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Dmitri Yuryevich Shemyaka of Moscow (Russian: Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка Великий князь Московский), Prince of Galich-Mersky, Grand Prince of Moscow, Sovereign and Grand Prince of All Russia '"`UNIQ--ref-0000040D-QINU`"', was born circa 1408 to Yuri Dmitriyevich of Zvenigorod (1374-1434) and Anastasia Yuryevna of Smolensk (c1383-1422) and died 17 July 1453 Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia of unspecified causes. He married Sophia Dmitriyevna of Zaozero (c1420-c1460) 1436 JL . Alfred the Great (849-899)/s, Charlemagne (747-814)/s.

Dmitri Yurievich Shemyaka (c1408-July 17, 1453) - the Grand Princes of Moscow, as well as Prince of Uglich, Prince of Galich-Mersky; the son of the Grand Prince of Moscow Yuri Dmitrievich and Princess Anastasia Yuryevna, the daughter of the last Grand Prince of Smolensk Yuri Svyatoslavich, one of the main participants of the civil war of the second quarter of the XV century [2]:32 [2]:95 [3]:194, 195, 212. In the annals of Dmitri Yuryevich mentioned since 1433 [4]:106. The exact date of birth is unknown [4]:106, in the literature there are indications of different years.

In 1433-1434, he supported his father in asserting the rights to the grand duke's throne [3] :307-337. In 1434, together with his brother Dmitry Krasnyi, he secured the occupation of the throne of Moscow by Vasili II Vasilyevich [2]:: 71 From the mid -40s of the 15th century, he fought with Vasili Vasilyevich, tried to organize a repulse against the Tatars brought by Vasili Vasilyevich to Moscow in 1445 [2] : 127, 129, 195, for some time he occupied the throne in Moscow [2]: 105, 106 110.In the Novgorod Republic he was recognized as the Grand Prince until his death in 1453 [2]: : 151. He was poisoned in Veliky Novgorod by order of Vasili II [4]:110-111 .

Early years

Place and time of birth

Mikhail Khmyrov, in the “Alphabetical Reference List of Russian Czars and Most Remarkable Persons of Their Blood”, published in 1870, states that Dmitri Yuryevich “was born in Zvenigorod about 1403 ” [5]::32, 33. Aleksandr Zimin notes that Prince Dmitri in 1425 was "at the age of 20-24 years" [2]:: 32 . Valentin Yanin points out that in 1453 Dmitri Yuryevich “most likely” was about 45 years old [4]:106. According to TSB , Dmitri Shemyaka was born in 1420 [6]. It should be noted that Yuri Dmitrievich married Anastasia Yuryevna in 1400, who died on July 11, 1422[3]:: 194, 204 .

Origin of the name

In the name of Dmitri, Prince Yuri named Shemyaka, like his younger brother, Dmitri Krasnyi, probably in honor of their grandfather, Grand Prince Dmitry Donskoy [2]: : 32, 33 [3]: : 195. According to one of the versions, the nickname Shemyaka, as noted by A. A. Zimin, “most likely goes back to the Tatar-Mongolian Chimehu , which means to decorate, and hence the chimek decoration, outfit” [2]:: . According to another version, Shemyaka - short for Sheyemyaka, that is, capable of naming the neck , strongman [7]:50.

Baptism

Dmitri Yuryevich was baptized, possibly by [[Saint Grigori of Pelshma (1315-1442)|Saint Grigori of Pelshma] [2]::157 [8][9].. However, Konstantin Kovalev-Sluchevsky believes the version about the baptism of all or almost all of Prince Yuri Dmitrievich's children by Gregory of Pelshamsky is controversial, since at the beginning of the 15th century the spiritual mentor of Yuri Dmitriyevich and the patron of his family, Saint Savva of Storozhi, was alive [3]: : 231, 254, 255 .

Before entering the civil war

Grand Princes of Moscow (12761598)
Даниил Александрович
Юрий Даниилович
Иван I Калита
Симеон Гордый
Иван II Красный
Дмитрий Донской
Василий I
Василий II Тёмный
Иван III
Василий III, жена Елена Глинская
Иван IV Грозный
Фёдор I Иоаннович
Юрий Звенигородский
Василий Косой
Дмитрий Шемяка

According to A. A. Zimin, “the elder sons of Yuri Dmitrievich, Vasili Kosoy and Dmitri Shemyaka, probably, sought to assert themselves, as soon as 1425” [2]:33 . The historian also notes that "conflict with their father, aggravated later, matured by the 1427" [2]: 40, 41

Between summer 1432 and April 25, 1433 [2]: 67 Yuri Dmitrievich's testament, by which bequeathed "detem her, Vasili Kosoy, Dmitri Shemyaka and Dmitri Krasnyi less patrimony their own, in Moscow their lot by" "for three" [3]: 458 . In addition, Prince Dmitri was bequeathed to Ruza [2]:: 18 , as well as the third part of Dmitrov and with Moscow volosts " , a part of Dmitrovsky volosts, a third part of Vyatka and a number of other possessions and incomes. Yuri Dmitrievich blessed Dmitry Shemyaka with the “icon of the Savior forged” and bequeathed to him “the belt of gold on the ladle”[3]: 458, 459 .

1433-1434

February 8, 1433 in Moscow, the wedding of Vasili Vasilyevich with the daughter of the Prince of Borovsk Maria Yaroslavna took place. Prince Vasili Kosoy and his brother Dmitry Shemyaka arrived at the wedding at the invitation of the groom (Yuri Dmitrievich and Dmitri Krasnyi were absent). During the celebration, Zakhariy Koshkin (according to another version, Pyotr Dobrynsky) “recognized” the precious belt on Vasili Kosoy: the belt was allegedly stolen from the Grand Duke Dmitri Donskoy during his wedding with Yevdokia Dmitriyevna in Kolomna and later went to Vasili Kosoy [2]:52. Present at the celebration, Sofia Vitovtovna ripped off the belt from Vasili Kosoy [2]: 53, while she screamed as a victim that Yuryevich took the belt of Dmitry Donskoy unjustly and in general their whole family are thieves and impostors.

I will try to more clearly explain what happened embarrassment. Imagine that the Queen of England at the wedding of her grandson, Prince William, declared publicly that King Abdullah II of Jordan was stealing silver spoons from the royal service. How do you like this passage?

In those times, not only ripping off the belt, but even a hint that someone from Yuryevich stole it or simply appropriated it, meant a very strong insult that can only be washed off with blood. Vasili Kosoy and Dmitri Shemyaka, who actually donated Vasili Vasilyevich the Moscow throne, were literally stunned by such a collision and, hastily leaving the wedding, went to their father in Galich. On the way, the brothers looted the treasury of the Yaroslavl princes, who were supporters of Vasili Vasilyevich. And having arrived to the father, they saw that their father was going to go to Moscow to get even for the attack on Galich.

Pavel Chistyakov. At the wedding of Grand Pince Vasili Vasilyevich, Grand Duchess Sofia Vitovtovna ripps off Prince Vasili Kosoy, Shemyaka'd brother, a belt with precious stones that once belonged to Dmitri Donskoy, which Yuryevich had seized

As K.P. Kovalev-Sluchevsky notes, “not only“ ripping off the belt, ”but even a simple hint that someone from Yuryevich stole it or simply appropriated it meant a strong insult” [3]:: 313 . Dmitri and Vasili Kosoy, who had been "embittered", left the wedding, going to the father in Galich . On the way, they rozgrabisha treasury Yaroslavl princes , who were supporters of Vasili II [2] :53 . Princes Dmitri and Vasili Kosoy, arriving in the city, saw that Yuri Dmitrievich “gathered with all his people, although walking” on Vasili Vasilyevich and performed in the spring of 1433 on a campaign with his father [2]:56 .

On April 25, 1433, in a battle off the banks of the Klyazma River, 20 versts from Moscow, the combined squad of Yuri Dmitrievich, Dmitri Shemyaka and Vasili Kosoy routed Vasili Vasilyevich's troops [2]:56, 57 [3]:314, 315, after which Yuri Dmitrievich entered to Moscow and ascended the grand throne [2]:57 . At the direction of Grand Duke Yuri Dmitrievich Dmitri Shemyaka and Vasili Kosoy, they followed Vasili Vasilyevich, who fled to Tver, and then to Kostroma [2]: 57, where Yuryevich overtook him [2]:58. Then came Yuri Dmitrievich “taking him” [2]: 58 and later, “reconciled” with him, giving Vasili Vasilyevich Kolomna to the lot [2]::57 . This decision of Yuri Dmitrievich led to the fact that “the mennos of the boyars and servants, furious about this, and did not like this by all” [2]: 58 . In addition, according to the Yermolinsky chronicle , compiled not earlier than 1481 [10] , “Muscovites, however, were princes, and nobles, and governors, boyars, and nobles, from young to old, went to Kolomna to see the grand duke they didn’t add any more to serve as prince. ” The world with Vasili Vasilyevich and his transfer to Kolomna took place thanks to the intercession of the favorite of Yuri Dmitrievich - boyar Semen Fedorovich Morozov [2]:58 [3]:320. Apparently, a quarrel broke out between him and the brothers Vasili and Dmitri Yuryevich, as a result of which Morozov was killed by Yurevich “in the Senekh embankments” of the Kremlin Palace [2]:58 , after which princes Vasili and Dmitri “vstrustruy”, left Moscow, fearing rewards from the father, and drove off to Kostroma [2] :59 [3]:323 .

Under these circumstances, Yuri Dmitrievich decided to leave Moscow and transfer the great reign to Vasili Vasilyevich. Between the uncle and the nephew, no later than September 28, 1433, the final conclusion was concluded , according to which Yuri Dmitrievich pledged: take them. And tobe also not accept them ” [2]:60 [3]:440, the same obligation was given by Vasili Vasilyevich [3]:444.

Immediately after the conclusion of the conclusion with Yuri Dmitrievich, Vasili Vasilyevich sent an army under the command of Prince Yuri Patrikeyevich against [[Vasili] and Dmitri Yuryevich, who were in Kostroma, Galicians and Vyatka residents also arrived to Yurevich. On September 28, 1433, in the battle on the River Kus, the troops of Vasili Kosoy and Dmitri Shemyaka defeated the army of Vasili Vasilyevich and captured Yuri Patrikeyevich. After the victory, Yuryevich sent Yuri Dmitrievich an invitation to return to the great reign. However, Yuri Dmitrievich, observing the conditions of completion with Vasili Vasilyevich, categorically refused [2]:62, 63 [3]:327. As A. A. Zimin points out, “probably that is why Yuryevichs did not consolidate their success. The further campaign against Vasili Vasilyevich lost all meaning for them, and they returned to Kostroma. As soon as the Volga became (froze), they went to the Turdayev ravines [2]:63 .

In the winter of 1433/1434, Vasili Vasilyevich launched a punitive campaign against Yuri Dmitrievich in Galicia, who, as A. A. Zimin noted, “obviously considered the backstage organizer of the defeat of the Moscow troops” [2]:63 . Yuri Dmitrievich headed for Beloozero, and princes Vasili and Dmitri took up defensive positions in Galich. Vasili Vasilyevich burned and plundered the suburbs and the neighborhood of Galich, captured numerous "full", but could not take the fortress and returned to Moscow [2]:63 [3]:329. Yuri Dmitrievich arrived in Galich, and in the early spring of 1434 [3] : 331 combined forces of Yuri Dmitrievich his children and Vyatchan people marched on Moscow [2] :63, 64. A. A. Zimin indicates that Prince Yuri Dmitrievich and his sons during the hostilities of 1433/1434 were taken to Beloozero with volosts, which were the patrimony of Allied Vasili Vasilyevich Prince Mikhail Andreyevich , “several“ Municipal volosts and departure places ”were captured is full ” [2]:64 .

