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Crawford County, Georgia
Crawford County Georgia Courthouse.JPG
Crawford County Courthouse in Knoxville
Map of Georgia highlighting Crawford County
Location in the state of Georgia (U.S. state)
Map of the U.S. highlighting Georgia
Georgia's location in the U.S.
Founded 1822
Named for William H. Crawford
Seat Knoxville
Largest city Roberta
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

326 sq mi (844 km²)
325 sq mi (842 km²)
1.6 sq mi (4 km²), 0.5%
 - (2010)
 - Density

39/sq mi (15/km²)
Congressional district 2nd
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4

Crawford County is a county located in the U.S. state of Georgia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 12,630.[1] The county seat is Knoxville.[2]

Crawford County is included in the Macon, GA Metropolitan Statistical Area.


Crawford County, in west central Georgia, is Georgia's fifty-seventh county. The 325-square-mile (840 km2) county was created on December 9, 1822, from Houston County, which had been formed from land given up by the Creek Indians in the 1821 Treaty of Indian Springs. The county is named for statesman William H. Crawford who had served as a U.S. senator, minister to France, and secretary of the treasury. Harris was Georgia's first presidential candidate.

The first white settlers in the area were Indian agent Benjamin Hawkins. Arriving in 1803, he developed a five-square-mile compound on the Flint River, with slave labor. The compound included a shop and plantation, which became known as the Creek Agency Reserve. Although Hawkins was well liked by the Creeks, he believed, as did many white men of his time, that the Indians should embrace a European-American way of life. His efforts to persuade the Creeks, however, were largely unsuccessful. Hawkins died at the reserve in 1816. David B Mitchell was appointed in 1817 to replace the deceased Hawkins.

Knoxville, Georgia was established on the Federal Road, the main stagecoach route from Washington, D.C., to New Orleans, making the town a natural choice for county seat. Although the chief center of population is now Roberta, a mile to its west, Knoxville (no longer an incorporated city) retains its designation as the county seat. The current courthouse, built there in 2002, replaced one built in 1851, which still stands. The Old Courthouse is designated as a historical site and is used as a museum.

Roberta, originally called New Knoxville, is the only incorporated city in the county. It was incorporated on December 26, 1890. Roberta started out in 1886 as a railroad office and warehouse, "Roberta, ca. 1900," at the Atlanta and Florida Railway's "89 Fort Valley" milepost. Two years later, after a freight depot and passenger station were completed at the site, people began to settle in the immediate area. Townspeople gave the honor of naming the new town to Hiram McCrary, who had given the railroad the rights to come through his land. McCrary chose to call it Roberta in honor of his young daughter.

Most of the inhabitants of Knoxville, a mile away, moved to Roberta when the railroad arrived. For years, while passenger train service was an important mode of transportation, Roberta served as a thriving tourist stop on the route to Florida. After passenger train service gave way to the private automobile, Roberta relaxed into a quiet residential town. The rail tracks were taken up during the 1980s and only the rail bed remains. During 1950 through 1965 the tourist industry was revived by tourist traveling to and from coastal resorts by way of Highway US 341. This all ended when the interstate system diverted traffic away from Roberta to Macon, Georgia. The many diners and motels built to meet the tourist needs all but disappeared. Roberta is now a quiet, small Southern town. Other communities in Crawford county are Musella, Gaillard, Horns, Lee Pope, and Zenith.

Musella officially first appeared on the Georgia map in 1895. It appears that the Atlanta and Florida Railway (A&F) named the community Musella to identify it as a flag stop. The A&F began laying 105 miles (169 km) of track from Atlanta to Fort Valley in 1880. The railroad wanted to bring the track from Culloden to Knoxville, which was the most direct and economical route, but Crawford County rebelled. Crawford Countians didn’t want the railroad passing through their county seat, so, the A&F laid the tracks to Musella instead. When Musella became a flag stop, the railroad offered better opportunities for farmers to market their products, so many of the residents of nearby Ceres, Georgia, (named after the Roman goddess of agriculture; settlement also called Hopewell) migrated to Musella. Since cotton could be shipped by rail, the cotton gin at Ceres was disassembled and moved approximately two miles to Musella. Soon, a general store and post office were built there, and Musella quickly became a hub of economic activity in northern Crawford County. Now it is a snapshot of the past.

Portrait of an attractive young woman in mid-19th century dress sewing a flag that says "Liberty or Death"

Joanna Troutman portrait in the Texas State Capitol

During the county's early days, settlers relied first on agriculture (cotton and oats) then on cattle ranching, timber harvesting, and sand extraction as economic mainstays. Agriculture continues to be important, as are manufacturing and health and social services. Many residents also work in neighboring areas.

