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Cuyahoga County
—  County  —
County of Cuyahoga
Cuyahoga County Courthouse in Downtown Cleveland
Official seal of Cuyahoga County
Seal
[[File:Template:Maplink|250px|none|alt=|Interactive map of Cuyahoga County]]Interactive map of Cuyahoga County
Map of Cuyahoga County within Ohio
Country United States
State Ohio
Region Northeast Ohio
Founded May 1, 1810
Named for Cuyahoga River
County seat Cleveland
Government
 • County Executive Armond Budish
Area
 • Total 1,246 sq mi (3,230 km2)
 • Land 457 sq mi (1,180 km2)
 • Water 788 sq mi (2,040 km2)
Elevation 653 ft (199 m)
Population (2020)
 • Total 1,264,817
 • Density 2,767.65/sq mi (1,068.60/km2)
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
ZIP Codes
Congressional districts 9th, 11th, 14th, 16th Cuyahoga
Largest city Cleveland
Website cuyahogacounty.us

Cuyahoga County ( /ˌk.əˈhɒɡə/ or /ˌk.əˈhɡə/[1][2][3][4]) is located in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Ohio on the southern shore of Lake Erie, across the U.S.-Canada maritime border. As of the 2020 United States Census, its population was 1,264,817, making it the second-most-populous county in the state.[5]

The county seat and largest city is Cleveland.[6] The county is bisected by the Cuyahoga River, which serves as its namesake. The name is derived from the Iroquoian word Cuyahoga, which means "crooked river".[7] Cuyahoga County forms the core of the Greater Cleveland Metropolitan Area and the Cleveland–Akron–Canton combined statistical area.

Former U.S. President James A. Garfield was born in what was Cuyahoga County's Orange Township.

History

Cuyahoga County in 1874

After the discovery of the New World, the land that became Cuyahoga County was originally part of the French colony of Canada (New France), which was ceded in 1763 to Great Britain and renamed Province of Quebec. In the late 18th century, the land became part of the Connecticut Western Reserve in the Northwest Territory, then was purchased by the Connecticut Land Company in 1795.

Cuyahoga County was created on June 7, 1807, and organized on May 1, 1810.[8][9] It was reduced by the creation of Huron, Lake, and Lorain Counties.[10] It was named after the Cuyahoga River.

Geography

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 1,246 sq mi (3,230 km2), of which 457 sq mi (1,180 km2) are land and 788 sq mi (2,040 km2) (63%) are covered by water.[11] It is the second-largest county in Ohio by area. A portion of Cuyahoga Valley National Park is in the county's southeastern section.

Adjacent counties


Demographics

Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1810 1,459
1820 6,328 +333.7%
1830 10,373 +63.9%
1840 26,506 +155.5%
1850 48,099 +81.5%
1860 78,033 +62.2%
1870 132,010 +69.2%
1880 196,943 +49.2%
1890 309,970 +57.4%
1900 439,120 +41.7%
1910 637,425 +45.2%
1920 943,495 +48.0%
1930 1,201,455 +27.3%
1940 1,217,250 +1.3%
1950 1,389,532 +14.2%
1960 1,647,895 +18.6%
1970 1,721,300 +4.5%
1980 1,498,400 −12.9%
1990 1,412,140 −5.8%
2000 1,393,978 −1.3%
2010 1,280,122 −8.2%
2020 1,264,817 −1.2%
Source: U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2020 [16]
Largest ancestries (2010) Percent
German 17.4%
Irish 13.0%
Italian 9.2%
Polish 8.6%
English 6.3%
Slovak 3.3%

Cuyahoga County population (Source: United States Census, 2000)

As of the 2010 census, 1,280,122 people, 571,457 households, and 319,996 families were residing in the county. The population density was 2,800 people/sq mi (1,081/km2). The 621,763 housing units averaged 1,346 per sq mi (520/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 63.6% White, 29.7% African American, 0.2% Native American, 2.6% Asian (0.9% Indian, 0.7% Chinese, 0.3% Filipino, 0.2% Korean, 0.2% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese), 1.8% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. About 4.8% of the population were Hispanics or Latinos of any race (3.1% Puerto Rican, 0.7% Mexican, 0.1% Dominican, 0.1% Guatemalan).[17] by heritage, 16.5% were of German, 12.8% Irish, 8.8% Italian, 8.1% Polish, 5.9% English, 3.7% Slovak, and 3.1% Hungarian.

