts. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/xx.html.
- ^ a b "The List: The World’s Fastest-Growing Religions". foreignpolicy.com. 2007-03. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/story/cms.php?story_id=3835. Retrieved 2010-01-04.
- ^ a b "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents.com. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- ^ a b c ANALYSIS December 19, 2011 (2011-12-19). "Global Christianity". Pewforum.org. http://www.pewforum.org/Christian/Global-Christianity-exec.aspx. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ Hinnells, The Routledge Companion to the Study of Religion, p. 441.
- ^ Zoll, Rachel (December 19, 2011). "Study: Christian population shifts from Europe". Associated Press. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/feedarticle/10003271. Retrieved 25 February 2012.
- ^ See Christianity#Demographics for information and references
- ^ Religions in Global Society - Page 146, Peter Beyer - 2006
- ^ a b c Cambridge University Historical Series, An Essay on Western Civilization in Its Economic Aspects , p.40: Hebraism, like Hellenism, has been an all-important factor in the development of Western Civilization; Judaism, as the precursor of Christianity, has indirectly had had much to do with shaping the ideals and morality of western nations since the christian era.
- ^ a b c d Caltron J.H Hayas, Christianity and Western Civilization (1953),Stanford University Press, p.2:
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<ref>tag; name "Caltron J.H Hayas" defined multiple times with different content
- ^ a b Horst Hutter, University of New York, Shaping the Future: Nietzsche's New Regime of the Soul And Its Ascetic Practices (2004), p.111:three mighty founders of Western culture, namely Socrates, Jesus, and Plato.
- ^ a b Fred Reinhard Dallmayr, Dialogue Among Civilizations: Some Exemplary Voices (2004), p.22: Western civilization is also sometimes described as "Christian" or "Judaeo- Christian" civilization.
- ^ Olson, The Mosaic of Christian Belief.
- ^ Avis, Paul (2002) The Christian Church: An Introduction to the Major Traditions, SPCK, London, ISBN 0-281-05246-8 paperback
- ^ White, The History of the Church.
- ^ Cummins, Duane D. (1991). A handbook for Today's Disciples in the Christian Church (Disciples of Christ) Revised Edition. St Louis, MO: Chalice Press. ISBN 0-8272-1425-1.
- ^ a b Ron Rhodes, The Complete Guide to Christian Denominations, Harvest House Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0-7369-1289-4
- ^ Pelikan/Hotchkiss, Creeds and Confessions of Faith in the Christian Tradition.
- ^ Catholics United for the Faith, "We Believe in One God"
- ^ Encyclopedia of Religion, "Arianism".
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "Council of Ephesus".
- ^ Christian History Institute, First Meeting of the Council of Chalcedon.
- ^ Peter Theodore Farrington (February 2006). "The Oriental Orthodox Rejection of Chalcedon" (113).
- ^ Pope Leo I, Letter to Flavian
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "Athanasian Creed".
- ^ a b "Our Common Heritage as Christians". The United Methodist Church. http://archives.umc.org/interior.asp?mid=1806. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ Barnes, Albert. Barnes' New Testament Notes, Entry for Matthew 22:40. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/barnes/ntnotes.iv.xxii.xl.html. Retrieved 7 October 2012.
- ^ Metzger/Coogan, Oxford Companion to the Bible, pp. 513, 649.
- ^ Acts 2:24, , , , , , , , , , , Romans 10:9, ;&version=; 1 Cor. 15:15, , ;&version=; 2 Cor. 4:14, Gal 1:1, Eph 1:20, Col 2:12, ;&version=; 1 Thess. 11:10, Heb. 13:20, ;&version=; 1 Pet. 1:3,
- ^ "Nicene Creed—Wikisource". En.wikisource.org. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Nicene_Creed. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- ^ Hanegraaff. Resurrection: The Capstone in the Arch of Christianity.
- ^ "The Significance of the Death and Resurrection of Jesus for the Christian". Australian Catholic University National. http://dlibrary.acu.edu.au/research/theology/Walsh.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- ^ "Why is the resurrection of Jesus Christ important?". Got Questions Ministries. http://www.gotquestions.org/resurrection-Christ-important.html. Retrieved 2007-05-16.
- ^ John;&version=3:16; John, , , , , , and
- ^ This is drawn from a number of sources, especially the early Creeds, the Catechism of the Catholic Church, certain theological works, and various Confessions drafted during the Reformation including the Thirty Nine Articles of the Church of England, works contained in the Book of Concord.
- ^ Fuller, The Foundations of New Testament Christology, p. 11.
- ^ A Jesus Seminar conclusion: "in the view of the Seminar, he did not rise bodily from the dead; the resurrection is based instead on visionary experiences of Peter, Paul, and Mary."
