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Dormition Cathedral
Cathedral of the Assumption, Halych
Ruins of Dormition Cathedral of Halych



Dormition Cathedral is located in Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast
Red pog
Dormition Cathedral
LocationKrilos, Halych Rayon, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast
CountryUkraine
DenominationEastern Orthodox


The Dormition Cathedral of Halych, Church of the Blessed Virgin Mary - the main church of the Principality of Halych and the second largest church of Kievan Rus (after St. Sophia Cathedral in Kyiv ). From the XII century was the cathedral of the Galician diocese, and from the XIV century the Galician Metropolis - the second in Russia after Kiev . The long centuries were an example of architectural perfection for building a style of architecture in Galicia , which is mostly brick-covered with stone.

Chronicle references[]

The first mention of the Dormition Cathedraldates back to 1187 , in connection with the death of its builder - Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl (The same name was given by Halych to the name of the Holy See, Volodymyr of Moscow, in the second and third days of the year, in the second quarter of the second quarter of the year . knyaz moudr and rіchenъ ӕзъıкомъ) [1]. In 1208 , the temple is referred to as the place of landing on the Galician table of the young Prince Danyl by the Vladimir, Galician and Hungarian nobles [2]. By 1219 there is mention of the installation of the fortress ("hail") at the Church of the Theotokos of the Emergency Voivodeship of the Fillet [3]. To the Church of Our Lady and Michael inIn 1231, Prince Danylo arrives, [4] he also "comes to the Blessed Virgin Mary" in 1235 after the occupation of Galic in the absence of Prince Mikhail Vsevolodovich Chernigov [5] . During the defense of Prince Izyaslav Volodymyrovych from the troops of Roman Danilovich in 1254 , Izyaslav soldiers and he ran to the vaults of the church "where and lawless eagles were ran", that is, it is about the construction of the Assumption Cathedral [6] . This last chronicle mentions that the cathedral survived during the Mongol-Tatar invasion. The presence of vaults and "mosquito" can speak either about the intactness of the structures of the structure, or their relatively small damage, which managed to remove it very quickly.

Building collapse[]

The founding of the Metropolitanate in Halych in 1303 testifies that at this time the episcopal residence was located here, the same building was in good condition, and the cathedral, after the desolation of Kiev, was, for a short time, the largest operating temple of Rus. This, somehow show silver coin Czech King Wenceslas II , who was knocked out in Prague between 1300 and 1305 was also found in the ruins of buildings in the late 1930s, and the mention of the Church of the Assumption in literacy Prince Lev 1301 roku [7][lower-alpha 1]. On the seal of the Galician Metropolitan Theodore in 1334 , the image of the Virgin was placed [8] as a traditional symbol of the Galician cathedral, but the writing of a letter in Lviv testifies to, at least, the temporary stay of Theodor in a new capital. On the basis of archaeological research, Yaroslav Pasternak came to the conclusion that at the end of the XIV - early. XV centuries the structure of the controversy suffered significant destruction, and already at that time a new chapel appeared on the site of the building [9]. This process coincided with the replacement by the Polish-Catholic authorities of the ancient Russian episcopal cells with the residences of the Latin bishops. In 1455 , the Polish king Casimir IV issued a decree prohibiting the repair and restoration of ancient Galician temples [10][11]; At the same time, the still remarkable volume of the cathedral's structures was dismantled, and subsequently a cemetery was placed in its place [lower-alpha 2]. Then the territory of Krylos and the monastery located here serves as the residence of the governors of the Galician bishops and metropolitans.


History and Research[]

Пастернак в Галичі

Excavations of the Assumption Cathedral Y. Pasternak, 1936

The remains of the annals of the Theotokos Church of Prince Galich discovered in 1936 the expedition of the Scientific Society to them. T. Shevchenko under the leadership of Yaroslav Pasternak . Only the foundations , partially selected, small fragments of the floor and scant plots of the ground walls have been preserved from the temple . The most important in these studies were the following facts: 1) the location of the cathedral on the Krylosky settlement was a significant proof in the discussion of the localization of the chronicle "city"; 2) significant dimensions of the church - 37.5 × 32.4 m, which among the churches of Kievan Rus at that time inferior to the size of Sofia of Kiev; 3) white stone technique of masonry and rich architectural decoration; 4) the burial place was found in a stone sarcophagus , interpreted by the researcher as the remains of Galician prince Yaroslav Vladimirovich (Osmomysl) . Based on the results of his research, J. Pasternak identified the time of the construction of the cathedral - 1157 years.

The foundations of the cathedral were built mainly from Turmonian chalk , and the ground walls - from fine-grained lithotammonium limestone and white alabaster . In the vault of the cathedral were placed Podil travertine - the stone is relatively light. The mury of the cathedral is described by the semi-public method: two external facet walls made from quarts, between them - zabutka, the so-called "core of the wall". At the base of the land walls revealed traces of the use of internal wooden ties - "knots". The floor of the cathedral was paved with various materials: in the "temple of the faithful" and in the central part of the western gallery, or the porch, - alabaster plates, in the "sanctuary" - plates of Terebovlya sandstone .