Sizable numbers of Russians (1.7%), French, (1.4%), Arabs (1.4%), Ukrainians (1.2%), and Greeks (0.7%) are present; 88.4% spoke English, 3.7% Spanish, and 4.9% some other Indo-European language.[18] 7.3% of the population were foreign-born (of which 44.4% were born in Europe, 36.3% Asia, and 12.1% Latin America).[18][19]

Of the 571,457 households, 28.50% had children under 18 living with them, 42.40% were married couples living together, 15.70% had a female householder with no husband present, and 37.90% were not families. About 32.80% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.10% had someone living alone who was 65 or older. The average household size was 2.39, and the average family size was 3.06.

In the county, the age distribution was 25.00% under 18, 8.00% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.20% from 45 to 64, and 15.60% who were 65 or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 89.50 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 85.20 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $43,603, and for a family was $58,631. The per capita income for the county was $26,263. About 10.30% of families and 13.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 19.40% of those under age 18 and 9.30% of those age 65 or over.[20]

Government

The Cuyahoga County Council and Executive exercise direct government over unincorporated areas of Cuyahoga County. As of 2012, this consisted of two small areas: Chagrin Falls Township and Olmsted Township.[21]

Cuyahoga County had long been led by a three-member Board of County Commissioners. In July 2008, Federal Bureau of Investigation agents began raiding the offices of Cuyahoga County Commissioners and those of a wide range of cities, towns, and villages across Cuyahoga County. The investigation revealed extensive bribery and corruption across the area, affecting hundreds of millions of dollars in county contracts and business. The investigation led to the arrest of county commissioner Jimmy Dimora; county auditor Frank Russo; MetroHealth vice president John J. Carroll; former Strongsville councilman Patrick Coyne; former Ohio District Courts of Appeals judge Anthony O. Calabrese III; former Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas judge Bridget McCafferty; Cuyahoga County Sheriff Gerald McFaul; former Cleveland City Council member Sabra Pierce Scott; Cuyahoga County Court of Common Pleas judge Steven Terry; and a wide range of attorneys, building inspectors, consultants, contractors, school district employees, and mid and low level county workers.[22]

On November 3, 2009, county voters overwhelmingly approved the adoption of a new county charter, which replaced the three-commissioner form of county government with an elected county executive and county prosecutor, and an 11-member county council. Each council member represents a single geographic district, with no at-large districts. The elected offices of auditor, clerk of courts, coroner, engineer, recorder, sheriff, and treasurer were abolished. The county executive was given authority to appoint individuals to these offices, which became part of the executive branch of the county. Summit County is the only other Ohio county with this form of government.[23]

In the November 2, 2010, election, Lakewood Mayor Ed FitzGerald (D) defeated Matt Dolan (R) to become the first Cuyahoga County Executive.[24] The first Cuyahoga County Council was also elected, with Democrats winning eight seats, while Republicans won three.[25]

Politics

Cuyahoga County is heavily Democratic in voter registration, with Republican candidates last having narrowly won the county with a plurality in 1972, and last having won an absolute majority in 1956.