- ^ Funk. The Acts of Jesus: What Did Jesus Really Do?.
- ^ Lorenzen. Resurrection, Discipleship, Justice: Affirming the Resurrection Jesus Christ Today, p. 13.
- ^ Ball/Johnsson (ed.). The Essential Jesus.
- ^ a b Eisenbaum, Pamela (Winter 2004). "A Remedy for Having Been Born of Woman: Jesus, Gentiles, and Genealogy in Romans". Journal of Biblical Literature 123 (4): 671–702. DOI:10.2307/3268465. Retrieved on 2009-04-03.
- ^ Wright, N.T. What Saint Paul Really Said: Was Paul of Tarsus the Real Founder of Christianity? (Oxford, 1997), p. 121.
- ^ CCC 846; Vatican II, Lumen Gentium 14
- ^ See quotations from Council of Trent on Justification at Justforcatholics.org
- ^ Westminster Confession, Chapter X; Spurgeon, A Defense of Calvinism.
- ^ "Grace and Justification". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 15 August 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100815001751/http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p3s1c3a2.htm.
- ^ Kelly. Early Christian Doctrines. pp. 87–90.
- ^ Alexander. New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. p. 514f.
- ^ McGrath. Historical Theology. p. 61.
- ^ Metzger/Coogan. Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 782.
- ^ Kelly. The Athanasian Creed.
- ^ Oxford, "Encyclopedia Of Christianity, pg1207
- ^ Fowler. World Religions: An Introduction for Students. p. 58.
- ^ Theophilus of Antioch Apologia ad Autolycum II 15
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 50.
- ^ Tertullian De Pudicitia chapter 21
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 53.
- ^ Moltman, Jurgen. The Trinity and the Kingdom: The Doctrine of God. Tr. from German. Fortress Press, 1993. ISBN 0-8006-2825-X
- ^ Harnack, History of Dogma.
- ^ Virkler, Henry A. (2007). Ayayo, Karelynne Gerber. ed. Hermeneutics: Principles and Processes of Biblical Interpretation (2nd ed.). Grand Rapids, USA: Baker Academic. p. 21. ISBN 978-0-8010-3138-0.
- ^ "Inspiration and Truth of Sacred Scripture". Catechism of the Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 9 September 2010. http://web.archive.org/web/20100909213651/http://www.vatican.va/archive/catechism/p1s1c2a3.htm. (§105-108)
- ^ Second Helvetic Confession, Of the Holy Scripture Being the True Word of God
- ^ Chicago Statement on Biblical Inerrancy, online text
- ^ Metzger/Coogan, Oxford Companion to the Bible. p. 39.
- ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: the story behind who changed the Bible and why. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco page 209
- ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20Timothy%202:11-12&version=NIV
- ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20corinthians%2014:34-35&version=NIV
- ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2005). Misquoting Jesus: the story behind who changed the Bible and why. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco page 183
- ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=1%20corinthians%2011:2-16&version=NIV
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_of_John#Gnostic_elements
- ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gospel_of_Thomas#Intertextuality_with_John.27s_gospel
- ^ http://gnosis.org/naghamm/gosthom.html
- ^ http://www.biblegateway.com/passage/?search=Luke+17%3A20-21&version=NIV
- ^ http://www.mmnet.com.au/australian_landscape_photos/writer/Reflections.html
- ^ Kelly. Early Christian Doctrines. pp. 69–78.
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture § 115-118.
- ^ Thomas Aquinas, "Whether in Holy Scripture a word may have several senses"
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, §116
- ^ Second Vatican Council, Dei Verbum (V.19).
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Holy Spirit, Interpreter of Scripture" § 113.
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, "The Interpretation of the Heritage of Faith" § 85.
- ^ Mathison. The Shape of Sola Scriptura.
- ^ a b Foutz, Martin Luther and Scripture.
- ^ John Calvin, Commentaries on the Catholic Epistles 2 Peter 3:14–18
- ^ Second Helvetic Confession, Of Interpreting the Holy Scriptures; and of Fathers, Councils, and Traditions
- ^ Sproul. Knowing Scripture, pp. 45–61; Bahnsen, A Reformed Confession Regarding Hermeneutics (article 6).
- ^ Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2.
- ^ Johnson, Elliott (1990). Expository hermeneutics : an introduction. Grand Rapids Mich.: Academie Books. ISBN 978-0-310-34160-4.
