2.42% of the Canadian population (2016)
|Regions with significant populations|
|Toronto, Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton, Vancouver, Ottawa, Montreal, Surrey, most urban areas|
Canadian English, Philippine English, Canadian French, Tagalog (Filipino), Visayan languages, Ilocano, Kapampangan, Pangasinan, Spanish and other languages of the Philippines
Roman Catholicism, Protestantism, Iglesia Ni Cristo Minority: Irreligion
|Related ethnic groups|
Filipino Canadians (French: Canadiens philippins; Filipino: Pilipinong Kanadyano; Baybayin: ᜉᜒᜎᜒᜉᜒᜈᜓ ᜃᜈᜇᜒᜌᜈᜓ) are Canadians of Filipino descent. Filipino Canadians are the third largest subgroup of the overseas Filipinos and one of the fastest growing groups in Canada.
Canada only had a small population of Filipinos until the late 20th century. As of the 2016 Canadian Census, there are 851,410 people of Filipino descent living in Canada, most living in urbanized areas. This number is growing yearly due to Canada's more liberal immigration laws to compensate for their low population growth. Filipino Canadians are the third-largest Asian Canadian group in the nation after the Indian and Chinese communities. They are also the largest Southeast Asian group in the country. Between the 2011 Census and the 2016 Census, the Filipino community in Canada grew from 662,605 to 851,410, a growth of about 27%, compared to the rest of Canada which grew by 5% in the same time period.
The first Filipinos migrated to Canada in 1930. In 1950, 10 Filipinos were recorded in Manitoba. These first generation Filipino-Canadians were mainly women who worked as nurses and teachers, and in the health sector. These first Filipinos came from the United States to renew their visas after they had expired, in hopes of returning to the US. Most of them did return to the US, but some stayed in Canada.
From 1946 to 1964, the total number of Filipinos in Canada was 770. During the 1960s, Canada recruited more professionals, mostly from the United States, with some coming directly from the Philippines. Most of these nurses, technicians, office workers and doctors arrived in Winnipeg, Manitoba. In the late 1960s, more Filipinos came to Winnipeg to work in the garment industry.
During the 1970s, most Filipinos came directly from the Philippines to Winnipeg to work in clerical, sales and manufacturing fields. In the late 1970s, more Filipinos came to join their relatives who worked in Canada under the family reunification program. More and more Filipinos decided to settle in Ontario, particularly in Toronto, where jobs were prospering.
During the 1980s, Canada saw an influx of Filipino contract workers, many who found work as live-in caregivers. Many of these contract workers later became landed immigrants under the Live-In Caregiver Program.
During the 1990s, more Filipinos came as families and independents instead of being sponsored by family or being recruited as contract workers.
From 1990 onward, there has been a steady flow of Filipinos entering Canada, with about 10 to 20 thousand coming in every year. In December 2008, the Philippines passed China as Canada's leading source of immigrants.
Greater Toronto Area
The Greater Toronto Area (GTA), which includes the city of Toronto, and the regional municipalities of Durham, Halton, Peel, and York, is home to the largest Filipino community in Canada with a third of all Filipino Canadians calling the GTA home. As of the 2016 Census, there were 282,385 people of Filipino descent living in the GTA making them the fourth largest visible minority group behind the Indian, Chinese, and Black communities.The number of Filipino Canadians in the GTA grew from 252,120 in 2011 to 282,385 in 2016 representing a growth of 12% in 5 years.
Tagalog is the fifth most spoken language, other than English or French, to be spoken in the GTA, and is also one of the fastest growing languages in the region. Other Philippine languages, such as Ilocano, and Cebuano, also have a sizable number of speakers throughout the region.
A huge percentage of the Filipino diaspora in GTA are working professionals. Several Filipino-owned business have also sprouted all over the metropolitan area. In 2017, Seafood City, a Filipino owned supermarket chain in the United States, opened its first Canadian location in Mississauga, ON. Other Filipino establishments like Jollibee, CrispyTown, Grill City, Philippine National Bank, among others, have also established roots in GTA.