On March 20, 1434, in a battle on the Mogze River "near the monastery of Nikola on the mountain," Yuri Dmitrievich's troops utterly routed Vasili Vasilyevich's troops [2]: 64 [3]: 331 . On March 31, 1434, Yuri Dmitrievich and his sons entered Moscow without a fight and took the throne for the second time [2] : 65 [3]:332 .

Having strengthened on the great reign and having carried out a series of reforms, Yuri Dmitrievich sent Dmitri Shemyaka and Dmitri Krasnyi to Nizhny Novgorod, where Vasily Vasilyevich fled after the battle on the Mogze River, intending to go to Orda [2] :66, 67 [3]:332-334, 336. Not having time to get to Vladimir the brothers received the news that the Grand Prince Yuri Dmitrievich died on June 5, 1434, and the grand princely throne was occupied by Vasili Kosoy, who was in Moscow [2] :67, 234 .

1434-1445

Vasili Kosoy also sent the brothers the news of proclaiming himself the Grand Duke [2]:70, 234. Dmitry Shemyaka and Dmitri Krasnyi, as A.A. Zimin points out, “resolutely opposed the unauthorized decision of Vasili Kosoy[2] :70, their response to Vasili Kosoy read: “If God does not delight God, may our father reign, and you yourself want ” [2]:70} . Sources do not contain information about the reasons for such a decision by Dmitri Shemyaka and his younger brother [2] :70. A. A. Zimin expresses the opinion that “having made a willful decision, Vasili Kosoy violated the law of the “Nest of Kalita ”. This alone could cause resentment among his brothers. But he also spoke out against that same clan principle of inheritance of the throne, for which Prince Yuri Dmitrievichand his sons fought ” [2]:70 . In addition, A. A. Zimin notes that with his “strong-willed character and independence of actions, Vasili Kosoy inspired the younger Yuryevich with serious concerns” [2]:71 .

Younger Yurievich decided to support Vasili Vasilyevich who "came to them" and, "resigned", Dmitri Shemyaka, Dmitri Krasnyi and Vasili Vasilyevich moved towards Moscow. Caught in a difficult situation due to the lack of strength to resist the brothers and Vasili Vasilyevich, Vasili Kosoy left Moscow at the beginning of July 1434, after which Vasili Vasilyevich was reenthroned as Grand Prince of Moscow[2]:71.

Seal of Prince Dmitri Shemyaka. Russian State Archives of Ancient Documents

Around June 5, 1434 - January 6, 1435, the finalization was concluded between Vasili Vasilyevich and the younger Yuryevichs, according to which the brothers' right to own the lands bequeathed to them by Yury Dmitrievich and their own awards to Yuryevich Vasili Vasilyevich were confirmed. Dmitry Yurevich additionally received Rzhev and Uglich .Vyatka should have been jointly owned by Yurievich [2]:71, 72, 235. Between 1434 - February 10, 1446, Dmitri Shemyaka issued a letter to the Trinity Monastery for possession in Uglich [2]:235 .

In the winter of 1436, Prince Dmitri Shemyaka came to Moscow to call Vasili Vasilyevich in Uglich for his wedding with Princess Sophia Dmitrievna, the daughter of Prince of Zaozero Dmitry Vasilyevich [2]: 74 . Vasili Vasilyevich "fucked" him and sent him to Kolomna with a bailiff. This step of Vasili Vasilyevich led to the fact that the court of Prince Dmitri, in the conditions of the ongoing war between Vasili Vasilyevich and Vasily Yuryevich, joined Vasili Kosoy, who was moving from Ustyug to Vologda [2]:74, 75 . Later, Vasili Vasilyevich ordered the release of Dmitry Shemyaka "from iron", ordering "to be simple for him at Kolomna"; as A.A. Zimin notes, “it’s hard to say how this gesture affected the position of the Shemyaka court” [2]: 76 . Upon returning to Moscow after the victory over Vasili Kosoy in the battle on the Cherekh River, Vasili Vasilyevich sent Dmitri Shemyaka to Kolomna "and granted him" [2]:76, 77 .

On June 13, 1436, Dmitri Shemyaka concluded the end with Vasili Vasilyevich, according to which he recognized himself as the “younger brother” of Grand Duke Vasily, confirmed the transfer of Vasili Kosoy's inheritance (Dmitrov and Zvenigorod) to Vasily II and retained Rzhev and Uglich Dmitri[2]:77 . In this conclusion, Dmitry Yuryevich also mentions the testament of his father-in-law , which can speak about the wedding of Prince Dmitry and Sofia Dmitrievna[2] : 236.

In 1437, Vasili Vasilyevich sent against the Ulugh Muhammad who decided to settle near the city of Belyov “two princes Dmitriev Yuryevich and other princes set, with many regiments” [11]:192 . On the way to Belyov, they, according to the statement of the grand-ducal chronicle, plundered the population [2]:81, 82 . Governors Vasily Sobakin and Andrei Goltyaev rejected the peace offer on favorable terms from Ulu-Mohammed near Belev , besides, perhaps, Mtsensk voevoda Grigory Protasiev surrendered to the side of Ulu-Mohammed and "make sedition." On the morning of December 5, 1437, the Tatars, taking advantage of the haze, hit the Russian regiments and smashed them [2]:82 .

It is interesting to note that, in the opinion of Jacob Lurie , in 1437, two-coin coins with the names of “Prince Dmitri the Great” and “Prince Vasily the Great”, known to modern science, could be minted: there are chronicle reports that mention the “great the princes of the Russians ” [12][13].

After the defeat in the Battle of Belevo, Vasili Vasilyevich, together with Dmitriy Shemyaka and Dmitri Krasnyi, concluded the conclusion with Boris Alexandrovich of Tver which provided, inter alia, mutual assistance in case “the tsar entered the army or the tatarskaya army” and also said that if Tatars, and imut to you ... great reign, Tver and Kashin ”, then Vasili Vasilyevich and his allies should not agree to this [2]:88.

On June 24, 1440, at the conclusion of Vasili Vasilyevich and Dmitry Shemyaka, an addition was made about a “local” court. Thus Vasili Vasilyevich reduced the judicial privileges of Prince Dmitri [2]:89, 103 .

September 22, 1440, under strange circumstances [3]:263-268 , Prince Dmitri Krasnyi died [2] :89 . Boyar Dmitry Krasny "sent his brother, an elder, Prince Dmitri Shemyaka, to Uglich" [11]:194. Dmitry Shemyaka arrived "on the 8th day after the death of" his younger brother and "then he buried the gravestone over him and put him in a coffin, and <...> carried him to Moscow", where Dmitri Krasnyi was buried "near his father Prince Yuri Dmitrievich" [11]:194, 195. Dmitri Yurevich Shemyaka gave to the Trinity Monastery "to the liking" of the brother of the village Priseka Bezhetskogo Top. On December 5, being in Uglich, Dmitri Shemyaka issued a chartered diploma to this village and, possibly, between September 22, 1440 and October 1441, he tried a land case concerning this village [2]:240 .

In the autumn of 1441, the Grand Duke "sank the world" ("vzveverzhe dislike") with Prince Dmitri and went to Uglich with war [2]:94, 243 . Occurred from among Uglich landowners [2]:243 Deacon Kuludar Irezhsky warned Dmitry Yuryevich about the danger. The prince managed to escape to Bezhetsky Top (who, after the death of his younger brother, considered his patrimony, despite her capture by Basil II), where “take a lot of volost ucini” [2]:94 .

Already in 1442, Dmitri Shemyaka was with Prince Ivan Mozhaisky in “odinachstve ... at Uglichi”, but Vasili Vasilyevich managed to lure Ivan Andreevich to his side, losing to him Suzdal , taken from Prince Aleksandr Vasilyevich Chartoryi for supporting Dmitri Shemyaka [2]:95 .

Dmitry Yuryevich together with Aleksandr Chartoryysky made (apparently, from Uglich along the Volga to Dmitrov) against Vasily II, they "didn’t come to Moscow", and under the Trinity Monastery they were reconciled with Vasili Vasilyevich " Hegumen Zinovey Troetskoy and made them love between them" [2]:95 [14]:198. It is interesting to note that the Moscow chronicle vaults of the 1470s did not report anything about the war with Dmitri Shemyaka of 1441-1442, which Vasili Vasilyevich began on his own initiative [2]:243 .

Until August 31, 1442, Dmitri Shemyaka ended up compiling the Grand Prince Vasili Vasilyevich, according to which Prince Dmitry recognized the transfer of the possessions of Vasili Kosoy (Dmitrov, Zvenigorod and Vyatka) to Vasili Vasilyevich, he retained Galich, Ruzu, Vyshgorod , Uglich and Rzhev. The end instructed Dmitri Yuryevich to go on campaigns together with the Grand Duke, or send his commanders on his orders, forbade Prince Dmitri independent relations with Orda, ordered Dmitry Yuryevich to return Vasili Vasilyevich “protors” and money to the “Horde way out”, which Prince Dmitri “didn’t give »During the period of peaceful relations with Vasili Vasilyevich. The end also contained a clause on a joint trial and referred to the sending of Kilcheyev by Vasili Vasilyevich to the opponents of Ulu-Mohammed Kichi-Mohammed and Seid-Ahmed [2]: 95 .

During the conflict of 1441–1442, Dmitry Yuryevich sent ambassadors to Novgorod with a request to take him to his reign (“that would be better for him”), to which Novgorod responded to him: “Hosh, prince, and you ; but not voshhosh, Eno as tobe Lubo ”(according to the Nikon chronicle “ if you are the best, the prince, come to us ehat, and you eat, and we are for the sake of ”) [2]:94 [14]:198 . As V. L. Yanin points out, after this message from the Nikon chronicle, Prince “Dmitri disappears from the field of view of the chroniclers until 1445 ” [14]:198 A. A. Zimin notes that “most likely Prince Dmitri never came to Novgorod arrived ” [2]:95 .

Shemyakin shroud from St. George Monastery. NGOMZ

According to V. L. Yanin, on April 2, 1444, Dmitri Yuryevich arrived in Novgorod, in the same year making a contribution to the Yuryev monastery - the air ( shroud ) depicting Christ in the tomb, lamented by four angels, embroidered with silks , silver and gold thread [14]:193, 197-199, 202, 203 . Other researchers date the shroud 1449 year [14]:195. In 1444, a new monastery was founded in the possession of DmitriYuryevich in Sukhodol, near Borovsky, the abbot of Borovsky High Monastery Pafnutiy [2]:155, 259 .

In the winter of 1444/1445, Dmitri Yuryevich, among other princes of the “nest of Kalita, ” set out with Grand Duke Basil to campaign against Ulu-Mohammed, who had previously occupied the “old” Nizhny Novgorod (obviously, Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin [2]:244, 245) Murom . Ulu-Mohammed went to Nizhny Novgorod, the “front police” (voevods), sent by Vasili Vasilyevich, beat the Tatars near Murom, and “in Gorokhovets, and in the Neuzh”, after which Vasili Vasilyevich returned to Moscow on March 26 via Suzdal and Vladimir [2]:101, 102.

In the spring of 1445 in Moscow, it became known that Ulu-Mohammed set off his sons Mamutyak and Yakub on a campaign against Russia [2]:103 . After holding Petrov's post in Moscow, Vasili Vasilyevich headed for Yuryev, concluding on the way to his end with Ivan and Mikhail Andreyevich [2]:103, 245 [15]:400[16]:361. In conclusion, in particular, the princes confirmed that they considered themselves “younger” brothers Vasili Vasilyevich's “younger” brothers. For his part, Vasili Vasilyevich recognized the inviolability of the hereditary possessions of the Andreevich. The end also confirmed the award of Prince Ivan Kozelsky and Lisin [2]:104 .y

Ivan and Mikhail Andreevich and Vasily Yaroslavich, Dmitry Yuryevich did not come to the campaign “with small people”. On July 7, 1445, at the Spaso-Evfim'ev monastery near Suzdal, Vasili Vasilyevich's troops were utterly defeated by Tatars, Vasili Vasilyevich, among others, was captured [[2]:104 .