United States presidential election results for Cuyahoga County, Ohio[26]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 202,699 32.32% 416,176 66.36% 8,285 1.32%
2016 184,212 30.25% 398,276 65.41% 26,391 4.33%
2012 190,660 29.55% 447,273 69.32% 7,329 1.14%
2008 199,880 29.95% 458,422 68.70% 8,997 1.35%
2004 221,600 32.89% 448,503 66.57% 3,674 0.55%
2000 192,099 33.42% 359,913 62.62% 22,770 3.96%
1996 163,770 29.15% 341,357 60.75% 56,765 10.10%
1992 187,186 29.24% 337,548 52.72% 115,507 18.04%
1988 249,439 41.02% 353,401 58.11% 5,277 0.87%
1984 284,094 43.60% 362,626 55.65% 4,913 0.75%
1980 254,883 41.47% 307,448 50.02% 52,351 8.52%
1976 255,594 41.01% 349,186 56.03% 18,442 2.96%
1972 329,493 49.94% 317,670 48.15% 12,588 1.91%
1968 238,791 35.44% 363,540 53.95% 71,508 10.61%
1964 196,436 28.50% 492,911 71.50% 0 0.00%
1960 288,056 40.17% 429,030 59.83% 0 0.00%
1956 353,474 53.72% 304,558 46.28% 0 0.00%
1952 329,465 50.34% 324,962 49.66% 0 0.00%
1948 214,889 43.80% 257,958 52.58% 17,781 3.62%
1944 217,824 39.71% 330,659 60.29% 0 0.00%
1940 209,070 37.59% 347,118 62.41% 0 0.00%
1936 128,947 27.12% 311,117 65.44% 35,354 7.44%
1932 166,337 44.89% 185,731 50.12% 18,510 4.99%
1928 194,508 53.42% 166,188 45.64% 3,412 0.94%
1924 130,169 49.29% 24,000 9.09% 109,897 41.62%
1920 148,857 64.36% 70,518 30.49% 11,904 5.15%
1916 51,287 39.78% 71,553 55.50% 6,080 4.72%
1912 14,176 13.81% 43,610 42.49% 44,838 43.69%
1908 56,344 55.39% 39,954 39.27% 5,431 5.34%
1904 57,367 62.86% 24,202 26.52% 9,687 10.62%
1900 45,299 50.55% 42,440 47.36% 1,870 2.09%
1896 42,993 52.76% 37,542 46.07% 955 1.17%
1892 26,657 45.63% 29,543 50.58% 2,214 3.79%
1888 25,994 50.92% 23,949 46.92% 1,103 2.16%
1884 24,052 55.15% 18,764 43.02% 797 1.83%
1880 22,123 58.66% 15,130 40.12% 463 1.23%
1876 18,198 55.21% 14,425 43.76% 340 1.03%
1872 14,451 63.75% 8,033 35.44% 184 0.81%
1868 12,582 61.33% 7,933 38.67% 0 0.00%
1864 10,009 63.06% 5,864 36.94% 0 0.00%
1860 8,686 62.45% 4,814 34.61% 408 2.93%
1856 6,360 57.29% 4,446 40.05% 296 2.67%



Education

Colleges and universities

Cuyahoga County is home to a number of higher-education institutions, including:

  • Baldwin Wallace University (Berea)
  • Bryant and Stratton College (Parma)
  • Cleveland Bartending School (Cleveland Heights)
  • Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland)
  • Cleveland Institute of Art (Cleveland)
  • Cleveland Institute of Music (Cleveland)
  • Cleveland State University (Cleveland)
  • Cuyahoga Community College (Cleveland] Highland Hills, Westlake, and Parma)
  • DeVry University (Seven Hills)
  • John Carroll University (University Heights)
  • Notre Dame College (South Euclid)
  • Kent State University College of Podiatric Medicine (Independence)
  • Stautzenberger College (Brecksville)
  • Ursuline College (Pepper Pike)

Health

In 2014, Cuyahoga County ranked 65 out of 88 counties in Ohio for health outcomes. This ranking was based on multiple factors, including: premature death (7,975 years per 100,000 population, of potential life lost), adults who reported having poor or fair health (15%), average number of poor physical-health days reported in a 30-day period (3.3), average number of poor mental-health days reported in a 30-day period (4.1), and the percentage of births with low birth-weight (10.4%). Among these factors, Cuyahoga did worse than the Ohio average in premature death, poor mental-health days, and low birth-weight. Possible explanations as for why Cuyahoga County is lower in health outcomes than the average Ohio county include behavioral factors, access to clinical care, social and economic factors, and environmental factors.[27]