Filipinos are generally well spread out throughout the GTA, with a few areas of concentration. In the city of Toronto, the former municipalities of Scarborough and North York are popular destinations for new Filipino immigrants, and naturalized Filipino Canadians alike. According to the 2016 Census, Tagalog is the most common non-English mother tongue language, in the following neighbourhoods:
- Clanton Park (11.2%)
- Briar Hill-Belgravia (10.4%)
- Englemount-Lawrence (10.1%)
- Ionview (9.4%)
- Kennedy Park (8.2%)
- North St. James Town (8.1%)
- Forest Hill North (6.9%)
- Wexford-Maryvale (6.8%)
- Humewood-Cedarvale (6.0%)
- West Hill (4.7%)
- Bedford Park-Nortown (4.2%)
- Guildwood (2.2%)
- Forest Hill South (2.0%)
Other Philippine languages also ranked among the most common non-English mother tongue languages. Ilocano ranked in the top 10 non-English mother tongue languages in 3 neighbourhoods (Briar Hill-Belgravia, Englemount-Lawrence, Clanton Park). Cebuano also ranked in the top 10 languages for the Briar Hill-Belgravia neighbourhood.
Outside of the city of Toronto, Mississauga and Brampton in Peel Region, Markham and Vaughan in York Region, Ajax and Pickering in Durham Region, and Milton in Halton Region have large percentages of Filipino residents.
As of the 2016 Canadian Census:
- Total - 162,600 (6.0% of total population)
- Total – 16,270 (2.5%)
- Total – 12,225 (2.2%)
- Total – 62,460 (4.5%)
- Total – 28,830 (2.6%)
Vancouver is home to the second largest Filipino community in Canada with nearly 94,000 Filipinos residing there. Filipinos in Vancouver make up the third-largest Asian-Canadian and visible minority group behind the Chinese and South Asians. Most of British Columbia's 94,000 Filipinos reside in the Greater Vancouver Area where the jobs are concentrated. About one in five Filipinos in Canada call Metro Vancouver home.
Filipinos, along many other Asian-Canadians, contribute to the city's economy greatly. Many of the Filipinos in Vancouver work in the health and finance industry, with also a significant percentage that work in service, manufacturing, and real estate. Several others are business owners, with some bringing in well known franchise chains like Pepper Lunch and Chatime to the city. Qoola, a local frozen yogurt chain with over 20 locations, is also founded by a Manila-born businessman. Big restaurant names like Max's of Manila, and soon, Jollibee, have also set their presence in the city.
In addition, Vancouver is home to the only branch of Goldilocks Bakeshop in Canada. Ayala Land, the Philippines' leading Real Estate developer company, recently completed a mix-use residential development with local real estate developer company, Rize, in Vancouver's Mt. Pleasant neighbourhood.
Winnipeg is home to 56,400 Filipinos, making them the third largest Filipino community in Canada by total population, however the largest by percentage (8.7%). The Filipino community in Winnipeg is the largest visible minority group in Winnipeg ahead of the Chinese-Canadians and Indo-Canadians (but excluding aboriginal Canadians, who are not counted as a "visible minority" by Statistics Canada). Winnipeg is home to the oldest Filipino community in Canada with Filipino immigration to Winnipeg beginning before 1950. Winnipeg was home to the largest Filipino community before the 1980s. About 1 out of 10 Filipinos in Canada call Winnipeg home. There is also Filipino community centre called The Philippine Canadian Centre of Manitoba (PCCM) providing social and service to the Filipino community and also holds events such as Folklorama. There are a lot of Filipino politicians that live in Winnipeg. There are also Filipino newspapers such as The Pilipino Express News Magazine, The Filipino Journal, and Ang Peryodiko. There is also a radio station, CKJS, which broadcasts Filipino related news, music, lifestyle and much more.
Winnipeg's Filipino population is largely concentrated in the West End and North End areas of the city. The neighborhood around Sargent Avenue and Arlington Street is 45% Filipino, and the neighborhood around Sargent Avenue and Wall Street is 47% Filipino.
Filipinos in Winnipeg contribute greatly to the local economy. Jollibee, a well known global Filipino fast food chain, has its first 2 Canadian locations established in this city.
Calgary is home to over 25,000 Filipinos making them the fourth largest Filipino community in Canada. Filipinos started coming in droves in Calgary in the early '80s and '90s. Outside of Calgary, some smaller communities are experiencing an influx of Filipino immigrants to fill job vacancies. These new immigrants and their children work to integrate and flourish in Canada.
The fifth largest Filipino community in Canada, Montreal is home to nearly 25,000 Filipinos. Filipinos in Montreal are concentrated in the Cote-des-Neiges area and around Decarie Expressway, both areas have many Filipino establishments and professional offices. The Filipino Association of Montreal and Suburbs FAMAS is an advocacy group for Filipino Canadians active in and around the city of Montreal, Quebec, Canada. It is the oldest such association in Quebec.