The first great reign

According to A. A. Zimin, after receiving the news of the capture of Vasili Vasilyevich, the authorities in Moscow (as long as Vasili Vasilyevich was in captivity), according to the traditional ideas about the order of succession of the grand princely throne, went to Dmitri Shemyaka, as the eldest in the genus Kalita in Russia [2] :105 [17]. Vladislav Nazarov notes that in the summer and autumn of 1445, Dmitry Yuryevich was the real ruler of the Great Duchy and a clear contender for the formal status of the Grand Duke [18]:49. Dmitry Yurevich returned Sofia Vitovtovna from the Dubna River to Moscow, who fled from the capital, obviously, to [19]:Стб. 492. It should be noted that a week after the Battle of Suzdal fire broke out in Moscow, burned up to 2,000 people, and all the wooden buildings, "under siege" has accumulated a lot of people [2]:105. In all likelihood, Dmitri decided to organize the defense of Moscow: he attracted the rural population to repair the fortress walls, organized urgent preparations of stone, wood, iron parts [2] :106 [18]:78.

According to V. D. Nazarov, in June-July 1445, Ulu-Mohammed restored the Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal principality, headed by the descendants of Dmitry Konstantinovich and the co-princes Vasili and Fyodor Yuryevich [18]:81. In September 1445 (there are other dates [20]) ), princes Vasily and Fyodor drafted the project with Dmitry Shemyaka and sent this document to Moscow. Dmitry Yuryevich attached to the project of completion his grand-ducal seal and an inscription in a circle Seal of Grand Duke Dmitriya Yuryevich; as VD Nazarov notes, the application by Dmitry Yuryevich of his seal to the document “as if certified Shemyaka’s agreement in principle with the proposed conditions” [15]:401 [18]:35, 39, 59, 79, 80 [21]:121, 570, 571. In the final design, terminology was used to complete the grand duke Yuri Dmitrievich: Dmitry Shemyaka undertook to keep Prince Vasily as his “son”, and Prince Fedor - as “brother”, while Dmitri Yuryevich's son, Ivan, was considered the “even brother” Prince Vasily and the “oldest brother” Prince . The end, keeping the Suzdal princes sovereign rights in matters relating directly to their principality, did not contain recognition of their full independence [2]:127. According to the conclusion, all transactions for the sale of land to Moscow boyars and monasteries were declared invalid [22]:210, 211. . In addition, the Suzdal princes were to receive at their disposal and Vyatka [2]:126 . V.D. Nazarov points out that their vassal duties were mainly limited to military service [18]:59.

Ulu-Mohammed, who was Vasili Vasilyevich in captivity in Kurmish, sent his ambassador Begich to Dmitry Yuryevich to clarify the position of the new grand prince in relation to the Horde. Dmitri Yuryevich “was glad and had a lot of honor to give” to Begich, “wishing more Grand Duchess”, and sent to Ulu-Mohammed, together with Begich, his deacon Fyodor Dubensky “with all the dashing” on Vasili Vasilyevich so that [2]:106 .

Embassy Begich and clerk Fyodor sailed across the Oka [2]:107 . Without receiving news from Begich for a long time, Ulu-Mohammed decided that he was killed by Dmitry Shemyaka, and on October 1 he released Basil II with a Tatar escort to Russia. At the same time, Vasily made a promise to pay a ransom [2]: 106, 107 .

According to the Moscow version, the envoy sent by Vasili Vasilyevich to Moscow near the village of Ivan Kiselev (between Nizhny Novgorod and Murom) met Pliska Obraztsova with Begich and Fyodor's diak and informed them that Vasili Vasilyevich was released to Russia, after which Fyodor and Begich returned to Murom. There, Ambassador Ulu-Mohammed was captured by Prince Vasily Obolensky. According Ermolinskaya chronicles, Vasili Vasilyevich received a message, "Thou idet Bigich to the king of the whole council Shemyaka the great reign, and nochevati him transported Oka" commanded "izymati" Ambassador, Murom governors to "Bigichyu vyslasha honey lot, he's getting drunk and fall asleep ”, after which Vasili Vasilyevich's envoys “ take care of him and otvodoshha him in a hail, and after drowning him ” [2]:107 .

Upon learning of the incident, Dmitry Yuryevich “run to Coal” [2]:107 [11]:199. Vasili Vasilyevich was solemnly met by Sophia Vitovtovna, Maria Yaroslavna with her sons Ivan and Yuri, as well as his court in Pereslavl and arrived in Moscow on October 26, 1446 [2]: 108.

Second great reign

As A. A. Zimin notes, Dmitry Yuryevich “understood that the situation of discontent with the military defeat (the capture of the Grand Duke and Vasili Vasilyevich's pro-Tatar policy now favored his overbearing plans” and “did not intend to reconcile with the new order of things”. Dmitry told Ivan Mozhaysky that Vasili Vasilyevich "kissed the tsar that he was sitting on the tsar on Moscow, and on all the towns of Ruski, and on our fathers, and he wants to sit on Tferi." The version spread by Dmitry Shemyaka could also be presented, among other things, as a violation of the prisoner’s conclusion after the battle of Beleva with the Grand Duke of Tver. According to the Yermolinskaya chronicle, Dmitri Yuryevich “resigned to sedition and all the flesh; verbally, since the prince is great all the earth has kissed his king and us, his brother ", while gathering" poimati the grand prince, and the king did not give money on which the prince kissed " [2]:108, 246 . Dmitri Yuryevich also sent a letter to Boris Tversky, similar to the message that Prince Ivan Mozhaisky received from Dmitry. Boris Aleksandrovich, according to the pro-Moscow version, “was afraid” and joined Dmitri Yuryevich and Ivan Andreevich [2]:109, 247.

It should be noted that the size of Vasili Vasilyevich's ransom, according to Novgorod information, amounted to 200,000 rubles, "but God knows yes and they"; according to Pskov information, Vasili Vasilyevich only “promised” 25,000 rubles and brought with him 500 Tatars; according to Tver information, “the great prince Vasili Vasilyevich pushed from the Horde to Moscow, and with him Tatars, tribute to the imatis great, with his payback davati Tatar” [19]:stb. 492; according to the Moscow chroniclers of the 1470s, [Vasili II Vasilyevich of Moscow (1415-1462)|Vasili Vasilyevich]] was released with the promise to give a “ranspom” “as much as he could” [2]:106, 107 .

Dmitry Yuryevich was supported by many of the Moscow guests , the elders of the Trinity Monastery, the boyars , including from the influential Dobrynskiy family [2]:108, 109 . It is interesting to note that the boyar Ivan Fyodorovich Starkov, who was the bailiff of Dmitri Yuryevich during his imprisonment in Kolomna in 1436, switched to the side of Dmitri Shemyaka during his imprisonment in Kolomna in 1436 [2] :75, 109, 247, 283 .

At the beginning of February 1446, Dmitri Yuryevich and Ivan Andreevich were in Ruza, where they were obviously joined by the army sent by Boris Alexandrovich Tversky [2]:110, 247 . Upon receiving the news that [Vasili II Vasilyevich of Moscow (1415-1462)|Vasili Vasilyevich]] with their children and the immediate environment is in the Trinity Monastery, in the night of 12 on February 13 troops Dmitry Shemyaka and its allies, came "Cast out" to the capital, without a fight occupied Moscow, Dmitri Yuryevich second time ascended the grand throne [2]:110, 111 [3]:343 [23]:87[24]:182.

Having entered the capital, the winners of the “iznimaša” Sofia Vitovtovna and Maria Yaroslavna, as well as, according to the Moscow chronicler, “... the treasury of the Grand Duke and his mother's rozhgrabish, and many others, and the townspeople” [2]:110. The prince Ivan Andreevich, released by Dmitri Yuryevich, "seized with many people and his camp" seized at the Trinity Monastery of [Vasili II Vasilyevich of Moscow (1415-1462)|Vasili Vasilyevich]], on the night of February 13-14, Vasili Vasilyevich was brought to the capital and "planted him on Shemyakin courtyard, while Prince Dmitri Shemyaka stood on Popkowina Yard ” [2]:110, 111 [11]:202 . Then Vasili Vasilyevich was blinded (for this reason he later received the nickname "Dark") [2]: 111. Perhaps the blinding of Vasili Vasilyevich was carried out by Ivan Mozhaisky without the participation of Dmitry Yuryevich [3]: 343 [25] . According to other information, Vasily was blinded already in the monastery [2]:247, 248 , he was charged with bringing the Tatars to Russia, giving them towns and volosts for feeding and putting heavy duties on the people; besides, Vasili Vasilyevich was reproached for blinding Vasili Kosoy [2]:111 . During the “capture” of Vasili Vasilyevich from the Trinity Monastery, along with representatives of the Moscow aristocracy loyal to Vasily II, princes Ivan and Yuri fled to Murom (Vasili captured “about this neregosh, below pykhatu”[11]:202 )[2] :111 .

Виктор Муйжель. Encounter Dmitri Shemyaka with Prince Vasily II Dark

.

After being blinded, Basil II and his wife were exiled to Uglich, and Sofia Vitovtovna was sent to Chukhly [2]:111 [11] :202. The population was sworn in by Grand Duke Dmitri [2]:112, 248 . Fyodor Vasilyevich Basyonok , who refused to take the oath, was shackled "in iron", but escaped from imprisonment with the watchman [2]:112.

After joining the great reign, Dmitry Yuryevich sent his “worshipers” to Novgorod, and the Novgorodians, for their part, sent their ambassadors to Shemyaka, and the grand duke “kissing the cross on his olden past” to Veliky Novgorod [2]:112 .

According to V.D. Nazarov, in the spring of 1446, Dmitri Yuryevich abolished the Nizhny Novgorod-Suzdal principality, returning his lands to the composition of the prenational grand princes and returning supreme sovereignty over the sovereigns of Moscow [18]:82[20] . On March 14, 1446, the Grand Duke Dmitri issued a letter of appreciation to the Nizhny Novgorod Annunciation Monastery [2]:114 . Dmitri Yuryevich, due to the disorder of the financial system in the country, was forced to lower the weight of the coin. On the coins of the Grand Duke Dmitry were placed the image of a rider with a spear and the letters "Do" , that is, "Dmitry the Underdog" , the inscription "Odopodar of All Russian Land" , the image of the prince on the throne[2]:113 . Perhaps Dmitriy Yuryevich became the first Grand Duke in the history of the Moscow principality, who used the title “Ruslan the land” as an official title on his coins [26]:575.

The victory of Dmitri Yuryevich over Vasily II, as A. A. Zimin notes, “caused obvious displeasure with the Horde patrons of Vasily Vasilyevich in Kazan”. In April 1446, Kazan (“Tsarev Dvor”) raided Ustyug [2]:113, 114 .

On April 28, 1446, Dmitri Yuryevich concluded with [[Ivan the Mozhaisk[[ a finishing point, according to which, apparently, Bezhetsk Top was passed on to Prince Ivan. The text of this accord is not preserved [2]:113 .