- ^ Terry, Milton (1974). Biblical hermeneutics : a treatise on the interpretation of the Old and New Testaments. Grand Rapids Mich.: Zondervan Pub. House. p. 205
- ^ Elwell, Walter A. (1984). Evangelical Dictionary of Theology. Grand Rapids, Mich.: Baker Book House. ISBN 0-8010-3413-2. p. 565
- ^ e.g., in his commentary on Matthew 1 (§III.3) Matthew Henry interprets the twin sons of Judah, Phares and Zara, as an allegory of the Gentile and Jewish Christians. For a contemporary treatment, see Glenny, Typology: A Summary Of The Present Evangelical Discussion.
- ^ Thomas Aquinas, Summa Theologicum, Supplementum Tertiae Partis questions 69 through 99
- ^ Calvin, John. "Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book Three, Ch. 25". www.reformed.org. http://www.reformed.org/books/institutes/books/book3/bk3ch25.html. Retrieved 2008-01-01.
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "Particular Judgment".
- ^ Ott, Grundriß der Dogmatik, p. 566.
- ^ David Moser, What the Orthodox believe concerning prayer for the dead.
- ^ Ken Collins, What Happens to Me When I Die?.
- ^ "Audience of 4 August 1999". Vatican.va. 1999-08-04. http://www.vatican.va/holy_father/john_paul_ii/audiences/1999/documents/hf_jp-ii_aud_04081999_en.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "The Communion of Saints".
- ^ "The death that Adam brought into the world is spiritual as well as physical, and only those who gain entrance into the Kingdom of God will exist eternally. However, this division will not occur until Armageddon, when all people will be resurrected and given a chance to gain eternal life. In the meantime, "the dead are conscious of nothing." What is God's Purpose for the Earth?" Official Site of Jehovah's Witnesses. Watchtower, July 15, 2002.
- ^ a b Justin Martyr, First Apology §LXVII
- ^ a b c Cross/Livingstone. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church. p. 1435f.
- ^ Hickman. Handbook of the Christian Year.
- ^ "ANF04. Fathers of the Third Century: Tertullian, Part Fourth; Minucius Felix; Commodian; Origen, Parts First and Second | Christian Classics Ethereal Library". Ccel.org. 2005-06-01. http://www.ccel.org/fathers2/ANF-04/anf04-34.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- ^ Minucius Felix speaks of the cross of Jesus in its familiar form, likening it to objects with a crossbeam or to a man with arms outstretched in prayer (Octavius of Minucius Felix, chapter XXIX).
- ^ "At every forward step and movement, at every going in and out, when we put on our clothes and shoes, when we bathe, when we sit at table, when we light the lamps, on couch, on seat, in all the ordinary actions of daily life, we trace upon the forehead the sign." (Tertullian, De Corona, chapter 3)
- ^ a b Dilasser. The Symbols of the Church.
- ^ a b Catholic Encyclopedia, "Symbolism of the Fish".
- ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, "Veneration of Images.
- ^ "Through Baptism we are freed from sin and reborn as sons of God; we become members of Christ, are incorporated into the Church and made sharers in her mission" (Catechism of the Catholic Church, 1213; "Holy Baptism is the sacrament by which God adopts us as his children and makes us members of Christ's Body, the Church, and inheritors of the kingdom of God" (Book of Common Prayer, 1979, Episcopal ); "Baptism is the sacrament of initiation and incorporation into the body of Christ" (An United Methodist Understanding of Baptism); "As an initiatory rite into membership of the Family of God, baptismal candidates are symbolically purified or washed as their sins have been forgiven and washed away" (William H. Brackney, Believer's Baptism).
- ^ a b Alexander, T. D., & Rosner, B. S, ed (2001). "Prayer". New Dictionary of Biblical Theology. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press.
- ^ "Saints". New Dictionary of Theology. Downers Grove, IL: Intervarsity Press. 1988.
- ^ Madeleine Gray, The Protestant Reformation, (Sussex Academic Press, 2003), page 140.
- ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church: Part Four – Christian Prayer". Va. http://www.va/archive/catechism/p4s1.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Gill, N.S.. "Which Nation First Adopted Christianity?". About.com. http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/neareast/f/1stchristian.htm. Retrieved 8 October 2011. ""Armenia is considered the first nation to have adopted Christianity as the state religion in a traditional date of c. A.D. 301.""
- ^ "The World Factbook: Armenia". CIA. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/am.html. Retrieved 8 October 2011.
- ^ Brunner, Borgna (2006). Time Almanac with Information Please 2007. New York: Time Home Entertainment. p. 685. ISBN 978-1-933405-49-0.
- ^ Theodosian Code XVI.i.2, in: Bettenson. Documents of the Christian Church. p. 31.
- ^ a b Orlandis, A Short History of the Catholic Church (1993), preface.
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 37f.