Edmonton Capital Region
According to the 2006 National Census, 21,150 Filipinos live and work in the Edmonton Capital Region. Various Filipino associations celebrate the culture and take part in large metropolitan events such as the Edmonton Heritage Festival. In 2002, the Filipino community presented its home nation as the "Featured Country" during Capital Ex (formerly Klondike Days). Edmonton is also the home of the Philippine Cultural Society, the Philippine Choral Society, and the Karilagan Dance Society.
Radio station CKER-FM also broadcasts community programming to Filipinos in Edmonton.
National Capital Region
The National Capital Region made up of the cities of Ottawa, Ontario and Gatineau, Quebec is home to the sixth largest Filipino community in Canada with nearly 10,000 Filipinos residing in Canada's capital. Ottawa is also the home of the Philippine Embassy and ambassador to Canada.
Southwestern Ontario is home to almost 10,000 Filipinos. Most of them live in the cities of Cambridge, Guelph, Kitchener, London and Windsor. Southwestern Ontario is home to a successful and thriving Filipino community.
The city of Hamilton situated on the western shore of Lake Ontario is home to over 5,000 Filipinos. Hamilton is home to the first Filipino community centre and school in Canada both opening in the early 80s and late 70s, respectively.
The Niagara region on the south shore of Lake Ontario is home to nearly 3,000 Filipinos. They form a tight knit community concentrated in the cities of St. Catharines and Niagara Falls. Niagara-on-the-lake is home to a very successful community and the only town to have had a Filipino mayor in Canada, Arturo Viola.
The northern territories of Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut have a Filipino community of about 975, despite an extremely cold climate. The Filipino community has grown steadily from 735 in 2001. Filipinos in the Northwest Territories make the largest visible minority group there with a population of 690. Filipinos in the Yukon Territory are the second-largest minority group to the Chinese with a community of 210 living there. Nunavut has a growing Filipino population of 75. The territories received about 50 Filipinos on average a year from 2001 to 2006.
Most Filipinos who immigrate to Canada settle in the large urban areas where there are more jobs and a vibrant community life. These areas include: Metro Vancouver, Greater Calgary, Edmonton Capital Region, City of Winnipeg, the Greater Toronto Area and Greater Montreal. According to Statistics Canada seeing the current trend, by 2031, the Fillipino Canadian population is projected to reach between 1.9 and 2.1 million. Much of this growth will be bolstered by high immigration rates, assuming immigration to the United States remains as restricted as it has been. Notably, Canada now has a Filipino population more than twice as large percentage-wise as that of the United States, the Philippines' former colonial master.
|Number of Philippine nationals granted permanent residence in Canada by year|
|Year||Number of Philippine nationals admitted||Total number of permanent residents admitted||Proportion of permanent residents admitted|
2011 Canadian census
- Toronto – 132,445 (5.1%)
- Winnipeg – 56,400 (8.7%)
- Calgary – 47,350 (4.4%)
- Mississauga – 39,800 (5.6%)
- Edmonton – 36,565 (4.6%)
- Vancouver – 35,490 (6.0%)
- Surrey – 26,480 (5.7%)
- Montreal – 21,750 (1.3%)
- Brampton – 17,905 (3.4%)
- Burnaby – 12,905 (5.9%)
- Richmond – 12,670 (6.7%)
- Ottawa – 10,530 (1.2%)
2006 Canadian census
- Toronto – 102,555
- Winnipeg – 36,820
- Mississauga (Toronto CMA) – 30,705
- Vancouver – 28,605
- Calgary – 24,915
- Edmonton – 18,245
- Montreal – 17,100
- Surrey (Vancouver CMA) – 16,555
- Brampton (Toronto CMA) – 11,980
- Markham (Toronto CMA) – 7,370
- Ottawa – 7,115
- Vaughan (Toronto CMA) – 5,360
- Hamilton – 4,040
- Windsor – 2,630
- London – 1,790
- Toronto CMA – 171,980
- Vancouver CMA – 78,890
- Winnipeg CMA – 36,935
- Calgary CMA – 25,565
- Montreal CMA – 23,510
- Edmonton CMA – 19,625
- Ottawa – Gatineau CMA – 7,330
- Hamilton CMA – 4,880
- Windsor CMA – 3,145
- Victoria CMA – 2,760
- Oshawa CMA – 2,155
- St. Catharines – Niagara CMA – 2,130
- London CMA – 1,990
- Guelph CMA – 1,965
- Saskatoon CMA – 1,915
- Kitchener CMA – 1,850
- Regina CMA – 1,230
|Province||Filipino 2001||% 2001||Filipino 2011||% 2011||Filipino 2016||% 2016|
|Newfoundland and Labrador||265||0.1%||1,395||0.3%||1,385||0.3%|
|Prince Edward Island||35||0.0%||95||0.1%||670||0.5%|
The majority of Filipino-Canadians are women who make up about 65% of the population.
