Dormition Cathedral of Rostov
|Location||Rostov, Rostov Rayon, Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia|
|Municipality||Rostov and Vladimir Eparchy|
The Dormition Cathedral is a former (until the end of the 18th century) cathedral of the Rostov-Yaroslavl diocese . It is located in close proximity to the Rostov Kremlin . Has a separately standing belfry . Together with the Kremlin, built later (at the end of the 17th century), it forms the central architectural ensemble of Rostov the Great , the view of which is especially noteworthy from Lake Nero .
The cathedral is located in the historical center of the city. The time of construction of the first wooden church on this place is unknown. However, in 1160 it was destroyed by fire. In the following year, in 1161, at the command of the Grand Prince of Vladimir-Suzdal Andrei of Bogolyubovoa white stone building was built, which was destroyed by the fire of 1204. The new building took 17 years. Another great fire happened in 1408, the vaults and the head of the cathedral collapsed. After which he was again restored from white stone.
The modern brick church was built in 1508 - 1512 years. The exact date of construction of the sources did not save, because the researchers offered different datings. MA Il'in joined the opinion of NN Voronin , who linked the last significant restructuring since 1587 , with the creation of the Rostov Metropolia , which was headed by Varlaam , and the need to give the central cathedral of the metropolia proper appearance. The now accepted dating of 1508 - 1512 years. substantiated by A. G. Melnikand confirmed by indirect chronicle sources. In the decorative design of the brick temple, carved white stone elements of the previous buildings were used.
The large-scale construction of the Rostov Archbishop's court, which is now commonly referred to as the Kremlin, which was undertaken at the end of the 17th century by Metropolitan Jonas Sysoevic near the cathedral, touched upon some alterations and the cathedral. In particular, the heads took a new form, on the south side of the temple was an elegant porch - porch facing the exit from the Kremlin and serving for the solemn entrance to the temple of the metropolitan following from his residence.
After the transfer of the center of the diocese to Yaroslavl, the Rostov temples were dilapidated without proper care. Major works on bringing them to order were carried out at the beginning of the XIX century.
After the revolution, the Dormition Cathedral was handed over to the community for use, and was subsequently closed, but was not destroyed.
August 23, 1953, a powerful hurricane tore down the domes and roofs of many churches in the city center, including the Dormition Cathedral. After that, large-scale restoration works began in Rostov, which was headed by VS Banig . In the process of restoration in the guise of the cathedral, some layers were eliminated. In particular, the inexpressive four-pitch roof was replaced by a pozakomarnym coating, close to the original. However, the bulbous form of the chapters of the times of Metropolitan Jonah was preserved, the replacement of them with a helmet shape was considered inexpedient, so it broke the style unity with the Kremlin complex. During the restoration work in the cathedral excavations were carried out, which allowed us to find in the lower tiers a white stone masonry of the 12th century . In 1991the cathedral and belfry were transferred to the Russian Orthodox Church  .
Many of the ruling bishops of Rostov-Yaroslavl are buried in the cathedral from the 11th to the 18th century , including Iona Sysoyevich, the metropolitan, whose worries created the architectural appearance of Rostov.
Architecture of the Cathedral The cathedral, together with the belfry built later, is located on the area adjacent to the Kremlin, enclosed by a low brick fence, built in the XVIII century . Passage through the fence - through the "Holy Gates", (vaulted passage in the turret, consisting of two octagons on the quadrangle), built in 1754 .
The five-domed cathedral is made of bricks , and the base and protruding blades are made of white stone . It has numerous decorative elements: arkaturno-columnar belts , horizontal rods, fillets , etc. The height of the Cathedral with a cross reaches 60 m. 
Architecture in many ways is similar to the Cathedral of the same name of the Moscow Kremlin and is closely connected with the traditions of Vladimir-Suzdal architecture. The five-domed temple is dismembered by monumental blades for three and four spiers , which end with keeled zakomars . Narrow windows, similar to loopholes, are located in two tiers, between them in the middle of the height is an arcade belt, giving grace and ease to a monumental structure. In this zone the influence of the Moscow architectural school already manifests itself.
The heads are located on high light drums , also decorated with arkatures and horizontal panels. In ancient times the heads had a different form, but when the Rostov Kremlin was erected, they were rebuilt in the style of the entire ensemble. The roof of the building passes through the zakomaras, originally it was made of tiles or plowshares , but now it is replaced with a tin on the circles, repeating the old form.
The interior of the cathedral
In the annals there were preserved indications of some picturesque works in 1589. In 1659 the painting of the cathedral began the artel of the masters S. Dmitriev and Joseph Vladimirov . Works lasted a long time and in 1669 Kostroma masters Gury Nikitin and Sila Savin joined them . The fire in 1671, the renovation of the frescoes in 1779 and the new painting in 1843 destroyed these works. During the restoration in the 1950s, frescoes of the 17th century were discovered, and in some places behind the iconostasis, and older XVI century.
In the lower part of the walls, which was preserved from the white stone temple, Professor NN Voronin discovered fragments of the 12th century painting.
The iconostasis in the Baroque style , which was made in the 1730s-1740s, is preserved . A similar iconostasis is found in the Goritsky Monastery of Pereslavl-Zalessky .
Belfry with the Church of the Entrance to Jerusalem Main article: Belfry of the Rostov Kremlin In 1682 - 1687 years. with Metropolitan Jonah to the south - east of the Cathedral of the Assumption was built bell tower , topped by the four heads and had 15 bells , the largest of which, Sysoy has a weight of about 2000 pounds and has managed to 10,000 rubles .  The set of bells has survived to the present day .  . The bell Sysoi was cast by the master Flore Terentyev in 1688. The second largest bell weighs 1000 poods, the third, Swan - 500 poods. On these bells was recorded in 1974 the plate "Rostov Calls ", which was a notable phenomenon in the cultural life of the country (the story of the publication is in the article of Furtseva, Ekaterina Alekseevna ).
The belfry is four-tiered, consisting of two buildings erected in close proximity. In one building, with three open apertures in the fourth tier, most of the bells are located. Another building with a higher fourth tier was built especially for the bell "Sysoy". Each of the four spans has a bulbous glavku on a blind drum. The building of the belfry is characterized by monumental simplicity and well in harmony with the building of the cathedral. Decorative decoration of the belfry is modest, it has been used to dismember the walls into four parts in accordance with the openings. However, not vertical, but horizontal lines of cornices dominate. The openings in the upper part have a keel-like completion, they repeat the keel-shaped form of the cathedral's zakomar.
In the belfry there is the church of the Entrance to Jerusalem.
Repair of the Church of the Entrance to Jerusalem
In 2004, repairs began in the room under the belfry, as a result, a genuine doorway was grown, a brick threshold was cut, a doorway was punched into the southern room adjacent to the temple, mortises for the iconostasis were laid. The community did not react to the commission's instructions. As a result of the second check, it was found out that five door openings had been cut already, and the original one was laid  . Despite the remarks, these distortions have not yet been corrected 
- Ярославская область. Путеводитель в серии «Ле пти фюте», издательство «Авангард», ISBN 5-86394-199-5.