Well-known figures from Crawford County include Jefferson Franklin Long, Georgia's first African-American congressional representative and the first African American to speak from the floor of the U.S. House of Representatives. Long, of mixed African and Caucasian ancestry, was born into slavery in Knoxville. As a freedman after the Civil War (1861–65), he became a tailor. His interest in equal rights led him to politics. He was elected to Congress in December 1870 and served until March 1871 during the Reconstruction era.

John Pemberton, the inventor of Coca-Cola, was also born in Knoxville. Pemberton was a veteran Confederate States of America lieutenant colonel who served on the first Georgia pharmacy licensing board after the war. His state-of-the-art laboratory for chemical analysis and manufacturing became the first state-run facility to conduct tests of soil and crop chemicals.

Joanna Troutman, who designed the first Lone Star flag (later adopted as the Texas State Flag), was born in Crawford County. She presented her flag to a Volunteer Georgia Battalion, who went to Texas in 1835 to assist Texans in their fight for independence. The flag was first flown at Velasco January 8, 1836, and was hoisted along with the Bloody Arm flag at Goliad on news of the declaration of independence March 8, 1836. Although Troutman lived most of her life in Knoxville, her remains were moved to the Texas State Cemetery in Austin, where a bronze statue was erected in her honor. A portrait of Troutman also hangs in the Texas State Capitol.

In 1775 naturalist William Bartram, traveling across Georgia, found a previously unknown plant in Crawford County. He named the plant Hydrangea Quercifolia—now commonly called Oakleaf Hydrangea. Bartram described the area near Sweetwater Creek as a "delightful diversified rural scene," noting that it "promises a happy, fruitful and salubrious region." See The Botanical Explorations of William Bartram in the Southeast by David H. Rembert Jr., Department of Biology, University of South Carolina—article and picture courtesy of Bartram Trail Conference.

Crawford County pottery was a thriving business in Crawford County during the 1800s and early 1900s. Men such as Long, Becham, Merritt, Pyles, and Dickson were known throughout the area for their utilitarian jugs and crocks. Clay from Crawford County and the Rich Hill alkaline glaze used by the early "jug makers" is still prized today.

Historic places to visit:

  • Knoxville: The Old Jail (Est 1843) Museum and the Old Courthouse (Est 1832), which was re-built in 1851 after a fire, houses documents and local history. Knoxville is also the home of the annual Crawford County Pottery Jug Fest.
  • Roberta: Historic Old Town Buildings, Replica of the original Train Depot and Passenger Station, Bejamin Hawkins Monument. Currently renovating a rail car Caboose for a railway Museum.
  • West of Roberta off Highway US 80: The Museum of Southeastern Indians with its collection of Indian artifacts and Appalachian settler history.
  • Musella: Dickey Farms (Est. 1897) has one of Georgia's oldest, continuously operating peach packing houses (built in 1936). Hays General Store (Est. 1900) has 110 years of continuous operation, and is one of the oldest stores of its kind in Georgia still in operation. Musella Baptist Church was founded in 1884; the current building was constructed in 1908, and is a beautiful example of traditional country church architecture.


According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 326 square miles (840 km2), of which 325 square miles (840 km2) is land and 1.6 square miles (4.1 km2) (0.5%) is water.[3]

The western portion of Crawford County, west of Musella and Knoxville, is located in the Upper Flint River sub-basin of the ACF River Basin (Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin). The northeastern portion of the county, northeast of Byron, is located in the Upper Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the Altamaha River basin. A southeastern corner of Crawford County, north of Fort Valley, is located in the Lower Ocmulgee River sub-basin of the same Altamaha River basin.[4]

Major highways[]

  • I-75.svg Interstate 75
  • US 80.svg U.S. Route 80
  • US 341.svg U.S. Route 341
  • Georgia 7.svg State Route 7
  • Georgia 22.svg State Route 22
  • Georgia 42.svg State Route 42
  • Georgia 96.svg State Route 96
  • Georgia 128.svg State Route 128
  • Georgia 401.svg State Route 401
  • Georgia 540.svg State Route 540 (Fall Line Freeway) (future)

Adjacent counties[]


Historical populations
Census Pop.
1830 5,313
1840 7,981 50.2%
1850 8,984 12.6%
1860 7,693 −14.4%
1870 7,557 −1.8%
1880 8,656 14.5%
1890 9,315 7.6%
1900 10,368 11.3%
1910 8,310 −19.8%
1920 8,893 7.0%
1930 7,020 −21.1%
1940 7,128 1.5%
1950 6,080 −14.7%
1960 5,816 −4.3%
1970 5,748 −1.2%
1980 7,684 33.7%
1990 8,991 17.0%
2000 12,495 39.0%
2010 12,630 1.1%
Est. 2016 12,322 [5] −1.4%
U.S. Decennial Census[6]
1790-1960[7] 1900-1990[8]
1990-2000[9] 2010-2013[1]