Summoning Jonah the Bishop of Ryazan to himself, Dmitry Yuryevich ordered him to go to Murom and take out the children of Vasily the Dark from there, promising to ensure the construction of Jonah to the metropolitan throne [2]:114, 249 . As A. A. Zimin points out, “Jonah had to inform the grand-boyars in Murom about the readiness of Prince Dmitry to let Vasily Vasilyevich go and even give him a lot” [2]:114. In Murom, Jonah took the princes Ivan and Yuri, giving, as A. A. Zimin points out, “a cross kissing in that they will be inviolable,” and delivered them on May 6, 1446 to Dmitry Shemyaka, who was in Pereslavl [2]:114, 115, 249. On the third day after the princes arrived, as noted by A. A. Zimin, “in violation of the obligations undertaken, Prince Dmitri sent the children to his father in custody in Uglich[2]:115 . In Uglich, Ivan and Yuri also accompanied Jonah: after delivering the princes to Uglich, he “returned to Prince Dmitry”, after which Dmitry Yuryevich “led him to go to Moscow and sit in the courtyard of the metropolitan,” and Ion “create tako” [2]:115 [11]: 203 . According to the Lviv Chronicle, after Jonah "took" the princes, "Prince Dmitri vsyhote topi them in the village in Volza, in the fur of oshivshi, but did not give him the lord Jonah, the verb:" mix the ulcer from God "", Dmitri "having listened to him, do not make them worthless, but ambassadors to Coal Field to their father" [2]:249 [7]:97[27]:260. A. A. Zimin notes that “this is probably one of the versions; the supporters of Jonah thus tried to somehow whiten his unsightly behavior ” [2]:249 .

Perhaps it was in Pereyaslavl that the Grand Duke Dmitri signed a confirmation issued by Vasily Vasilyevich in 1443 for letters on local land ownership of the Trinity Monastery [2]:114, 249 . On May 10 (obviously, in 1446) Dmitry Yuryevich issued a letter to the Trinity Monastery for possession in Dmitrov [2]:114 . Apparently, also in 1446, Grand Duke Dmitry confirmed the charter of ownership of the Trinity Monastery near the Salt of Pereslavl , and also issued the charter of the Miracle Monastery to possession in Pereyaslavl [2]:114 .

In May 1446, after the “capture” of the princes Ivan and Yuri, the service people were reiterated by Grand Duke Dmitry to the oath [2]:248 . In May-June amounted to plot to release Vasili Vasilyevich: participated in the conspiracy supporters Vasili Vasilyevich were to meet near Uglich "on St. Peter's Day " [2]:115, 249, 250 . In the conspiracy, among others, participated the princes Ivan , Semyon and Dmitry Ryapolovskiy, Ivan Vasilyevich Striga Obolensky , representatives of the influential Moscow boyar family of Morozov Semyon Filimonov with his children and grandson, “and many other children are the boyars of the Grand Duke” [2]:115 [28].

Having learned about the performance of the princes Ryapolovskys, the Grand Duke Dmitri sent “many regiments” against them, led by voivods Vasili Veprev and Fyodor Mikhailovich Shonur Kozelsky. The governors did not have time to unite, the princes Ryapolovskys smashed the troops of one Vasili Veprev at the mouth of the Mologa River, later Fyodor Mikhailovich retreated without accepting the battle, and the Ryapolovskys headed through Novgorod territory to Lithuania. Semen Filimonov, who appeared at the appointed time under Uglich, not knowing what had happened, “with all his” went to Moscow. Princes Ryapolovskys, having come to Mstislavl , together with other supporters of Vasili Vasilyevich, began to encourage the former who fled to Lithuania [2]:112 prince Vasili Yaroslavich speak to Russia and free Vasili the Dark from imprisonment [2]:115, 116 .

Under these circumstances, Dmitri Yuryevich decided to convene a church meeting, in which "bishops and archimandrites from all over the land and honest igumens and prosectors" participated, and, as A.A. Zimin pointed out, "great boyars" [2]:116 . According to the pro-Moscow version, Dmitri became “forgiveness to ask and repent,” to which Makary Zheltovodsky , who was present at the cathedral, said to him that “if the prince is great, then we will forgive you” [2]:116, 250 . According to A.A. Zimin, according to the “Moscow chronicles, Dmitri Shemyaka himself was“ thinking a lot ”about the Grand Duke’s vacation. These annals do not speak of any readiness to forgive Shemyaka from the side of the church council (even in the case of “forgiveness” of him by Vasili Vasilyevich) ” [2]:250.

Виктор МуйжельReconciliation of Basil II the Dark with Shemyaka.

Dmitry Yuryevich "Bring all the bishops to the Coal", where a reconciliation ceremony was held between him and Vasili Vasilyevich [2]:116, 250 . Vasili Vasilyevich, sobbing, "humbled and blamed himself in all the blame," including, declared: "And it was not my suffering that my sin was for the sake of the lawlessness of many, and crimes in the cross kissing and before you, the oldest brother and everything Orthodox Christianity, his death and I also wanted to kill again to the end. The worthiness of ezm was the chief penalty , but you, my lord, showed thou upon me thy mercy, thou did not destroy thou art me with my lawlessness, but yes, let me repent my evil ” [2]:116 [28]. The Grand Prince Dmitri accepted the repentance of Vasili Vasilyevich, "having strengthened" Vasily with a "cross-kissing and damned letters" (as well as, according to the Yermola Chronicle, "and all the masters of pledge" [29]:153) [2]:116 . A feast was held, which was attended by "all the bishops of the Russian land, and many boyars and boyars' children," Dmitry "gave many gifts" to Vasili, Maria Yaroslavna and princes [11]:205. On September 15, 1446, Dmitri Yuryevich released Vasili Vasilyevich with his wife and children “out of deceit” [29]:153and granted him to Vologda [2]:116.

His supporters began to flock to Vologda to Vasili Vasilyevich [2] :250 . Among others, Prince Fedor Shuisky of Kashin, vicar-general sent by Boris Alexandrovich Tverskoy, arrived and conveyed to Vasili an invitation from Grand Duke Boris to leave for Tver [2]:116, 117. Soon, intending, obviously, to go to Tver (along Sheksna to the Volga), Vasili Vasilyevich arrived at the Kirillov monastery [2]:117 . Here, the igumen of the Trifon monastery “liberated” Vasili the Dark from kissing the cross to Grand Duke Dmitri, saying: “That sin on me and on my brother heads, that you kissed Prince Dmitry and gave you a fortress” "[29]:153) [2]:117, 250 [7]:103. It is interesting to note that the Moscow chronicles are silent about the "charters of the Damned" and kissing the cross Basil Dark, their violation Basil and, accordingly, the actions of Abbot Tryphon [2]:250 .

From the monastery, Vasili Vasilyevich went to Tver, where between him and Boris Aleksandrovich an agreement was reached on joint struggle with Dmitry Yuryevich [2]: 117, 118 . Supporters of Vasili Vasilyevich from among the Moscow service people from the grand-ducal court, "princes and boyars" continued to arrive in Tver. Lithuanian performed at Duke Rus force laroslavich Basil, Ivan Striga Obolenskii Princes Ryapolovskih, Fyodor Vasilievich Basonka, joining with units in Elnya Tartar tsarevitches Yakub and Kasim [2]:118 .

Having advanced to Tver in order to prevent Vasili Yaroslavich from uniting with Vasili Vasilyevich, the troops of Dmitri Yuryevich and Ivan Andreyevich stopped in Volokolamsk , where they spent the whole Advent (15 November - 25 December 1446) [2]: 119 . There is also a chronicle report that Dmitri Yuryevich and Prince Ivan “went beyond the Volga to Galich, and to Kostroma, and to Vologda, and to Stoch against themselves about the Volga River[2]:119, 251 . Novgorodians, who were in a contractual relationship with the Grand Duke Dmitry [2]:115 , did not take part in his confrontation with Vasili Vasilyevich [2]:119.

The ambassador of Boris Tversky arrived at Volokolamsk to Dmitri Yuryevich, demanding to leave his fatherland within a week, otherwise Boris Aleksandrovich threatened to oppose him together with Vasili Vasilyevich. The flight of service people to Tver began, as a result, in the troops of Dmitri Shemyaka and Ivan Mozhaisky only Galicians and Mozhaiches remained [2] :119 .

On the night of Christmas , December 25, 1446 (“to the very morning ” [11]:206) sent by Boris Alexandrovich and Vasily II to “drive out” [11]:206 “in 90 or 100 men” [30] detachment raid to the rear of the enemy, approached the Nikolsky Gate of Moscow [11]:206. Taking advantage of the absence in Moscow of large armed forces and the fact that the gates were opened due to the passage through them of Princess Ulyana (widows of Prince Vasily Vladimirovich ), the detachment entered the capital. The governor of the Grand Duke Dmitry managed to escape "from the Most Pure from Breakfast" [11]:206, townspeople were sworn in by Vasili Vasilyevich [2] :119 .[11]:206

Simultaneously with sending a detachment to capture Moscow, Boris Alexandrovich and Vasili Vasilyevich moved from Tver to Volokolamsk. Having received the news about the fall of Moscow, about the enemy's performance from Tver and that “princes walk and prince Vasilei Yaroslavich with much strength” [11]:206, Dmitry Yurevich and Ivan Mozhaisky under the threat of complete encirclement “beating Galich” [2] :119, 120 [11]:207.

The troops of Boris Alexandrovich and Vasili Vasilyevich] were divided near the town of Reden : Boris and his governors with Basil let go with Vasili Vasilyevich with the “multitude” of soldiers, and he himself “delight to go to Rzhev”. The жеeviches refused to surrender, lit the suburbs and went over to the defense. The troops of Boris Tversky besieged the city. Perhaps, departing from Volokolamsk, Dmitry Yuryevich sent part of his troops led by voivode Kolychev against Boris Zubtsovskiy ’s nephew Ivan Yuryevich [2]:251 . These troops, one of the tasks of which, perhaps, was to help the Rzhevichs, were defeated by the combined army of Ivan Yuryevich and Boris Alexandrovich [2]:120 .

From Volokolamsk, Dmitri Yuryevich, along the rivers Lame , Shoshe , Volga , Kostroma and Vöksa (through Uglich, Yaroslavl and Kostroma) went to Galich, then to Chukhloma, from Chukhloma, taking Sofia Vitovtovna with him, Dmitry Shemyaka arrived in Kargopol, which belonged to Galicia to the princes [2]:120, 251 .

Борис Чориков.Princes and boyars are called upon to return to Vasili Vasilyevich the Grand Duke's Throne, 1446. Illustration for the publication of

with the Moscow and Tver "force" moved on the path of Dmitry Yuryevich to Uglich [2]:120. The famous gunner Mikula Krechetnikov was sent from Tver to Uglich with guns from Tver, and Vasily Yaroslavich arrived with troops [2]:121. The siege of Uglich continued for a week, after a strong artillery bombardment of the city capitulated [2]:122.

It should be noted that Prince Ivan Andreevich left Dmitri Yuryevich and concluded no later than August 31, 1447, with Vasily the Dark (the text of the ending was not preserved) [2]:120, 121, 252. In addition, in the beginning of 1447, Vasili Vasilyevich concluded the finalization with Vasily Yaroslavich. At this end, the prince of Serpukhov kissed the cross in allegiance to the grand prince and his children Ivan, Yuri and Andrei, pledging to “have the elder brother” not only of Vasili Vasilyevich himself, but also his sons, which meant the destruction of the tribal principle of inheritance of the grand prince throne [2]:121.

After the fall of Uglich, Vasili Vasilyevich moved to Yaroslavl, from where he sent to Dmitry Yuryevich his boyar with an urgent request to release Sofia Vitovtovna; Vasili Vasilyevich met with Tsarevich Kasim and Yakub here. February 17, 1447 Vasily the Dark entered Moscow and again took the throne [2]:122 [27]:261.

1447-1450

Dmitry Y. released Sofya Vitovtovna from[[ Kargopol. At the same time, those sent to accompany her boyar children and boyars went to the service of Vasili Vasilyevich [2]:122 .