- ^ Luc-Normand Tellier (2009). "Urban world history: an economic and geographical perspective". PUQ. p.198. ISBN 2-7605-1588-5
- ^ Eusebius of Caesarea, the author of Ecclesiastical History in the 4th century, states that St. Mark came to Egypt in the first or third year of the reign of Emperor Claudius, i.e. 41 or 43 AD. "Two Thousand years of Coptic Christianity" Otto F.A. Meinardus p28.
- ^ Bethel.edu
- ^ "Allaboutreligion.org". Allaboutreligion.org. http://www.allaboutreligion.org/history-of-christianity-in-africa-faq.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ a b c d Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 238–42.
- ^ Mullin, 2008, p. 88.
- ^ Mullin, 2008, p. 93-4.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 244–47.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, p. 260.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 278–81.
- ^ Rudy, The Universities of Europe, 1100-1914, p. 40
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 305, 312, 314f..
- ^ Rüegg, Walter: "Foreword. The University as a European Institution", in: A History of the University in Europe. Vol. 1: Universities in the Middle Ages, Cambridge University Press, 1992, ISBN 0-521-36105-2, pp. XIX–XX
- ^ Verger 1999
- ^ Riché, Pierre (1978): "Education and Culture in the Barbarian West: From the Sixth through the Eighth Century", Columbia: University of South Carolina Press, ISBN 0-87249-376-8, pp. 126-7, 282-98
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 303–07, 310f., 384–86.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 305, 310f., 316f.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 321–23, 365f.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 292–300.
- ^ Riley-Smith. The Oxford History of the Crusades.
- ^ The Western Church was called Latin at the time by the Eastern Christians and non Christians due to its conducting of its rituals and affairs in the Latin language
- ^ "The Great Schism: The Estrangement of Eastern and Western Christendom". Orthodox Information Centre. http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/general/greatschism.aspx. Retrieved 2007-05-26.
- ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners (1997), p. 91
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 300, 304–05.
- ^ Gonzalez, The Story of Christianity, pp. 310, 383, 385, 391.
- ^ Simon. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. p. 7.
- ^ Simon. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. pp. 39, 55–61.
- ^ Schama. A History of Britain. pp. 306–10.
- ^ Bokenkotter, A Concise History of the Catholic Church, pp. 242–44.
- ^ Simon. Great Ages of Man: The Reformation. pp. 109–120.
- ^ A general overview about the English discussion is given in Coffey, Persecution and Toleration in Protestant England 1558–1689.
- ^ Novak, Michael (1988). Catholic social thought and liberal institutions: Freedom with justice. Transaction. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-88738-763-0. http://books.google.com/books?id=7pb1GDmxA1UC&pg=PA63.
- ^ Mortimer Chambers, The Western Experience (vol. 2) chapter 21.
- ^ Altermatt, Urs (2007). "Katholizismus und Nation: Vier Modelle in europäisch-vergleichender Perspektive". In Urs Altermatt, Franziska Metzger (in German). Religion und Nation: Katholizismen im Europa des 19. und 20. Jahrhundert. Kohlhammer. pp. 15–34. ISBN 978-3-17-019977-4.
- ^ Heimann, Mary (1995). Catholic Devotion in Victorian England. Clarendon Press. pp. 165–73. ISBN 0-19-820597-X.
- ^ "Religion may become extinct in nine nations, study says". BBC News. 2011-03-22. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-12811197.
- ^ "図録▽世界各国の宗教". .ttcn.ne.jp. http://www2.ttcn.ne.jp/~honkawa/9460.html. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ Christian Communities in the Middle East. Oxford University Press. 1998. ISBN 0-19-829388-7.
- ^ "Major Religions Ranked by Size". Adherents. http://www.adherents.com/Religions_By_Adherents.html. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ Werner Ustorf. "A missiological postscript", in McLeod and Ustorf (eds), The Decline of Christendom in (Western) Europe, 1750–2000, (Cambridge University Press, 2003) pp. 219–20.
- ^ Encyclopædia Britannica table of religions, by region. Retrieved November 2007.
- ^ ARIS 2008 Report: Part IA – Belonging. "American Religious Identification Survey 2008". B27.cc.trincoll.edu. http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/p1a_belong.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "New UK opinion poll shows continuing collapse of 'Christendom'". Ekklesia.co.uk. 2006-12-23. http://www.ekklesia.co.uk/news/uk/061223/christendom. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Barrett/Kurian.World Christian Encyclopedia, p. 139 (Britain), 281 (France), 299 (Germany).