2000 census[]

As of the census[10] of 2000, there were 12,495 people, 4,461 households, and 3,457 families residing in the county. The population density was 38 people per square mile (15/km²). There were 4,872 housing units at an average density of 15 per square mile (6/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 72.85% White, 23.80% Black or African American, 0.37% Native American, 0.17% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.81% from other races, and 0.98% from two or more races. 2.41% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 4,461 households out of which 37.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.50% were married couples living together, 12.60% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.50% were non-families. 18.80% of all households were made up of individuals and 6.30% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.78 and the average family size was 3.14.

In the county, the population was spread out with 27.60% under the age of 18, 7.90% from 18 to 24, 31.60% from 25 to 44, 23.70% from 45 to 64, and 9.20% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 35 years. For every 100 females there were 100.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.60 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $37,848, and the median income for a family was $41,799. Males had a median income of $31,099 versus $21,138 for females. The per capita income for the county was $15,768. About 12.70% of families and 15.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.20% of those under age 18 and 23.80% of those age 65 or over.

2010 census[]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 12,630 people, 4,822 households, and 3,531 families residing in the county.[11] The population density was 38.9 inhabitants per square mile (15.0 /km2). There were 5,292 housing units at an average density of 16.3 per square mile (6.3 /km2).[12] The racial makeup of the county was 74.6% white, 22.3% black or African American, 0.5% American Indian, 0.3% Asian, 0.1% Pacific islander, 1.0% from other races, and 1.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 2.4% of the population.[11] In terms of ancestry, 12.0% were American, 9.9% were English, 9.8% were Irish, and 7.3% were German.[13]

Of the 4,822 households, 32.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 54.9% were married couples living together, 13.3% had a female householder with no husband present, 26.8% were non-families, and 22.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.59 and the average family size was 3.02. The median age was 41.5 years.[11]

The median income for a household in the county was $37,062 and the median income for a family was $48,623. Males had a median income of $39,452 versus $34,167 for females. The per capita income for the county was $20,692. About 16.8% of families and 20.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.8% of those under age 18 and 16.2% of those age 65 or over.[14]




  • Roberta

Census-designated place[]

  • Knoxville

Other unincorporated communities[]

  • Lizella
  • Musella
  • Zenith


Previous Presidential Elections Results[15]
Year Republican Democratic Third Parties
2016 70.2% 3,635 27.5% 1,421 2.3% 120
2012 65.5% 3,368 33.2% 1,706 1.4% 70
2008 64.0% 3,358 34.9% 1,832 1.1% 58
2004 64.2% 2,830 35.2% 1,552 0.6% 26
2000 55.7% 1,987 42.4% 1,513 1.9% 67
1996 41.6% 1,290 49.4% 1,534 9.0% 279
1992 30.6% 974 51.8% 1,648 17.6% 561
1988 47.6% 1,235 51.6% 1,340 0.9% 22
1984 47.7% 1,298 52.3% 1,423
1980 27.0% 642 70.4% 1,673 2.5% 60
1976 17.0% 378 83.0% 1,842
1972 69.5% 1,167 30.5% 512
1968 15.2% 246 30.2% 489 54.7% 886
1964 57.0% 957 43.0% 723
1960 20.3% 203 79.7% 797
1956 12.3% 109 87.7% 779
1952 13.3% 145 86.7% 948
1948 36.2% 257 54.8% 389 9.0% 64
1944 28.4% 149 71.6% 375
1940 16.9% 74 82.8% 362 0.2% 1
1936 5.0% 22 94.5% 413 0.5% 2
1932 3.2% 9 96.8% 272
1928 11.8% 48 88.2% 358
1924 1.9% 7 94.1% 352 4.0% 15
1920 21.7% 65 78.3% 235
1916 1.0% 4 98.6% 411 0.5% 2
1912 1.2% 3 98.4% 249 0.4% 1

See also[]

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Crawford County, Georgia


  1. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on 2011-05-31. Retrieved 2011-06-07. 
  3. ^ "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23. 
  4. ^ "Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission Interactive Mapping Experience". Georgia Soil and Water Conservation Commission. Retrieved 2015-11-22. 
  5. ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved June 9, 2017. 
  6. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 12, 2015. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  7. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  8. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  9. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved June 20, 2014. 
  10. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2013-09-11. Retrieved 2011-05-14. 
  11. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  12. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  13. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  14. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2015-12-27. 
  15. ^

External links[]

Coordinates: 32°43′N 83°59′W / 32.71, -83.98

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Crawford County, Georgia. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.