In the spring of 1447, besieged by Tver troops of Rzhev, subjected to fierce cannon fire, after three weeks of resistance, capitulated [2]:122 .

Dmitry Yuryevich, according to the message sent to him by the hierarchs on December 29, 1447, did not fold the kiss to Veliky Novgorod, sent his ambassador there, “Zouchi yourself a great prince”, asking: ” [2]:127 . However, as A. A. Zimin notes, “in 1447 and 1448. Novgorod was not up to Shemyaka ” [2]:128.

According to the message of the hierarchs, Dmitry Yuryevich “to the famously” Vasili Vasilyevich sent his envoys to the Vyatka inhabitants, trying to raise them to fight with Vasili Vasilyevich, but the Vyatchanes did not respond to the call [2]: :126 . Apparently, Dmitry Yuryevich was able to temporarily recruit to his side Ivan Mozhaisky [2]:124. According to the message of December 29, 1447, Dmitri led negotiations with Ivan Mozhaisky, “odinichas with him” on Basil II, the ambassador of Prince Ivan unsuccessfully traveled to Vasili Vasilyevich with the proposal: “... you, Prince the Great, Prince Dmitry Yuryevich, otherwise feel sorry and Mene, Prince Ivan, granted; but it did not seem to please Prince Dmitry, but that is the matter of you, and did not please Prince Ivan, ”. Around June 12, 1447, Dmitri Yuryevich and Ivan Andreevich concluded an armistice with the allies of Vasili Vasilyevich, the princes Mikhail Andreevich and Vasily Yaroslavich. The truce called for the cessation of hostilities of Dmitry Yuryevich and Ivan Andreevich with Vasili Vasilyevich, for the duration of the truce Dmitry and Ivan pledged to Vasili Vasilyevich II, Mikhail Andreevich, Vasily Yaroslavich, and do not drive them out ”and do not fix“ some dirty tricks ”to the grand duke’s fief. Dmitry Yuryevich and Ivan Andreevich pledged "love and the end of taking on olden time" with Boris Alexandrovich Tversky. For their part, princes Vasily and Mikhail promised to intercede with Vasili Vasilyevich for the conclusion of a peaceful ending with Dmitry Yuryevich and Ivan Andreyevich, while Dmitry Yuryevich agreed to “withdraw” from Uglich, Rzhev and Bezhitsky parish[2]:125 .

Dmitry Yuryevich (probably in the summer of 1447) concluded the ending with Vasili Vasilyevich. Judging by the statement of some of its provisions in the message to the hierarchs Dmitry Yuryevich on December 29, 1447, this end reminded the conclusion concluded with Vasili Vasilyevich by Prince Ivan Mozhaysky in September 1447: Ivan Andreevich, as Dmitry Yuryevich earlier, recognized Vasili Vasilyevich as the “oldest brother” pledged to "do not communicate with anyone, nor sylatisya" without the knowledge of Vasily Vasilyevich, "Hordes are not nobles", and Vasili Vasilyevich, for his part, guaranteed Ivan and Dmitry their possessions and pledged to live on the "literate" Dmitri Donskoy. The text of the end is not preserved, its dating is based on the remark in the epistle of the hierarchs: “... after your completion, the month has passed. Ino already after that period more than a month of books ” [2]:125, 126, 252.

It should be noted that Vasili Vasilyevich, for his part, concluded the final times with Prince Mikhail Andreevich (June 19, 1447), together with Princes Mikhail Andreevich, Ivan Andreevich and [[]]Vasily Yaroslavich - with the Grand Duke of Ryazan, Ivan Fedorovich (July 20, 1447), September 1447 - again with Ivan Andreevich Mozhaisky. Upon completion with van Fyodorovich, the Grand Prince of Ryazan, in particular, pledged to go as a host to the “enemy” of Vasili Vasilyevich [2]:123, 124 .

On December 29, 1447, the five bishops of the Russian Church (including Jonah), several archimandrites and hegumen, as noted by A. A. Zimin, "clearly by direct order of Vasili Vasilyevich and his entourage", composed a letter to Dmitry Yuryevich with accusations addressed to him [2]:130 [7]:111[16]:387. The authors of the message reproached Dmitry Yuryevich for violating the last completion of Vasili Vasilyevich, for not returning captured labels, defiers and final letters, did not give “all the best” of those captured from Vasili Vasilyevich in particular, did not return anything from Maria Goltyaeva ’s treasury. Dmitri Yuryevich refers to Vasili Vasilyevich "getting mined, and Orthodox Christianity until the end of the ruining," refers to "with inovetski, with trash and with other lands with many," wishing Vasili Vasilyevich "of course destroy and his children, and crush all Orthodox Christianity," ... everywhere in Christianity, as well as into besomerism, to Novugorod to Velikiy ”,“ to Prince Ivan Andreevich ”,“ to Vyatchan ”sends, trying to“ beat ”to the performance against Vasili Vasilyevich, he referred to Kazan prince Mamutyak and tried to tune him“ for famously "against Vasili Vasilyevich. The authors of the message blamed Dmitry Yuryevich for resolutely refusing to pay tribute to Seid-Ahmed and call him "the king." Dmitri was blamed for depriving the property (“plundered” and “pootimal”) of those of his boyars who “beat their heads” to serve Vasili Vasilyevich. Besides,to the tiunu , telling him to "withdraw from his brother the oldest ... people, and ... call people to the assembly" [2]:129, 130 .

Citing Dmitry Yuryevich's words asking for help against the Tatars who “insulted” the country, the hierarchs said: “... Tatars live in Christianity, and then they repaired everything they did with their brother, the eldest prince of uncontrollability, and those tears were all Christian. ” [2]:127 . At the same time, the authors of the message on behalf of Vasili Vasilyevich promised: as soon as Dmitriy Yuryevich “was able to cope ... in everything purely for the purpose of kissing the cross,” he would immediately “sent the Tatars out of the earth” [2]:130 .

The hierarchs called upon Dmitry Yuryevich to repent and submit to the will of Vasili Vasilyevich, who is ready to “make money” for Dmitry Yuryevich “according to the old days”, if Dmitry “about everything ... managed the term, according to the Cross two weeks” Otherwise, the authors of the epistle threatened Dmitriy Yuryevich with excommunication from the Church: “... otherwise we did not teach you, but we imposed upon ourselves spiritual burden on the church” [2]:130, 131 .

It is interesting to note: from the message of December 29, 1447, it follows that Dmitri Shemyaka was a “book” person. The authors of the message, referring to Dmitri Yuryevich, write that “as God gave us intelligence, we understand divine scripture” [31]:297 .

In the winter of 1447/1448, Vasily Ii sent troops to Galich “and a hundred came to Kostroma with much strength” [11]:207, negotiations began between the parties [2]:131 . According to the Moscow chroniclers of the 70s of the 15th century [2]:107 , Dmitri Yuryevich “started the world to ask for it and put a cross on that kiss and curse damned upon himself that he didn’t want him and his father to the great reign, and his ancestors ”, peace was concluded and Basil II returned to Moscow [2]:131 .

In the summer of 1448, Vasili Vasilyevich concluded a new ending with Ivan Mozhaisky, and between December 15, 1448 and June 22, 1449 - finishing with Suzdal Prince Ivan Vasilyevich , in which the Suzdal prince, in particular, pledged not to stick to Dmitry foe "Vasili Vasilyevich. In this end, Prince Ivan is called the "Grand Prince"; Perhaps Vasily II declared Ivan the Grand Duke at the same time as Jonah was elected Metropolitan (December 15, 1448) [2]:132, 133 .

On April 13, 1449 (on “Great Day”), Dmitri Yuryevich, perhaps, together with Ivan Andreevich [2]:254 , approached “with much strength” to Kostroma, but “did not succeed in nothing” [11]:208, since the city was the "outpost" of Vasily II - his court, which was headed by Prince Ivan Striga Obolensky and Fedor Basyonok. Upon learning of the movement of the troops of Dmitry Shemyaka, Vasili Vasilyevich spoke out against him, taking with him his brotherhood, the Tatar princes with all their might, as well as the metropolitan and bishops. Approaching the Volga, Vasili Vasilyevich released his “brotherhood” and Tatar princes to Dmitry Shemyaka, while he himself stopped in the village of Rudin in Yaroslavl Region. Dmitry Yuryevich "with many forces" and with Prince Ivan passed the Volga, but sent to Ivan Andreyevich his brother Prince Mikhail "take" Ivan Mozhaysky from Dmitry Yuryevich, Prince Ivan "finished off with his brow" Vasili Vasilyevich, receiving Bezhetsky Top in addition to his inheritance. Dmitry Yurevich was left without an ally, and therefore, "taking a truce" with Vasili Vasilyevich, he returned to Galich.[2]:134.

File:Sviatitel Evfimy.jpg

St. Euthymius of Novgorod. Thread. Novgorod. 1st half of the XVI century.

On August 31, 1449, Vasily II concluded an agreement with Casimir IV , according to which Casimir, in particular, promised "not to pryimat" Dmitry Shemyaka [2]:134. In the fall of 1449, Basil II sent Prince Vasiliy Yaroslavich “exile” to Galich. Learning of this, Dmitry Yuryevich went with his wife and boyars to Novgorod. Arriving at Vishera , he sent a request to Novgorod Archbishop Euthymius to take over his wife and son. The archbishop agreed, Sophia Dmitrievna and her son entered “in the fall” into the Yuryev Monastery , “and the great Prince Dmitri Yuryevich himself, in Veliky Novogorod, was not, went to Galitsya” [2]:136, 137[32]:Стб. 192.

At the end of 1449 - the beginning of 1450, Vasili Vasilyevich set out on the march, heading for Galich. Receiving the news that Dmitry Yurevich went to Vologda, and then turned to Galich, Vasili Vasilyevich changed directions and reached Iron Bork . Staying at the Ivanovsky Convent, Vasili Vasilyevich received the news that Dmitry Yuryevich already in Galicia, "lyudei about it a lot, and the city is secured and Cannon prepares and Men walking with him, and himself to the city stands with all the power" [11]:209. Having appointed Prince V.I. Obolensky the chief commander, Vasili Vasilyevich sent him "with all his strength" under Galich, releasing with him "many other princes and the governor many, many, and after all the princes let them go" [2]:139, 140.

On January 27, 1450, when the troops of Prince V. I. Obolensky approached Galich, Dmitry Yuryevich and his troops settled on the mountain under the city. The governors began to climb the mountain, fire was fired from Galich ("having started the first city of the city with guns , and mattresses , and food , and crossbowmen"), but "did not kill anyone." "And there was slashing evil" , in close battle won shelves Basil Dark - "many izbisha and lutche all hands Yasha, and the prince himself just run away, and the pedestrian's men are not all little izbisha, and the city shut" [11]:209. Learning about the victory at Galicia, Vasily II arrived there from Iron Bork. Townspeople "pledged to him", the governors of Grand Prince Vasili Vasilyevich were planted in Galich and Uglich[2]: 140 .

It is interesting to note that, according to the 1905 edition of the “Ancient City of Galich in the Kostroma Province”, Dmitry Yuryevich “was the first in Russia to introduce food, which he probably borrowed from Lithuania” [3]:367, 369[33].