- ^ "Christians in the Middle East". BBC News. 2005-12-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/4499668.stm. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Katz, Gregory (2006-12-25). "Is Christianity dying in the birthplace of Jesus?". Chron.com. http://www.chron.com/disp/story.mpl/world/4425100.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Number of Christians among young Koreans decreases by 5% per year". Omf.org. http://www.omf.org/omf/uk/about_asia/countries/korea/south_korea_profile. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Christianity fading in Taiwan | American Buddhist Net". Americanbuddhist.net. 2007-11-10. http://americanbuddhist.net/christianity-fading-taiwan. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- ^ Greenlees, Donald (2007-12-26). "A Gambling-Fueled Boom Adds to a Church’s Bane". Macao: Nytimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/12/26/world/asia/26macao.html?_r=1&oref=slogin. Retrieved 2011-06-30.
- ^ Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar (2009). "AMERICAN RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION SURVEY (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/ARIS_Report_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-04-01.
- ^ "Religions in Canada—Census 2001". 2.statcan.ca. 2010-03-09. http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census01/products/standard/themes/RetrieveProductTable.cfm?Temporal=2001&PID=55822&APATH=3&GID=431515&METH=1&PTYPE=55440&THEME=56&FOCUS=0&AID=0&PLACENAME=0&PROVINCE=0&SEARCH=0&GC=99&GK=NA&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=&FL=0&RL=0&FREE=0. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Australian 2006 census – Religion". Censusdata.abs.gov.au. http://www.censusdata.abs.gov.au/ABSNavigation/prenav/PopularAreas?&collection=Census&period=2006&&navmapdisplayed=true&textversion=false. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Table 28, 2006 Census Data – QuickStats About Culture and Identity – Tables.
- ^ ANALYSIS December 19, 2011 (2011-12-19). "Europe". Pewforum.org. http://www.pewforum.org/Christian/Global-Christianity-europe.aspx. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ ANALYSIS December 19, 2011 (2011-12-19). "Americas". Pewforum.org. http://www.pewforum.org/Christian/Global-Christianity-americas.aspx. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ David Stoll, "Is Latin America Turning Protestant?" published Berkeley: University of California Press. 1990
- ^ Jeff Hadden (1997). "Pentecostalism". Archived from the original on 2006-04-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20060427204250/religiousmovements.lib.virginia.edu/nrms/penta.html. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- ^ Pew Forum on Religion and Public Life (2006-04-24). "Moved by the Spirit: Pentecostal Power and Politics after 100 Years". http://pewforum.org/events/?EventID=109. Retrieved 2008-09-24.
- ^ "Pentecostalism". Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 2007. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1B1-374862.html. Retrieved 2008-12-21.
- ^ Ed Gitre, Christianity Today Magazine (2000-11-13). "The CT Review: Pie-in-the-Sky Now". http://www.christianitytoday.com/ct/2000/november13/36.107.html.
- ^ "Aljazeera". Aljazeera.net. http://www.aljazeera.net/programs/shareea/articles/2000/12/12-12-6.htm. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Six Million African Muslims Convert to Christianity Each Year". Orthodoxytoday.org. http://www.orthodoxytoday.org/articles6/AlJazeerahAfrica.php. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Posted at 12:00 AM. "Six million African Muslims leave Islam per year". American Thinker. http://www.americanthinker.com/blog/2006/05/six_million_african_muslims_le.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Over a Million Muslim Converts to Christianity – MND". Mensnewsdaily.com. 2006-12-31. http://mensnewsdaily.com/2006/12/31/over-a-million-muslim-converts-to-christianity/. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ khadijabibi (2009-10-30). "In Africa, 6 million muslims convert to Christianity every year". Chowk. http://www.chowk.com/ilogs/74351/51514. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ a b c d e f Muslims Turn to Christ – ChristianAction
- ^ Gary Lane. "House Churches Growing in Iran". Cbn.com. http://www.cbn.com/CBNnews/437006.aspx. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ khadijabibi (2009-10-30). "35,000 Moslems convert into Christianity each year in Turkey". Chowk.com. http://www.chowk.com/ilogs/74358/51514. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ View more articles by Jeni Mitchell. "FREEradicals - Targeting Christians in Central Asia". Icsr.info. http://icsr.info/blog-item.php?id=111. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ "Despite Government Set-backs, Christianity Is Alive in Central Asia". Opendoorsusa.org. 2011-11-30. http://www.opendoorsusa.org/pray/prayer-updates/2011/December/Christianity-Is-Alive-in-Central-Asia. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ "Kandhmal: 66 percent Christian population growth in 10 years". Answerbag.com. http://www.answerbag.com/article/Kandhmal:+66+percent+Christian+population+growth+in+10+years/cad07d37-403a-0b7b-48f3-e984412a9262/population-growth-rate. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "160,000 Have Converted Out of Hinduism in Malaysia in 25 Years". Christianaggression.org. 2005-05-16. http://www.christianaggression.org/item_display.php?id=1116227550&type=news. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Religions in Mongolia". Mongolia-attractions.com. http://www.mongolia-attractions.com/religions-in-mongolia.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ Religious Demographic Profiles – Pew Forum
- ^ "Annual Report on International Religious Freedom for 2005 – Vietnam". U.S. Department of State. 2005-06-30. http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/rsd/rsddocview.html?tbl=RSDCOI&id=437c9cdd2&count=0. Retrieved 2007-03-11.