During the archaeological research of the Dormition Cathedral, many discoveries have been discovered, which greatly complement our understanding of its former appearance and decor. Particular attention deserves fragments typical of the time of the Roman decoration - human and animal stone masks, serving console bases for columnar belts, parts of the toothed frieze and arctic belts. To fragments of stone carving should also include parts of the cuboid capitals, a base with a round column, as well as fragments of semicircular rollers. All this showed what was the white stone decoration of the cathedral - friezes and arches, decorated "in the chessboard", carved capitals, cuboid console, plexiglass ornament.

During repeated investigations ruins of the Assumption Cathedral in the years 1992-1998 revealed more than a hundred pieces of architectural details, including fragments of ribs , columns, profiled elements bases, cornices , ledges, hzymsiv and vertical rods, arched arches and smaller fragments of the protein fragments yarn thread. Most of the architectural details were carved from limestone, but there were also alabaster profiled elements.

On the basis of new archaeological research and architectural analysis, it was possible to distinguish three stages of the formation of the planning and architectural and spatial structure of the cathedral. At the first stage (when laying the foundations), it was planned as an octogonal temple with side bunk galleries. Already in the process of construction he decided to make a six-stroke, cross-legged, with narthex and side galleries. And in the process of its functioning, at the end of the XII or at the beginning of the XIII century. It was rebuilt in a four-story, surrounded on three sides by bunk-lined galleries. The possible bicolour of galleries indicates a significant power of the round-bottomed foundation walls, which were laid at the same depth as the foundations of the inner walls of the cathedral. At a certain point in its functioning the gallery could cover the mono-deck roofs - from there, it is believed, the red ceramic roof is coming, discovered by excavations. The angular sections of the cathedral, in the plan square or close to the square, could be completed by four additional saunas.

Vladimir assumption

Dormition Cathedral, Vladimir

The closest architectural solution to the Dormition Cathedral of Halych is the temples of the Vladimir-Suzdal land of the middle and second half of the XII century, which most likely were built by the Galician masters. In particular, the Assumption Cathedral in Vladimir-on-Klyazma is similar to the Galician Cathedral. Yaroslav Pasternak suggested that with the completion of the Vladimir Cathedral of galleries and smaller baths at the end of the XII century. the builders could look at the forms of the Assumption Cathedral in Galich. The planning structure of the building, which is closely traced on the basis of archaeological material, is very close to the planning structure of the Church Νέα Εκκλησία in Constantinople, which was in the structure of the Imperial Great Palace , and could serve as a prototype of the Galician Cathedral.

Further references to the Dormition Cathedral testify that it was valid during the XIV-XVI centuries. It is with this temple as the center of the Galician Metropolitanate since the XIII century, presumably, connected the tradition to use the names of "Krylos" for the whole mountain, which, by the middle of the XIII century. functioned as the prince's capital.

The exact date of the destruction of the Dormition Cathedral remains unknown. Written references indirectly confirm its existence in the second half of the XVI century. At the same time (presumably, until 1584-1585) a new Uspensky church was built, but in the place of the old one in the first half of the 18th century, according to the inventory of 1749, stone ruins were clearly visible.

Prince Roman Mstislavich, according to the author of the Suzdal Chronicle, was buried in the church, [12] which partially refutes O. Golovko. [13]

Attempts to rebuild In the late 1990s, in the context of the 1100th anniversary of Halych [14], an attempt was made to rebuild the cathedral for the first time. In August 1999 , with the consent of the Galician District State Administration, the Galician Intercity Department of Capital Construction began construction work on the remains of the cathedral [15]. At that time, the areas of authentic foundations of the XII century were destroyed, in which new reinforced concrete structures were constructed for the construction of a new building. The works were stopped the same year, due to protests from public organizations and scientific institutions, the Preserve Halych Preserve, as well as under pressure from the State Committee for Construction, Architecture and Housing Policy of Ukraine and the Ministry of Culture and Arts of Ukraine, and for lack of funds for construction.

In May 2017 , a meeting was held in Ivano-Frankivsk on which the proposal for the restoration of the Assumption Cathedral was again put forward. The founders of the charitable organization "International Charitable Foundation for the Restoration of the Galician Dormition Cathedral" took part: Oleh Honcharuk, the head of Ivano-Frankivsk Regional State Administration, and his deputy Ihor Pasichnyak, Archbishop and Metropolitan Ivano-Frankivsk UGCC Volodymyr Vityyshyn , people's deputies Anatoly Matvienko and Mikhail Dovbenko, ex- People's Deputy Zinoviy Shkutyak, as well as the heads of the Galician RSA and Rayon Council, heads of the relevant departments of the RSA, deputies and some scholars [16]. However, the participants of the XIV International Scientific Conference "Archeology of the West of Ukraine", which took place in Lviv on May 17-19, 2017, on the initiative of the rebuilding of the cathedral (specialists in archeology, architecture, art history and history) made a statement in which such a project was called " categorically unacceptable " [16] . On October 29, 2017, at the Museum of History of Galich in the village of. Krylos hosted the round table entitled "Galician Assumption Cathedral: the revival of the state and spiritual majesty of Ukraine", with the participation of Z. Shkutyak, Director of the National Preserve "Ancient Galich V. Kostishyn, Head of the Lviv Regional State Administration O. Synyutkaand the deputies of M. Knyazhitsky, A.Kot, M.Dovbenko and S.Barny, the results of which was adopted resolution on "announcing an all-Ukrainian contest for the development of project proposals for the restoration of the Assumption Cathedral of Halych with the museification of existing foundations of the XII century." [17][18] Instead, in the address of the participants of the International Conference "Religions and Beliefs in Russia X-XVI centuries.", Which took place on November 15-18 in Lviv, the opinion of scientists from the initiative group was declared to the President of Ukraine and the Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine: "The conference participants urge you to stop any -which (hidden and uncovered) attempts to illegally restoration of the Assumption Cathedral of the ХІІ century in Krylos, which will take in future generations the possibility of invariance of scientific visions of a lost monument and may lead to the destruction of an authentic substance of the ration and the otno. " [19]