Last years

April 2, 1450 (in the opinion of V. L. Yanin, this date is erroneous [14]:198, 199) Dmitry Yuryevich arrived in Veliky Novgorod, where “there is a cross to Veliky Novugorod, and Veliky Novgorod is a cross to Veliky Dmitri Zedo[2]:141, 142. After spending some time in Novgorod, Dmitriy Yuryevich ordered the “vyatchanes to go to their home” [34], while he himself went to Dvina . Having descended on it "nasadeh", Dmitry Shemyaka on June 29 without a fight entered Ustyug and took the oath of local residents [2]:142, 256

Opponents of Dmitri Yuryevich "did not want to change Grand Prince Vasili, and they did not kiss the prince for Dmitry, and he executed them": they were thrown into Sukhona , "knitting a great tick on their necks", while one of the thrown was saved [2]:142, 143, 256[23]:89 . It should be noted that in 1435 the Ustyuzhans were supporters of Vasily II, after the city, apparently without a fight [2]:73[7]:53 entered Vasili Kosoy, "they wanted to kill him, in Great Days , on matins ”[29]:148. During the celebration of Easter (in all likelihood, during the procession , which began the EasterMatins [7]:53) massacre was arranged, Vasili Kosoy managed to escape, running between the hummocks through Sukhona, “and those who did not ripen his people behind him, and Ustyuzhan beat them” [2]:73[7]:54[29]:148.

Finishing Ustyug, Dmitri Yuryevich called vogulichey and vyatchan "Grand Prince Vasily parish grabiti"[34] and "he poidee to Vologda and Vologda voivav" [23]:89, returned to the Ustyug, where he lived until about the beginning of 1452 . As A. A. Zimin points out, it is obvious that “he did not live there all the time, but only by accident” [2]:143. In a message to Vyatka around 1452, Metropolitan Jonah wrote that Vyatka residents, including Dmitry Shemyaka, “many times” “came” to Ustyug, Vologda and Galich, while Jonah accused the Vyatchan people of cruelty and robbery and demanded them to “finish off” forehead "Vasili Vasilyevich and" mend "" in all without cunning " [2]:143[35]:№ 73. Стб. 591—594.

As noted by A.A. Zimin, remained "deaf news that around 1450- 1451 biennium. Dmitri Shemyaka is excommunicated and make up a “damned letter” on this occasion [2]:144. It is about: the message of the Vym chronicle that the Perm Bishop Pitirim in 1447 "wrote a letter to Dmitri Shemyaka with a curse from the church of the saints" [34]; a phrase in the message of Metropolitan Jonah to Vyatka about 1452 (“with the church excommunicated with Prince Dmitri and Shemyakoy, there were many more visits to the Grand Duke's patrimony” [35]:№ 73. Стб. 591; phrases in the letter of Jonah to Novgorod archbishop Euthymius (“excommunicated himself from Christianity”, “great religious priesthood on the great divine priesthood laid upon the church” and “we have Prince Dmitri unaffected and excommunicated by the Church of God” [36]:№ 372. С. 464—465)[2]:144, 256. As A. A. Zimin points out, the date of the recording in the Vymskaya chronicle is “erroneous, and the fact itself is doubtful. Even in September 1452, in a letter to the Archbishop of Euthymia of Novgorod, Metropolitan Jonah wrote that Shemyaka "had separated himself from Christianity". The Metropolitan does not speak of his excommunication by the church council ” [2]:144. The historian also notes that "there is not a word about the excommunication of Dmitri Shemyaka and in the documents on the anathematization of the Russian church"[2]:256[37]It should be noted that Dmitry Yuryevich was buried in the Yuryev Monastery after his death (“put him in the Yuryev Monastery in the church” [38], “was laid in the church of the holy martyr Yegoria in Novgorod” [27]:262). Rev. Paphnutiy of Borovsk called Dmitry Shemyaka after his death “ pious prince”[39][40]:366 and remembered him until the end of his life (“he remembered Prince Dmitry until the end” ) [41]. In the preserved list The 16th century synodic of the Iosifo-Volotsky Monastery has an article about the commemoration of Dmitri Yuryevich and his descendants [42]:8, 81, 82

On March 21, 1451, leaving Sophia Dmitrievna with her son in Novgorod, Dmitry Yuryevich left the Settlement and headed “for Volok” [2]:148. Apparently, at the same time [43]:292 Dmitry Yuryevich came to Mikhail Klopsky . Life describes the dialogue between Dmitri Shemyaka and Mikhail Klopsky [44]:And in my speech: “Mykhailushko, I run to my father-in-law and were beaten by me from the Grand Duchess!” And Mikhail told me: “All power is given from God.” And ask the prince: "Mykhailushko, pray to God, that I may reach out to my fatherland — the great reign." And Mikhaila talk to him: “The prince, reach out to the Z-Lakotago coffin!” And the prince, who is not ryadachi, let him go to finish the great reign. And Michael Reche: "In all hardworking, prince, which God will not give."

For several months, Dmitry Yuryevich, being on Dvina , was preparing to march against Vasily the Dark. Upon learning that Dmitry Shemyaka was moving towards Ustyug, Vasili Vasilyevich organized a military expedition against him - on January 1, 1452, Vasili Vasilyevich made a march from Moscow [2]:148 . Part of the forces of Vasili Vasilyevich under the command of Prince Ivan and the Tatar prince Yakub moved to Kokshenga, the other part was approaching Ustyug from the south[2]:148, 149 . Being under Ustyug, Dmitry Shemyaka received news of the approach of Vasili Vasilyevich. Dmitry Yuryevich was threatened with danger of encirclement, he burned the suburbs of Ustyug and, leaving his governor in the city, went to Dvina, where “make Dvinians <...> polity lower than the townOrlets "near the mouth of the river. Basil II "sent a chapel after him with power by the South past Ustyug", the governors under "the city did not stand anything, not a single day, they went after Shemyakoy"[2]:149[23]:89.

After departing from Ustyug, Dmitri Yuryevich stayed in Zavolochye for several months . According to the Vym chronicle, he “killed” the Perm bishop Pitirim , who was heading to Moscow, “brought to Ustyug, throwing a dungeon, and tortured evo tamo” [34]. As A. A. Zimin points out, the story “this one may be dated by an earlier time, or the mention of Ustyug in it is not certain” [2]: 150 .

From Zavolochye Dmitri Yurievich arrived in Novgorod [2]:150}. "On the Troek week in heels" [44]Dmitry Shemyaka again came to the Klopsky monastery . He fed and watered the elders and gave Mikhail Klopsky a fur coat from his shoulder. When Dmitry Yuryevich was escorted from the monastery, Mikhail patted him on the head and said three times: “The prince, the earth cries out!” Then the Life transmits the conversation of Dmitri Yuryevich and Mikhail Klopsky [2]:152[44] And the prince says: "Mykhailushko, I want to go to Rzhov Yehati Kostyantinov for my patrimony." And speak to him Michael: "The Prince, do not fulfill his desire."

Reverend Michael Klopsky in the Life. Icon. XVII century. Mational Museum of History

As historian Olga Kuzmina notes, a gift to Mikhail (a fur coat from his shoulder) usually meant a reward for faithful service, and, probably, “in life, compiled after the annexation of Novgorod to Moscow, information about some help from Mikhail Klopsky Shemyaka” was not entered [43]:294. O.V. Kuzmina also suggests that perhaps Mikhail Klopsky guessed that he was plotting against Dmitry Yuryevich, and the words “land crying” and “not fulfilling his desire” were a warning to Dmitry, disguised as a council to leave Veliky Novgorod [43]:294.

On September 10, 1452, Dmitri Yuryevich, perhaps intending to make his way to Rzhev, “came to Kashin city ​​as an exile” [19]:Стб. 495 , but he failed to take the city. In retreating, Dmitry Shemyaka, according to the Tver [2]:109 source, “in honor of the work of honor” in the town of Kiyasov, but seeing that 500 people left his army, he “didn’t know where he was” [30]. Sent by Boris Tversky in pursuit of Dmitry Yuryevich of the governor "he was much more like him and did not find him, but he was hidden in empty and impassable places"[30]. In the winter of 1452/1453, Dmitry Yuryevich returned to Veliky Novgorod "from Zavolochya <...> and began to Settlement"[2]:151[32]:Стб. 193.

In 1451-1453, Mr. Novgorod the Great recognized Dmitry Yuryevich as Grand Prince [2]:151[14]:202 (at the same time considering the Grand Prince and Vasili Vasilyevich) [2]:144. Novgorodians may have been in the army of Dmitry Yuryevich [43]:292. During this period, Metropolitan Jonah put pressure on the Novgorod archbishop [43]:292: two messages from Metropolitan Jonah to Vladyka Evfimia were preserved, containing accusations addressed to Dmitry Yuryevich and reproaches to Novgorod [2]:152[14]:201.

Dmitri Yuryevich's murder

Not later than July 1453, Vasili Vasilyevich sent Clerk Stepan the Bearded “to death in death in the city of Novorod with Prince Dmitry” [2]:154[43]:293. Dyak Stepan, according to one version, gave poison to the mayor Isaac Boretsky , who bribed the cook, who served Dmitri Yuryevich, nicknamed the Toadstool, "but to give him potion in smoking" [2]:154[43]:293. According to another version, the clerk turned to the boyar Dmitri Shemyaka Ivan Kotov (Notov), ​​“giving him the speech of the Grand Duke”, the boyar Ivan “promised” and “calling the cook on this advice” [2]:154[7]:131[43]:293.

Dmitry Yuryevich “about noon” ordered “to himself only smoking the Dospeti”. He was served a chicken, which participants of the poisoning with “mortal potions of the armor”, Dmitry Yuryevich “did not know their poison,” “the same ache” and, after spending 12 days in bed, died July 17, 1453 [2]:154[7]:131[43]:293.

Dmitri Yurievich Shemyaka was buried in St. George's Cathedral of St. George Monastery in Veliky Novgorod [23]:89[27]:262[43]:293[45]:19.

The reaction of contemporaries and descendants to the murder of Dmitri Shemyaka

Vasili Vasilyevich received the news of the death of Dmitry Yuryevich on July 23, 1453 in the Moscow Church of Boris and Gleb "on the Rva" , where he listened to vespers on the eve of the day of the celebration of holy martyrs Boris and Gleb [2]:153, 154[7]:130.Vasili Vasilyevich immediately granted the clerk by the name of Vasili Beda the title of deacon [2]:154[7]:130. The Yermolino Chronicle contains a remark about Vasili Beda in connection with receiving his deacon: “prophesy to him many people, as if for a short time his time will be, and for him a little will come true” [2]:154[7]:131.

Rev. Paphnutius of Borovsk with Life. Icon. 1st half of the XIX century. Central Musuem of Old Russian Culture and Painting Andrei Rublyov

Metropolitan Jonah forbade the commemoration of the deceased Dmitry Yuryevich (“he laid indignation upon him and upon death, did not order him to commemorate” [40]:365)[2]:155 . The abbot Borovsky Monastery Paphnutius did not obey this order and may not be instructed to call the Metropolitan of Jonah [2]:155 : "... Jonah mitropalitu was war with Pafnotiem elders told Jonah that Pafnutii it will not allow to call mitropalitom" [40]:191 . Jonah, having called the Bohr abbot to Moscow, “put a scolding on Paphnothia” [40]:365 for the commemoration of Dmitry Yuryevich and imprisoned the abbot in prison [2]:155[40]:365. However, the Monk Paphnutius "was not afraid of that, and he did not obey to Metropolitan Jonah, but he was also conciliated with that" [40]:365 . The metropolitan was forced to “put up with” the igumen, “he himself confessed before Paphnemia and gave the world and gave him his gift and let him go with the world about Christ Jesus” [40]:366. Rev. Paphnutius continued to remember Dmitry Yuryevich until the end of his life [2]:155, 156, 259[40]:366.

One of the murderers of Dmitri Yuryevich (the cook Poganka [46] or the boyar Ivan Kotov [39]), shortly after his death, took the veil and entered the Borovsky monastery. Upon learning of this, the Monk Paphnutius exposed him to the disciples (“See that even for the monastic rank he was not cleansed of blood” [38]) and refused to accept in his monastery [2]:156.