- ^ "Christianity, non-religious register biggest growth: Census 2010". Newnation.sg. 2011-01-13. http://newnation.sg/2011/01/christianity-non-religious-register-biggest-growth-census-2010/. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ "In Indonesia, Lunar New Year an old practice for young Christians". Webcitation.org. http://www.webcitation.org/60y2wqSF7. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ "In Indonesia, the Chinese go to church". Nytimes.com. 2006-04-27. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/04/27/opinion/27iht-edbrazier.html?_r=1. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ "Christianity 2010: a view from the new Atlas of Global Christianity". Goliath.ecnext.com. 2010-01-01. http://goliath.ecnext.com/coms2/gi_0199-12060445/Christianity-2010-a-vie-from.html. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ "Christianity on upswing in Japan". Wnd.com. 2006-03-18. http://www.wnd.com/2006/03/35319/. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ Landau, Christopher (2009-10-26). "Will South Korea become Christian?". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8322072.stm. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ Putnam, Democracies in Flux: The Evolution of Social Capital in Contemporary Society, p. 408.
- ^ McGrath, Christianity: An Introduction, p. xvi.
- ^ Peter Marber, Money Changes Everything: How Global Prosperity Is Reshaping Our Needs, Values and Lifestyles, p. 99.
- ^ "Costa Rica". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/139528/Costa-Rica. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
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- ^ a b "El Salvador". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/181798/El-Salvador. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Church and State in Britain: The Church of privilege". Centre for Citizenship. http://www.centreforcitizenship.org/church1.html. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
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- ^ "McCain Praises Georgia For Adopting Christianity As Official State Religion". BeliefNet. http://blog.beliefnet.com/stevenwaldman/2008/08/mccain-praises-georgia-for-ado.html. Retrieved 2009-04-11.
- ^ "Iceland". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/281235/Iceland. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Liechtenstein". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2003/24418.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Malta". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/360532/Malta. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Monaco". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/388747/Monaco. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Vatican". Encyclopædia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/623972/Vatican-City. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Cyprus". U.S. Department of State. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2003/27433.htm. Retrieved 2008-05-11.
- ^ "Divisions of Christianity". North Virginia College. http://www.nvcc.edu/home/lshulman/Rel232/resource/Xiandivision.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "The LDS Restorationist movement, including Mormon denominations". Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/ldswho.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "Nicene Creed". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9055702. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ Sydney E. Ahlstrom (, p. 381.) characterized denominationalism in America as "a virtual ecclesiology" that "first of all repudiates the insistences of the Roman Catholic church, the churches of the 'magisterial' Reformation, and of most sects that they alone are the true Church." For specific citations, on the Roman Catholic Church see the Catechism of the Catholic Church §816; other examples: Donald Nash, Why the Churches of Christ are not a Denomination; Wendell Winkler, Christ's Church is not a Denomination; and David E. Pratt, What does God think about many Christian denominations?
- ^ Ehrman, Bart D. (2003). Lost Christianities: The Battles for Scripture and the Faiths We Never Knew. Oxford University Press, USA. p. 1. ISBN 0-19-514183-0.
- ^ Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium.
- ^ Duffy, Saints and Sinners, p. 1.
- ^ Hitchcock, Geography of Religion, p. 281.
- ^ Norman, The Roman Catholic Church an Illustrated History, p. 11, 14.
- ^ a b Second Vatican Council, Lumen Gentium, chapter 2, paragraph 15.
- ^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, paragraph 865.
- ^ Marthaler, Introducing the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Traditional Themes and Contemporary Issues (1994), preface.
- ^ John Paul II, Pope (1997). "Laetamur Magnopere". Vatican. Archived from the original on 2008-02-11. http://web.archive.org/web/20080211121910/http://www.usccb.org/catechism/text/laetamurmagnopere.htm. Retrieved 2008-03-09.
- ^ Annuario Pontificio (2012), p. 1142.
- ^ Barry, One Faith, One Lord (2001), p. 71
- ^ Central Intelligence Agency, CIA World Factbook (2007).
