Elinor Billington Armstrong was born 9999 in England and died after 2 March 1643 Plymouth, Plymouth County, Massachusetts of unspecified causes. She married John Billington (1580-1630) 1603 in Lincolnshire, England. She married George Armstrong (c1580-1650) September 1638 in Plymouth County, Massachusetts.


Elinor was the wife of John Billington and later Gregory Armstrong. She had two sons named John and Francis. She was a passenger on the Mayflower with her first husband and two sons. Her maiden name is unknown. Her death date is an approximation.

She was one of only four women to survive to the time of the First Thanksgiving in the autumn of 1621. Her family had a reputation of being ill-behaved, and just six years after her husband was executed for murder, she herself was sentenced to sit in the stock and be whipped at Plymouth, Massachusetts for a slander against John Doane.

Eleanor later remarried to Gregory Armstrong between 14 and 21 September 1638, but had no additional children with him. Her death date is unknown, but she was last known to have been living on 2 March 1642/3.

Voyage of the Mayflower

Mayflower at Provincetown Harbor

The Mayflower, originating from London with a group of Adventurers bound for the New World rendezvoused on 22 July with the Speedwell just arriving from Holland with a group of religious refugees from Leiden. Originally intended to sail jointly to the English Colony in Virginia it soon became evident that Speedwell was not seaworthy. Passengers and cargo were combined onto Mayflower (with many left behind) for the journey, finally departing on September 9.

During the voyage fierce storms blew the ship off course, arriving at Cape Cod on the Eastern Massachusetts coastline on November 9th. For two days they attempted to sail south to Virginia but exhausting supplies and fierce storms caused them to abort this effort and drop anchor at what is now Provincetown Harbor.

Signing the Mayflower Compact 1620, a painting by Jean Leon Gerome Ferris 1899

They spent the winter of 1620/21 aboard the ship in Provincetown Harbor while conducting several exploring missions of the area and negotiations with the local natives. Almost half of the passengers died, suffering from an outbreak of a contagious disease described as a mixture of scurvy, pneumonia and tuberculosis. In the spring, they built huts ashore, and on March 21, 1621, the surviving passengers disembarked from the Mayflower into their new settlement at Plymouth, Massachusetts.



Vital Records

Pilgrim Monument

National Monument to the Forefathers, commemorates the Mayflower Pilgrims, (including this person) who came to Plymouth Colony in 1620 on the Mayflower. Dedicated on August 1, 1889, it is thought to be the world's largest solid granite monument. Located on an 11 acre hilltop site on Allerton Street in Plymouth, Massachusetts.


Mayflower 2016a.jpg


Footnotes (including sources)