Nikolai Borisov suggests that Martinian Belozersky, appointed abbot of the Trinity Monastery in 1448 as a reward for supporting Vasili Vasilyevich, became the prince's confessor [47] , condemned the poisoning of Dmitri Yuryevich and appointed Vasili Temny to be severely impregnated . After July 3, 1453, Vasili Vasilyevich ceased to call Martinian by name in his letters, in 1454 Martinian left the Trinity Monastery, another person was appointed hegumen [7]:138, 139.

Prince Andrei Kurbsky in the Third Epistle to Ivan the Terrible ( 1579 ) indignantly wrote about the reprisals against Dmitry Yuryevich, with whom he was in a remote property : “What did Ugletsky committed, and Eroslavich, and other uniform blood? And how are they all smoothed and consumed? Even to hear is hard, terrible! ” [2]:154[48].

Posthumous fate

St. George's Cathedral Yuryev Monastery, Veliky Novgorod. The burial place of Dmitri Shemyaka. In 1616, the Swedish soldiers, in search of treasure, excavated and opened the tomb in the southwestern corner of St. George's Cathedral of the Yuryev Monastery (the southern nave was a traditional princely tomb). In the tomb, the soldiers found "the person is whole and unbroken, in princely attire" and the remains of a teenager ("repent, 13 years old") [4]:101-103, 105, 108, 114. With the permission of the Swedish "governor" Jacob Delagardi, Metropolitan Isidore transferred their "honest relics" to Hagia Sophia , declaring the mummified remains of the relics of St. Prince Fyodor Yaroslavich, who died in 1219 at the age of 13-14 years [4]: 97, 103, 105 . The remains were placed in a stone tomb - obviously the same one in which they were located in St. George's Cathedral [4]:113, 114.

In 1919 (apparently, during the campaign to uncover the relics [41]), the relics of Prince Theodore were unsealed and mummified remains belonging to a man of forty were discovered [4]:103 . The remains were examined in the 1930s by the famous anthropologist Wolfe Ginzburg, who also determined that the deceased was about 40 years old [4]:103, 104 .

August 10 - October 28, 1987, a study of the remains of “Fyodor Yaroslavich” was conducted, within which, in the direction of the head of the Novgorod archaeological expedition V. L. Yanin , a forensic chemical study of the remains was also carried out. The study confirmed, on the one hand, that the deceased was Dmitriy Yurievich Shemyaka, and on the other, that he died as a result of arsenic poisoning [4]: 110, 111, 210-217.

The study of the remains also gave an idea of ​​the appearance of the Grand Duke. Dmitry Yurevich was a reddish man of medium height — about 168 cm [4]:212 [45]:19, as N. Borisov notes, raising the nickname “Shemyaka” to “ Sheyemyaka ” - “stocky burly <...>, possessing an extraordinary physical strength ” [7]:50. Since 2012, the remains of Dmitry Yuryevich are in the Sofia Cathedral of Veliky Novgorod and are still identified with the remains of Fyodor Yaroslavich [41] .

Memory of Dmitri Yuryevich

A. A. Zimin notes that “with the death of Dmitri Shemyaka, his halo did not fade in the areas where he acted. The cult of the Galician princes was preserved in the Galician land even in the XVII century. ”[2]:156. In the XV - the beginning of the XVII century, the nickname "Shemyaka" was distributed in places associated with the influence of the Galician princes, among persons of different social strata and origin [2]:156.

The upper hill fortification of the city of Galich is located on an elevation called Shemyakina Gora [2]:18[3]:226. On the slopes of this mountain, on January 27, 1450, the battle of Dmitri Shemyaka with the troops of Vasily the Dark [2]:221 took place .

Legends and the atrocities attributed to Dmitri Shemyaka

Treasure at the bottom of the Galich lake

According to this legend, Dmitri Shemyaka allegedly drowned treasures in the lake so that they would not go to Vasily Dark. To do this, he drove a boat in the middle of the lake , fully loaded with gold, and punched a hole in the bottom. This treasure is "conspired" and simply "will not be given" to anyone [3]:222 .

Reprisals with Gregory of Pelsham

In the Life of St. Gregory of Pelscheme tells about the campaign of Prince Dmitri to Vologda. Dmitri Shemyaka laid siege to the city, after which St. Gregory came to him from the monastery and allegedly denounced Dmitry Yuryevich, after which he, angry, ordered to throw Gregory off "from the platform" (while Gregory remained alive) [2]:156, 157[8][9].

The author of The Life is unknown, it was created, according to Vasily Klyuchevsky ’s suggestion , at the end of the 15th and beginning of the 16th centuries , lists have been preserved since the middle of the 16th century [49] . Life is known in three full editions [3]:255[8][49], information contained in different editions differ from each other [3]:255 and often contradict each other [8]. There are significant differences between the first and second editions, the third edition combines the features of the first and second with significant reductions [49] . The event itself in the first edition dated 1430 year. In the second, there is a story about Grigory’s march to Moscow with the goal of convincing Yuri Dmitrievich, who took the grand throne, to abandon him in favor of Vasili Vasilyevich, this story is dated 1431 , and the denunciation episode is “that summer” . In the third edition, there is no story about going to Moscow; the episode of denunciation is dated, as in the second edition, “on the same summer” [49] . There are other contradictions in and between the revisions of Life [3]:259, 260[8][49]. In addition, in the Life there are inserts from the lives of Dionysius Glushitsky and Dimitri Prilutsky [3]:255[8][49].

According to K.P. Kovalev-Sluchevsky, it is possible “to suggest introduction into the text of the Life and even rewriting the text, connected with the necessity of an ideological character” [3]:256. A. A. Zimin notes that “we could talk about some reminiscences about the march of Vasili Kosoy to Vologda in 1435 or Dmitri Shemyaka in 1449/50. According to his life, Grigori baptized the children of Prince Yuri Dmitrievich, which he I. U. Budovnitsa , a story about events in Vologda is very doubtful ” [2]:157[50] .

“Shemyakin court”

In the satirical work " Shemyakin Court " ("The Tale of Shemyakin Court", "The Tale of the Unjust Judge Shemyak"), known as prose and in the poetic version, it is described how his unlucky poor man consistently lodged a complaint with his brother-rich, pop and city dweller. Arriving at the “Shemyaka Judge” to try the case, the poor man puts a stone wrapped in a handkerchief in his bosom and shows it to the judge, thus depicting “promise”. “Shemyaka judge” decides the case in such a way that all three plaintiffs prefer to give the “bribe” to the poor in order not to execute the decisions of the judge. When the judge finds out that in reality the poor man had a stone in his bosom, he gives praise to God that he would judge in favor of the poor man, otherwise the poor man "would have killed him with that stone" [2]:157, 158[3]:366—369,453—455[51]:60[52]. .

In 1816, Nikolai Karamzin in the V volume of the “History of the Russian State” put the following text: “Having no conscience, no rules of honor, no prudent state system, Shemyaka in a short time of his dominion strengthened the Muscovites' affection for Basil, and in civil cases themselves, violating with their feet justice, the ancient statutes, common sense, left forever the memory of their iniquities in the popular proverb about the trial of Shemyakin, to this day " [51]:79[53]:321. N. M. Karamzin substantiated this text in Note 338 to V of the “History of the Russian State” as follows:“In the Chronograph: from this time of loss in Velitsa Russy, every judge and admirer in accusations was called Shemyakin court” [51]:79, 87[53]:Прим., с. 212.

It should be noted that in 1833, Nikolai Polevoy in Volume V of the History of the Russian People , citing N. M. Karamzin’s assertion, pointed out that “chroniclers, enemies of the Shemyakins, do not say this , although they cruelly criticize Shemyaka for blinding Vasily[16]:372, 373 . However, the majority of later researchers, including Sergei Solovyov , on the basis of the quotations from the Chronograph quoted by N. M. Karamzin, identified the hero of the story “Shemyakin Court” with the Grand Duke Dmitry Shemyaka. At the same time, scientific criticism of historical sources was often replaced by “moral denunciations” of Dmitry Yuryevich [51]:79, 93.

In fact, the story "Shemyakin court" was formed not earlier than the second half of the XVII century [51]:78 . At the same time, the saying about “Shemyakin court” is secondary in relation to the story and arose from the text of this work [51]:99. The “chronograph” referred to by Nikolai Karamzin is not known to modern science and, in all likelihood, was a historical collection of the second half of the seventeenth century , lost in the beginning of the nineteenth century [51]:90. The text of this “Chronograph”, as I.P. Lapitsky points out, is “a later interpolation done not earlier than the end of the 17th century in an unknown historical collection, different in its text from the edition chronographs of 1512, 1617 and 1620-1646.”[51]:99

In general, the word “Shemyaka” in the XVI-XVII centuries was a common name and, as I.P. any meaning ” [51]:99. According to A.A. Zimin, the story could have been preserved “some distant echoes of a benevolent attitude towards Prince Dmitri, common in a democratic environment” [2]:158 .

Dmitry Yuryevich in art

In literature

Nikolay Polevoy . “The Oath at the Tomb of the Lord” (novel, 1832 ) [54].

In art

On the miniatures of the Facial Chronicle

Images of Dmitri Yuryevich are presented, in particular, in compositions for the subjects:

receiving news of the death of Dmitri Shemyaka; Vasili the Dark gives Dmitry Yuryevich the lot of Uglich and Rzhev; Dmitri Yuryevich invites Basil the Dark to the wedding; Shemyaka arrives at the coffin of his brother Dmitri Krasnyi; Vasili II "lay amok" on Dmitri Shemyaka and "put him on Uglich"; reproduction and burial of Dmitri Yuryevich in Veliky Novgorod. Dmitri Shemyaka is depicted as a middle-aged man with curly hair and a short beard , in conversation with Vasily the Dark beardless[41] .

In the mural of the central arch of the parade porch of the State Historical Museum in Moscow

The painting made by the artel of F. G. Toropov ( 1883 ) includes the “Family Tree of Russian Sovereigns,” where Dmitry Shemyaka is depicted in full growth, half a turn to the left, in princely clothes and a hat, with a scepter in his right hand, with his left hand holding the edge of his cloak. Dmitry Yurevich has large facial features, dark curly hair and a thick beard of average size [41] . To the right and left of the head there is an inscription: “Blagov. Prince Dimitar Yuriev. Shemyak. " [55].

In the paintings of artists

  1. Victor Muizhel :
    1. “The reconciliation of Vasili II the Dark with Shemyaka” [56] (late XIX - early XX century).
    2. “Dmitri Shemyaka's meeting with Prince Vasily II the Dark” [57](late XIX - early XX century).
  2. Karl Gong :
    1. “Sofia Vitovtovna at the wedding of Vasili the Dark” [58] (1861).
  3. Pavel Chistyakov :
    1. “At the wedding of Grand Duke Vasily Vasilyevich Temny, Grand Duchess Sofya Vitovtovna takes away from Prince Vasili Kosoy, Brother Shemyaka, a belt with precious stones that once belonged to Dmitri Donskoy, whom Yuryevich had seized wrong” [59] (1861).
  4. Boris Chorikov :
    1. “Queen Sofia solemnly removes the stolen Dimitri Donskoy’s precious belt, 1433, from Prince Vasili Kosoy [60] (1838).

Family

Wife

Sofya Dmitriyevna, daughter of Prince of Zaozero Prince Dmitri Vasilyevich (great-great-grandson of Holy Prince Fedor Cherny ) and Princess Maria [31]:271, 272[61]:112—114. The Sofia Dmitriyevna's parents and her brother Andrei (in monasticism - Joasaph) are also glorified as saints [62] .