- ^ a b c Adherents.com, Religions by Adherents
- ^ Zenit.org, "Number of Catholics and Priests Rises", 12 February 2007.
- ^ According to the Bonn Accord of 1931, cited at Old Catholic Church of the Beatitudes.
- ^ Council of Anglican Episcopal Churches in Germany.
- ^ Cross/Livingstone. The Oxford Dictionary of the Christian Church, p. 1199.
- ^ "Oriental Orthodox Churches". Wcc-coe.org. http://www.wcc-coe.org/wcc/what/ecumenical/ooc-e.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "An Introduction to the Oriental Orthodox Churches". Pluralism.org. 2005-03-15. http://www.pluralism.org/affiliates/student/allen/Oriental-Orthodox/Home.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ OONS. "Syrian Orthodox Resources – Middle Eastern Oriental Orthodox Common Declaration". Sor.cua.edu. http://sor.cua.edu/Ecumenism/20010317oomtg4.html. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ a b McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. pp. 251–59.
- ^ Dr. James Milton Carroll. The Trail of Blood. The School of Biblical & Theological Studies (2004).
- ^ "About The Methodist Church". Methodist Central Hall Westminster. http://www.methodist-central-hall.org.uk/history/WhatisMethodism.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "Christianity: Pentecostal Churches". Finding Your Way, Inc.. http://www.findingyourwayinc.org/christianity.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "Statement of Belief". Cambridge Christ United Methodist Church. http://www.cambridgechristumc.com/statementofbelief.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "The New Birth by John Wesley (Sermon 45)". The United Methodist Church GBGM. http://new.gbgm-umc.org/umhistory/wesley/sermons/45/. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "God's Preparing, Accepting, and Sustaining Grace". The United Methodist Church GBGM. http://gbgm-umc.org/umw/wesley/walk.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "Total Experience of the Spirit". Warren Wilson College. http://www.warren-wilson.edu/~religion/newifo/religions/christianity/index/pentecostal/essay.shtml. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "Protestantism - Definition of Protestantism". Christianity.about.com. 2012-06-19. http://christianity.about.com/od/glossary/qt/Protestantism.htm. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
- ^ Sykes/Booty/Knight. The Study of Anglicanism, p. 219.
- ^ Gregory Hallam, Orthodoxy and Ecumenism.
- ^ Gregory Mathewes-Green, "Whither the Branch Theory?", Anglican Orthodox Pilgrim Vol. 2, No. 4.
- ^ Confessionalism is a term employed by historians to refer to "the creation of fixed identities and systems of beliefs for separate churches which had previously been more fluid in their self-understanding, and which had not begun by seeking separate identities for themselves—they had wanted to be truly Catholic and reformed." (MacCulloch, The Reformation: A History, p. xxiv.)
- ^ "Classification of Protestant Denominations". Pew Forum on Religion & Public Life / U.S. Religious Landscape Survey. http://religions.pewforum.org/pdf/report2religious-landscape-study-appendix3.pdf. Retrieved 2009-09-27.
- ^ Do You Believe in a Devil?. Birmingham, UK: CMPA. http://www.thechristadelphian.com/pamphlets/standardseries/doyoubelieve.html.
- ^ The dogma of the Trinity at 'Catholic Encyclopedia', ed. Kevin Knight at New Advent website
- ^ John 6:14 Jesus identified as a prophet. The greater Moses.
- ^ On Unitarians, see: UUA.org, Unitarian Views of Jesus; on connection with Socinianism, see: sullivan-county.com, Socinianism: Unitarianism in 16th-17th century Poland and Its Influence (Note that the icon at the top of the page expresses Trinitarian theology with a symbolic hand gesture); on this matter they parallel the ancient Ebionites, see: J.N.D. Kelly, Early Christian Doctrines pp. 139
- ^ Western Esotericism and the Science of Religion: Selected Papers Presented at the 17th Congress
- ^ Besant, Annie (2001). Esoteric Christianity or the Lesser Mysteries. City: Adamant Media Corporation. ISBN 978-1-4021-0029-1.
- ^ From the Greek ἐσωτερικός (esôterikos, "inner"). The term esotericism itself was coined in the 17th century. (Oxford English Dictionary Compact Edition, Volume 1,Oxford University Press, 1971, p. 894.)
- ^ Wouter J. Hanegraaff, Antoine Faivre, Roelof van den Broek, Jean-Pierre Brach, Dictionary of Gnosis & Western Esotericism, Brill 2005.
- ^ "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: esotericism". Webster.com. 2010-08-13. http://www.webster.com/dictionary/esotericism. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ "Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary: esoteric". Webster.com. http://www.webster.com/dictionary/esoteric. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 91f.