The leading causes of death and disability in Cuyahoga County are chronic diseases such as cancer, heart disease, obesity, and diabetes.[28] The cancer mortality rate for Cuyahoga is 192.7 per 100,000 people, the mortality rate due to heart disease is 204.2 per 100,000 people, and the percentage of adult residents who are obese is 26.2%.[29]

Community comparison of disparities

According to the Fox Chase Cancer Center, a health disparity can be defined as the existence of inequalities that prevent certain members of a population group from benefiting from the same health status as other groups.[30] Cuyahoga County has many health disparities when comparing cities and demographics. The Hough neighborhood of Cleveland and the Lyndhurst area can be compared to illustrate some of the disparities. The communities are both in Cuyahoga County and are less than 10 miles apart. They also have similar populations, but a different racial breakdown according to the 2010 US Census. The Hough neighborhood's population was 16,359 (96.1% Black or African American and 2.1% White American) and the Lyndhurst's population was 14,001 (6.4% Black or African American and 90.3% White American). A 24-year disparity was seen in life expectancy between the communities.[31] Hough neighborhood residents have a life expectancy of 64 years and residents in Lyndhurst have a life expectancy of 88.5 years.[32] The annual median income in the Hough neighborhood is $13,630[31] while it is $52,272 in Lyndhurst. Data collected from the Center for Community Solutions indicated from 1990 to 2001, the rate of heart disease for residents of the Hough neighborhood was around four times that of Lyndhurst residents. The Lyndhurst rate of accidental deaths was nine times higher than the Hough neighborhood.[32]

Health facilities

  • University Hospitals Ahuja Medical Center - Beachwood
  • University Hospitals Bedford Medical Center - Bedford
  • Cleveland Clinic - Cleveland
  • Euclid Hospital - Euclid
  • Fairview Hospital - Cleveland
  • Hillcrest Hospital - Mayfield Heights
  • Huron Hospital - East Cleveland
  • University Hospitals Seidman Cancer Center - Cleveland
  • Lakewood Hospital - Lakewood
  • Lutheran Hospital - Cleveland
  • University Hospitals MacDonald Women's Hospital - Cleveland
  • Marymount Hospital - Garfield Heights
  • MetroHealth Medical Center - Cleveland
  • University Hospitals Parma Medical Center - Parma
  • Rainbow Babies & Children's Hospital - Cleveland
  • University Hospitals Richmond Medical Center - Richmond Heights
  • South Pointe Hospital - Warrensville Heights
  • Southwest General Health Center - Middleburg Heights
  • St. Anne's Hospital, historical facility in Cleveland
  • St. John Medical Center - Westlake
  • St. Vincent Charity Medical Center - Cleveland
  • University Hospitals Case Medical Center - University Circle, Cleveland
  • Healthspan (formerly Kaiser Permanente of Northeast Ohio) - Bedford, Cleveland, Cleveland Heights, and Parma

Transportation

Airports

Cuyahoga County is served by international, regional, and county airports, including:

  • Cuyahoga County Airport
  • Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (Cleveland)
  • Cleveland Burke Lakefront Airport (Cleveland)

Major highways

  • I-71
  • I-77
  • Template:Jct/2
  • I-90
  • I-271
  • I-480
  • I-490
  • US 6
  • US 20
  • US 42
  • US 322
  • US 422
  • [[Template:Infobox road/OH/link OH|Template:Infobox road/OH/abbrev OH]]
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Rail

Cuyahoga County receives intercity passenger service by Amtrak by way of Lakefront Station in Cleveland, with destinations such as Chicago, New York, Boston, Washington, DC, and many more.

The Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad offers scenic excursion service through the Cuyahoga Valley National Park by way of their Rockside Station in Independence.

Freight rail service is provided by Norfolk Southern, CSX Transportation, Wheeling and Lake Erie Railroad, Cleveland Commercial Railroad, and several other small companies. Norfolk Southern has the largest presence in the county, operating three different lines and several terminal yards.