She married Dmitri Yuryevich not earlier than 1436 [2]:74, 236[4]:107[31]:274. According to V. L. Yanin, on August 23, 1444, Princess Sophia was with her husband and son in Novgorod, where they made a contribution (shroud) to the Yuryev Monastery [14]:193, 197—199, 202, 203. In the autumn of 1449, with the consent of the Novgorod ruler Euphemia II, she and her son entered the Yuryev Monastery [2]:137.

February 7, 1456 , "afraid" of Vasily Dark, fled from Novgorod to Lithuania and went to his son in a small West Russian town Oboltsy [2]:175[14]:202[31]:275. Up to 1456, Sofia Dmitrievna retains in the Novgorod chronicle story the title of Grand Duchess [14]:202 .

Son

Ivan Dmitrievich Shemyaka (1438-c1505), born probably in Uglich not earlier than 1437 [31]:274. According to V. L. Yanin, together with his parents was in Novgorod in 1444 [14]:198. In 1449, Prince Ivan settled with his mother in the Yuryev Monastery [2]:137[31]:274.

A year after Dmitry Yuryevich’s death, “to the Great Gentlemen ” of 1454, Ivan Dmitrievich left Novgorod and went to Pskov , where he was met by the inhabitants “with great honor” [2]:161[31]:274. Perhaps the Pskov kissed the cross to Ivan Dmitrievich, as the Grand Duke [31]:275 . From Pskov, Ivan Dmitrievich drove off to Lithuania, where no earlier than 1456 he was granted Novgorod-Seversky reign [31]:274, 276.

In 1463, Ivan Dmitrievich was last mentioned in sources as the actor [31]:277. According to the hypothesis substantiated by Alexander Bobrov , in 1463, Ivan Dmitrievich took on the monastic tonsure , later becoming an outstanding Russian scribe Euphrosyne Belozersky , who left a vast and diverse legacy [31]:264, 271—273, 287. In particular, Eufrosin is probably the creator of the archetype text and the Short (and possibly Spacious) version of Zadonshchina ; it is also possible Efrosin - author of record "Lay", the creator of it asliterary work [[31]:259, 260, 297.

The latest known record of Euphrosynus dates back to [31]:264. As A. G. Bobrov, Russian culture, notes, “perhaps it only benefited from the fact that Prince Ivan Dmitrievich became a monk Euphrosyne” [31]:285.

Daughter

Mariya Dmitriyevna, born no earlier than 1436 [4]:107. In 1452, during Dmitry Yuryevich's stay in Zavolochye, Princess Mariya married in Veliky Novgorod prince Aleksandr Vasilyevich Chartorysky [2]:150[4]:107. She died suddenly and was buried on February 13, 1456 in St. George's Cathedral of the Yuryev Monastery, apparently in the tomb of her father [4]:107—109[31]:275, 276.

In 1616, Mariya Dmitriyevna's remains were discovered at the opening of the tomb of Dmitri Shemyaka (“they were in Yuryev in a single coffin”), the metropolitan of Novgorod Isidore transferred them along with the remains of Dmitry Yuryevich to the Sofia Cathedral [4]:103, 105, 107—109.

Dmitri Yurevich’s assessments in the writings of historians

Nikolai Karamzin believed that Dmitri Yuryevich was of a “ cruel nature ” [53]:262. According to N. M. Karamzin, after the return of Vasily II from captivity, “good subjects enjoyed themselves, as on a bright holiday, and hurried to see the Sovereign from afar” [53]:314, and after the transfer of power in Moscow to Dmitry Yuryevich “horror prevailed in Grand Duke " [53]:319; The “Muscovites” “earnestly begged Heaven to deliver them from the Lord of the Unworthy” [53]:321, 322. In the opinion of Nikolay Karamzin, Dmitry Yuryevich, being in Novgorod the last years, “in his uncompromising malice he was looking for new ways to revenge: his death seemed necessary for state security”[53]:344. Referring to the poisoning of Dmitry Shemyaka, N. M. Karamzin wrote that “the culprit of the case, so contrary to Vera and the laws of morality, remained unknown” [53]:344, Прим.: с. 228. Sergei Solovyov believed that “those desperate, embittered by failure, Yuryevich obey one instinct of self-preservation and do not dismantle the means to achieve the goal” [63]:66. S. M. Solovyov, following N. M. Karamzin [51]:93, argued that Dmitri Yuryevich "had to give in to the demands of his squadand their Moscow followers; citizens who were not disposed to him, or at least indifferent, could not find any defense against them at the Shemyakin court, and this court passed into posterity with the meaning of the court of unjust proverb ” [63]:85. Nikolai Borisov believes that “defending his“ truth ”, Yuri Dmitrievich and his sons dragged Northeastern Rus into a lengthy feud, the consequences of which turned out to be terrible” [7]:134, while, according to N. Borisov, Yuri Dmitrievich and his sons were “ rebels ” [7]:34, 35, 95, 123, 124. According to the historian, “the rebellious Galician was far from being a knight without fear and reproach,” the list of “Shemyakin evil deeds could be very long,” and “if you believe in hell fire,” he and Vasili Vasilyevich “had a chance to meet there again [7]:133, 134 .

Nikolai Polevoi , noting NM Karamzin’s biased attitude to Dmitry Yuryevich [16]:318, 325, 340, 368, 377, 388, 393, 394 , pointed to repeated “increases” (statements not based on sources) N. M. Karamzin, in particular about the “people's love” for Vasili Vasilyevich [16]:310, 311, 313, 361 , about the “horror” of the great reign of Dmitri Yuryevich [16]:372. According to the historian, Dmitry Yuryevich, recognizing Vasili Vasilyevich "the Grand Duke and calling to Moscow"[16]:319 after the death of Yuri Dmitrievich, "showed extraordinary generosity " [16]:317, "to whom we find some examples in History " [16]:318. N. A. Polevoy noted that “Shemyaka didn’t take revenge” for “grave insult” - imprisonment and imprisonment in Kolomna in 1436 [16]:325, 327. Dmitry Y., in the opinion of N. A. Polevoi, “wanted good, sincerely tolerated,” from the affairs of Dmitry Shemyaka you can find out “the character of this Prince, brave, kind, ardent, ready for evil only in a moment of anger, but always able to smooth his own a crime of repentance, willing to forgive offense and trusting to frivolity ” [16]:320. Aleksandr Zimin , being the author of the study of the internecine war of the 15th century, the first in Russian literature [2]:212, noted that Dmitry Shemyaka “possessed the qualities of an outstanding ruler”, continuing “the work of Dmitri Donskoy and his father, Dmitry Yuryevich did everything in his power to unite the Russian lands and strike a decisive blow to the Horde kings” [2]:158. According to A. A. Zimin, Dmitry Yuryevich “was the most brilliant son of that dark era” [2]:202. Konstantin Kovalev-Sluchevsky believes that Dmitri Yuryevich "was not only killed (poisoned), but also" convicted "in the minds of people (with the help of official propaganda of the time) to bear the burden of the" villain ", because" he lost in the struggle for Moscow power, having all the rights to it ” [3]:366.

Notes

  1. ^ Филюшкин А. И. Титулы русских государей. М.; СПб., 2006. С. 190—191.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga gb gc gd ge gf gg gh gi gj gk gl gm gn go gp gq gr gs gt gu gv gw gx gy gz ha hb hc hd he hf hg hh hi hj hk hl hm hn ho hp hq hr hs ht hu hv Зимин А. А. (1991). Витязь на распутье: Феодальная война в России XV в. Мoscow.: Мысль. ISBN 5-244-00518-9. Archived from the original on 2011-07-22. https://web.archive.org/web/20110722013229/http://annals.xlegio.ru/rus/zimin/zimin.htm#01. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Ковалёв-Случевский К. П.. Юрий Звенигородский. Великий князь Московский. ISBN 978-5-235-03159-3. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Янин В. Л. (1988). Некрополь новгородского Софийского собора. Мoscow: Наука. pp. 240. ISBN 5-02-009468-4. 
  5. ^ Хмыров М. Д. (1870). Алфавитно-справочный перечень государей русских и замечательнейших особ их крови. Sankt Petersburg: Обёртка печ. в тип. А. Бенке. p. 98. 
  6. ^ БСЭ3 -|Дмитрий Шемяка}}
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  9. ^ a b "Житие преподобного отца нашего Григория, игумена обители на Пельшме реке, Вологодского чудотворца (по свт. Димитрию Ростовскому)". Официальный Web-сайт Ташкентской и Среднеазиатской Епархии Русской Православной Церкви Московской Патриархии. Archived from the original on 2011-08-21. https://www.webcitation.org/615n1iG17?url=http://www.pravoslavie.uz/Jitiya/9/30GrigoriyVolog.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-03. 
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  12. ^ Лурье Я. С.. "Двуименные монеты Василия II и Шемяки и двоевластие в Москве". 
  13. ^ Other researchers attribute such coins to 1446 or 1446-1447, according to A. Zimin, they are remnants of the minting of coins by Dmitri Shemyaka in 1447 - the beginning 1450s (Лурье Я. С.- Двуименные монеты Василия II и Шемяки и двоевластие в Москве С. 84—88. Зимин А. А. Витязь на распутье. С. 237).
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  22. ^ Кобрин В. Б. (1985). Власть и собственность в средневековой России (XV—XVI вв.). Мoscow.: Мысль. pp. 278. 
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  33. ^ Сытин С. Д. (1905). "Глава II. Основание Галича. Удельные князья галичские. Нашествие Батыя и казанских татар. Междоусобные распри. Присоединение Галича к московскому княжеству". 
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Children



Offspring of Dmitri Yuryevich Shemyaka of Moscow (Russian: Дмитрий Юрьевич Шемяка Великий князь Московский) and Sophia Dmitriyevna of Zaozero (c1420-c1460)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Mariya Dmitriyevna Shemyakaya (1437-1456) 1437 13 February 1456 Veliky Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia Aleksandr Vasilyevich Chartorysky (c1405-c1478)
Ivan Dmitrievich Shemyaka (1438-c1505)












Siblings


Offspring of Yuri Dmitriyevich of Zvenigorod (1374-1434) and Anastasia Yuryevna of Smolensk (c1383-1422)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Ivan Yuryevich (c1403-c1463)
Vasili Yuryevich Kosoy (c1405-1448) 1405 Zvenigorod, Moscow Oblast, Russia 1448 Moscow, Russia Anastasiya Andreyevna of Radonezh (c1405-c1455)
Dmitri Yuryevich Shemyaka of Moscow (c1408-1453) 1408 17 July 1453 Novgorod, Novgorod Oblast, Russia Sophia Dmitriyevna of Zaozero (c1420-c1460)
Dmitri Yuryevich Krasnyi (c1412-1440) 1412 22 September 1440

Residences

}}
Ivan Ivanovich
Born: 1326 Died: 1359
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Konstantin Dmitriyevich
Prince of Uglich
1434–1447
Succeeded by
Incorporated into the Grand Principality of Moscow
Preceded by
Yuri Dmitrievich
Prince of Galich-Mersky
1389-1433
Succeeded by
Incorporated into the Grand Principality of Moscow
Preceded by
Yuri Dmitrievich
Grand Prince of Vladimir
1389-1433
Succeeded by
Incorporated into the Grand Principality of Moscow
Preceded by
Vasili Vasilyevich
Grand Prince of Moscow
1445-1445
Succeeded by
Vasili Vasilyevich
Preceded by
Vasili Vasilyevich
Ruler and Grand Prince of All Russias
1355–1359
Succeeded by
Vasili Vasilyevich
Preceded by
New created principality
Prince of Zvenigorod (Moscow)
1339–1353
Succeeded by
Ivan Ivanovich of Zvenigorod



Footnotes (including sources)

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