- ^ "The Restorationist Movements". Religious Tolerance. http://www.religioustolerance.org/chrrest.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ "What is Restorationism?". Got Questions Ministries. http://www.gotquestions.org/restorationism.html. Retrieved 2007-12-31.
- ^ JW-Media.org Membership 2005
- ^ Sydney E. Ahlstrom, A Religious History of the American People (2004)
- ^ Melton's Encyclopedia of American Religions (2009)
- ^ "Facts and Statistics". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. http://www.mormonnewsroom.org/facts-and-statistics/. Retrieved 14 June 2012. The Church counts all members who were ever baptized, who have neither been excommunicated nor asked to have their names removed from church records. Independent surveys estimate that about 50% of people on LDS Church rolls do not identify with the religion. See John Dart, Counting Mormons: study says LDS numbers inflated, Christian Century, August 21, 2007.
- ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). p. 108. ISBN 9780813216836.
- ^ a b Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. Early Middle Ages: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884892984.
- ^ Koch, Carl (1994). The Catholic Church: Journey, Wisdom, and Mission. The Age of Enlightenment: St. Mary's Press. ISBN 9780884892984.
- ^ Dawson, Christopher; Glenn Olsen (1961). Crisis in Western Education (reprint ed.). ISBN 9780813216836.
- ^ a b McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, pp. 581–84.
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity. p. 413f.
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 498.
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 373.
- ^ McManners, Oxford Illustrated History of Christianity, p. 583.
- ^ "Methodist Statement" (PDF). http://www.lutheranworld.org/What_We_Do/OEA/Methodist-Statement-2006-EN.pdf. Retrieved 2010-11-19.
- ^ a b "The Christian Flag". Prayer Foundation. http://www.prayerfoundation.org/christian_flag.htm. Retrieved 2007–10–18. "The flag's most conspicuous symbol is the Christian cross, the most universal symbol for Christianity. The red color represents the blood of Christ and brings to mind his crucifixion. Christians believe that Jesus Christ's death and resurrection is the means God uses to save believers from their sins. The cross and blood have been used since earliest Christianity to symbolize salvation through Jesus; in the words of the Apostle Paul, "And having made peace through the blood of his cross, by him to reconcile all things unto himself;" -Colossians 1:20. The white field draws on symbolism throughout the Bible equating white clothes with purity and forgiveness. People who have been "washed white as snow" in the Bible have been cleansed from their sins (Isaiah 1:18; Psalm 51:2). In conventional vexillology (the study of flags, their history and sybolism), a white flag is linked to surrender, a reference to the Biblical description Jesus' non-violence and surrender to God's will. The symbolism behind the blue canton has been interpreted to represent Heaven, truth, or the Christian ritual of Baptism in water."
- ^ International Standard Bible Encyclopedia: E-J by Geoffrey W. Bromiley 1982 ISBN 0802837824 page 175
- ^ Jews and Christians: The Parting of the Ways, A.D. 70 to 135 by James D. G. Dunn 1999 ISBN 0802844987 pages 112-113
- ^ The Encyclopedia of Christian Literature, Volume 1 by George Thomas Kurian and James Smith 2010 ISBN 081086987X page 527
- ^ Apologetic Discourse and the Scribal Tradition by Wayne Campbell Kannaday 2005 ISBN 9004130853 pages 32-33
- ^ A Dictionary Of Jewish-Christian Relations by Edward Kessler, Neil Wenborn 2005 ISBN 0521826926 page 168
- ^ The Cambridge Companion to Nietzsche by Bernd Magnus, Kathleen Marie Higgins 1996 ISBN 0521367670 pages 90-93
- ^ Russell on Religion: Selections from the Writings of Bertrand Russell by Bertrand Russell, Stefan Andersson and Louis Greenspan 1999 ISBN 0415180910 pages 77-87
- ^ Christianity: An Introduction by Alister E. McGrath 2006 ISBN 1405108991 pp. 125-126.
- ^ " The Christ Myth Theory and its problems ", published 2011 by American Atheist press, Cranford, New Jersey, ISBN 1-57884-017-1
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- "Christianity". Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
- "BBC—Religion & Ethics—Christianity". British Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/christianity/index.shtml. Retrieved 2008-01-03. A number of introductory articles on Christianity.
- "CBC Montreal—Religion—Christianity". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. http://www.cbc.ca/montreal/features/religion/christianity.html. Retrieved 2008-01-03. An overview of Christianity.
- "Netzarim". - Click at 'History Museum' in the left menu. http://www.netzarim.co.il. Retrieved 2008-10-21. The origin of Christianity
- Adena, L. The 'Jesus Cult' and the Roman State in the Third Century, Clio History Journal, 2008.
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