On January 26, 2018, an agreement was signed in the walls of the Ukrainian Catholic University (Lviv) on the implementation of scientific and project documentation on museum-preservation of the foundations of the Dormition Cathedral of the XII century. and the restoration of the chapel of St. Basil the Great of the XVI century. in the village of Krylos (prince Halych) between the National Preserve "Ancient Halych" and the National University "Lviv Polytechnic" [20]



Notes[]

  1. ^ Достовірність цієї, та подібних грамот Лева є предметом дискусії науковців та викликають сумніви
  2. ^ Про це свідчить Я. Пастернак, аналізуючи свої археологічні дослідження
  1. ^ ПСРЛ. — Т. 2. Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. — Стлб. 656-657
  2. ^ ПСРЛ. — Т. 2. Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. — Стлб. 721
  3. ^ ПСРЛ. — Т. 2. Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. — Стлб. 737
  4. ^ ПСРЛ. — Т. 2. Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. — Стлб. 764
  5. ^ ПСРЛ. — Т. 2. Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. — Стлб. 778
  6. ^ ПСРЛ. — Т. 2. Ипатьевская летопись. — СПб., 1908. — Стлб. 830
  7. ^ Грамоти XIV ст. / Упорядк., вст. ст., ком. i слов.-покаж. М. М. Пещак — К., 1974. — С. 9-41
  8. ^ Лаппо-Данилевский А. Печати послҍдних галичско-владим.князей и ихъ советников, С.-П.: 1906,-с.293
  9. ^ Пастернак Я. Старий Галич, Ів.-Франківськ: «Плай», 1991, -С.166
  10. ^ Ювілей великого відкриття (2011) Інформаційний ресурс Української Греко-католицької церкви Відвідано:29.10.2017
  11. ^ Церква Успіння Пресвятої Богородиці, Крилос (2011) Дивен Світ Відвідано:29.10.2017
  12. ^ Олександр Головко. Останній похід князя Романа Мстиславича у джерелах та історичній думці / Український історичний журнал.— К., № 4 (487) за липень-серпень 2009.— 240 с.— С. 38. ISSN 0130-5247
  13. ^ Там само. С. 40
  14. ^ Про заходи з підготовки до відзначення 1100-річчя заснування м. Галича
  15. ^ Бевз М., Бевз В., Лукомський Ю., Петрик В. Успенський собор давнього Галича: історія вивчення, проблеми збереження та консервації, Пам’ятки України, 2001 р., № 4, с. 30 – 35.
  16. ^ виступили проти відбудови Свято-Успенського собору у Крилосі. Тримай курс Відвідано: 30.10.2017
  17. ^ Під час круглого столу на Івано-Франківщині очільник області наголосив на важливості збереження історико-культурної спадщини,Прес-служба ОДА Відвідано 29.10.2017
  18. ^ Влада обіцяє відновити Галицький Успенський собор ХІІ століття у Крилосі, Тримай курс Відвідано:29.10.2017
  19. ^ "Привид відбудови Успенського собору | Збруч" (in uk). https://zbruc.eu/node/75526. Retrieved 2018-03-08. 
  20. ^ "Новини" (in uk-ua). http://www.davniyhalych.com.ua/novini. Retrieved 2018-03-08. 

The first mention about the cathedral is related to the burial place of prince Yaroslav Osmomysl here in 1187. There are other mentions about Halych Cathedral in XIV-XVI c., but we do not know the exact date of its destruction. And the location of the main cathedral of princely Halych was unknown for many centuries.

Finally the site was localized in 1936 by the expedition led by Yaroslav Pasternak the prominent archeologist of the time. The numerous finds of architectural details and the sculptural decoration gave the idea of the look of the majestic Halych cathedral. Judging from the fragments of the plaster and tracks of frescos, the temple had wall paintings inside. During excavations in 1937, Yaroslav Pasternak found out a stone sarcophagus with the mortal remains of prince Yaroslav Osmomysl. During his governing there was a library and the writing-workshop for copying the books at the cathedral. The cultural and educational complex also included «School of Osmomysl». Today the foundation of the cathedral is a prominent archeological monument of Galicia.

References[]

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