Public transportation

The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority, also known as RTA, provides public transportation to Cuyahoga County through a combination of conventional bus, rapid-transit bus, and rail transit services, as well as on-demand services. Several other county agencies also serve Cuyahoga County, mostly through downtown Cleveland.

Greyhound, Barons Bus Lines, and Megabus provide public transportation beyond Cuyahoga County to destinations across the United States.

Recreation

The Cleveland Metroparks system serves Cuyahoga County. Its 16 reservations provide more than 21,000 acres (8,500 ha) of green space and recreational amenities.[33] The county is home to part of Cuyahoga Valley National Park, which extends southward into Summit County.

Culture

Theaters

  • Beck Center (Lakewood)[34]
  • Cabaret Dada (Cleveland)[35]
  • Cassidy Theater (Parma Heights)[36]
  • Cleveland Play House (Cleveland)[37]
  • Cleveland Public Theater (Cleveland)[38]
  • Dobama Theater (Cleveland Heights)[39]
  • East Cleveland Theater (East Cleveland)[40]
  • Huntington Playhouse (Bay Village)[41]
  • Karamu House (Cleveland)[42]
  • Near West Theatre (Cleveland)[43]
  • Playhouse Square Center (Cleveland)[44]

Classical music

  • Cleveland Orchestra performs in Severance Hall

Museums

  • Cleveland Museum of Art
  • Museum of Contemporary Art, Cleveland
  • Rock and Roll Hall of Fame
  • Cleveland Museum of Natural History
  • Maltz Museum of Jewish Heritage, Beachwood
  • Great Lakes Science Center, Cleveland [45]
  • International Women Air and Space Museum Cleveland [46]

Retail

Cuyahoga County has many options for shopping. Some of the well-known shopping areas include:

  • Historically, downtown Cleveland, especially Euclid Avenue, has served as the major economic hub of the county and the entire metropolitan area. Other retail centers in Cleveland include Ohio City, Kamm's Corners, and Shaker Square.
  • Beachwood Place stores include Saks Fifth Avenue, Nordstrom, Dillard's, Coach, True Religion, Lacoste, H&M, and ZARA.[47]
  • Downtown Lakewood's commercial center spans from Bunts Avenue to the east and Arthur Avenue to the west along Detroit Avenue.
  • Lyndhurst Legacy Village stores include Crate & Barrel, Arhaus Furniture, Ethan Allen, Restoration Hardware, Nordstrom Rack, Z Gallerie, and the Cheesecake Factory.[48]
  • In North Olmsted, Great Northern Mall stores include Dillard's, Macy's, Dicks Sporting Goods, Sears, H&M, Disney Store, and Forever 21.
  • In Orange, Ohio, Pinecrest opened in spring 2018; its stores include Whole Foods, REI, West Elm, Pottery Barn, WilliamsSonoma, and Orangetheory Fitness[49]
  • In Strongsville, SouthPark Mall stores include Dillard's, Macy's, Kohl's, Dick's Sporting Goods, Aldo, Chico's, Build-A-Bear Workshop, Forever 21, H&M, and Swarovski.[50]
  • In University Heights, University Square Shopping Center stores include Macy's, Target, and T.J. Maxx[51]
  • In Westlake, Crocker Park stores include Apple Store, Banana Republic, Nordstrom Rack, Guess, Lucky Brand Jeans, and Arhaus Furniture.[52]
  • In Woodmere, Eton Square stores include Anthropologie, Apple Store, Brooks Brothers, Tiffany & Co., The North Face, Orvis, Sur La Table, and Trader Joe's.[53]

Communities

Map of Cuyahoga County, Ohio with Municipal and Township Labels

Cities

  • Bay Village
  • Beachwood
  • Bedford
  • Bedford Heights
  • Berea
  • Brecksville
  • Broadview Heights
  • Brook Park
  • Brooklyn
  • Cleveland (county seat)
  • Cleveland Heights
  • East Cleveland
  • Euclid
  • Fairview Park
  • Garfield Heights
  • Highland Heights
  • Independence
  • Lakewood
  • Lyndhurst
  • Maple Heights
  • Mayfield Heights
  • Middleburg Heights
  • North Olmsted
  • North Royalton
  • Olmsted Falls
  • Parma
  • Parma Heights
  • Pepper Pike
  • Richmond Heights
  • Rocky River
  • Seven Hills
  • Shaker Heights
  • Solon
  • South Euclid
  • Strongsville
  • University Heights
  • Warrensville Heights
  • Westlake

Villages

  • Bentleyville
  • Bratenahl
  • Brooklyn Heights
  • Chagrin Falls
  • Cuyahoga Heights
  • Gates Mills
  • Glenwillow
  • Highland Hills
  • Hunting Valley
  • Linndale
  • Mayfield
  • Moreland Hills
  • Newburgh Heights
  • North Randall
  • Oakwood
  • Orange
  • Valley View
  • Walton Hills
  • Woodmere

Townships

See also

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Cuyahoga County, Ohio

References

  1. ^ Feran, Tom (February 13, 2004). "Shooing the hog out of Cuyahoga". The Plain Dealer. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb?p_action=doc&p_topdoc=1&p_docnum=1&p_sort=YMD_date:D&p_product=NewsBank&p_text_direct-0=document_id=(%20100B6B280DC46277%20)&p_docid=100B6B280DC46277&p_theme=aggregated5&p_queryname=100B6B280DC46277&f_openurl=yes&p_nbid=E5DN55ITMTE5OTkxMTg3NC41MzY1NTE6MToxMzo2Ni4yMTMuNDEuMTQy&&p_multi=CPDB. 
  2. ^ Feran, Tom (June 2, 2006). "It's a Cleveland thing, so to speak". The Plain Dealer. http://infoweb.newsbank.com/iw-search/we/InfoWeb?p_action=doc&p_topdoc=1&p_docnum=1&p_sort=YMD_date:D&p_product=NewsBank&p_text_direct-0=document_id=(%20112043416CC2CD20%20)&p_docid=112043416CC2CD20&p_theme=aggregated5&p_queryname=112043416CC2CD20&f_openurl=yes&p_nbid=F58P50SOMTE5OTkxMjUxOS4yOTM5NjU6MToxMzo2Ni4yMTMuNDEuMTQy&&p_multi=CPDB. 
  3. ^ Siegel, Robert; Block, Melissa (June 23, 2009). "Letters: Cuyahoga River". All Things Considered (National Public Radio). https://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=105828999. 
  4. ^ McIntyre, Michael K. (June 28, 2009). "How to pronounce 'Cuyahoga' turns into a national debate: Tipoff". The Plain Dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/tipoff/index.ssf/2009/06/how_to_pronounce_cuyahoga_turn.html. 
  5. ^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/cuyahogacountyohio,US/PST045219. 
  6. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  7. ^ "Cuyahoga County data". Ohio State University Extension Data Center. http://www.osuedc.org/profiles/profile_entrance.php?fips=39035&sid=0. 
  8. ^ "Federal Roster: Counties of Ohio, Derivation of Name and Date of Erection". http://www.sos.state.oh.us/SOS/PublicAffairs/fedRoster.aspx?Section=1585. 
  9. ^ "Ohio: Individual County Chronologies". Ohio Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. http://publications.newberry.org/ahcbp/documents/OH_Individual_County_Chronologies.htm. 
  10. ^ "Ohio Genealogy Clickable County Map". http://www.rootsweb.com/~usgenweb/oh/1/counties.htm. 
  11. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/docs/gazetteer/counties_list_39.txt. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/oh190090.txt. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  16. ^ 2020 census
  17. ^ Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=DEC_10_DP_DPDP1&prodType=table. 
  18. ^ a b Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". http://factfinder.census.gov/faces/tableservices/jsf/pages/productview.xhtml?pid=ACS_10_1YR_DP02&prodType=table. 
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