- Male – 175,640
- Female – 235,055
List of Canadian census subdivisions with Filipino populations higher than the national average
Source: Canada 2011 Census
National average: 1.9%
- Banff (9%)
- Lloydminster, Alberta (7%)
- Chestermere (6.1%)
- Edmonton (4.6%)
- Calgary (4.4%)
- Slave Lake (4.2%)
- Wetaskiwin (3.7%)
- Wood Buffalo (3.4%)
- Ponoka (3.4%)
- Red Deer (2.9%)
- New Westminster (7.3%)
- North Vancouver (city) (7%)
- Richmond (6.7%)
- Vancouver (6%)
- Burnaby (5.9%)
- Surrey (5.7%)
- Coquitlam (3.9%)
- Pitt Meadows (3.7%)
- Port Coquitlam (3.3%)
- Whistler (3.1%)
- Squamish (2.7%)
- Delta (2.7%)
- North Vancouver (district municipality) (2.2%)
- Winnipeg (8.7%)
- Steinbach (4.4%)
- Yellowknife (4%)
- Mississauga (5.6%)
- Toronto (5.1%)
- Ajax (4.4%)
- Brampton (3.4%)
- Pickering (3.3%)
- Milton (3.3%)
- Markham (3%)
- Vaughan (3%)
- Richmond Hill (2.2%)
- Côte-des-Neiges–Notre-Dame-de-Grâce (10.6%)
- Dollard-des-Ormeaux (3.9%)
- Dorval (3.1%)
- Côte Saint-Luc (3%)
- North Battleford (2.2%)
- Whitehorse (2.9%)
The entrepreneurial spirit of Filipinos is alive and well in Canada. Through their strong presence, many Filipino international companies, as well as locally founded businesses, have thrived and succeeded in Canada.
Some notable companies that Filipinos founded in Canada, or brought internationally to Canada, are as follow:
- Ayala Land - developed The Independent in Vancouver's Mt. Pleasant neighbourhood with local company, Rize
- Caked with Love Co.
- Goldilocks Bakeshop
- Kalesa Resto Bar
- Kumare Restaurant
- Lamesa Filipino Kitchen
- Lasa by Lamesa
- Manila Express
- Max's of Manila - Vancouver
- Pepper Lunch
- Philippine National Bank
- Pinpin Restaurant
- Seafood City
- Wilson's Haus of Lechon
- AK Auto Tech
Across Canada, community-based newspapers and television programs operate to serve the Filipino community, and to broadcast news and information from the Philippines, and from around the Filipino-Canadian community. In Ontario, some of these media outlets are members of the Philippine Press Club of Ontario.
- Ang Peryodiko
- Atin Ito
- Filipino Bulletin
- The Filipino Journal
- Filipino Portal in Canada
- The Filipino Post
- Likha Newsmagazine
- Little Manila Confidential
- Mabuhay Canada Philippine News Gazette
- Manila Media Monitor
- OK Philippines!
- One Philippines
- Peryodiko Radikal
- Philippine Canadian Inquirer
- Philippine Courier
- Philippine Reporter
- The Philippine Times
- Pinoy Global News
- Pinoy Living Today (Alberta)
- Pinoy Times (Alberta)
- Planet Philippines
- Showbuzz atbp Magazine
- Vis-Min Herald
- Waves News
- Radyo Migrante
- Sundays 1–2 pm on CHRY 105.5 FM
- Radyo Filipino Toronto
- Monday to Friday 10-11pm on CHHA 1610 AM
- Juan Radio 96.1 FM - Vancouver's first Filipino radio program
- Monday to Friday 10 - 11 a.m.
- Saturday 11 a.m. - 3 p.m.
- Sigaw ng Bayan Montreal
- Fridays 2-3 pm on CKUT 90.3 FM
- Pearl of the Orient
- Saturdays 6:30–7:00 pm on CHIN 100.7 FM
- Talakayan Radio
- Saturdays 10–11 am on CHKT Fairchild Radio 1430 AM
- Tinig Himig Pinoy
- Mondays 10–11 pm on CIAO 530 AM
- FilTown Radio
- Sundays 9–10 pm on CMR 101.3 FM
- Pinoy Radio Toronto "I love Filipino Music"
- Sundays 10-11 pm on CMR 101.3 FM
- Taglish Radio
- Sundays 5–6 pm on CFMU 93.3 FM (Hamilton)
- "TV Migrante"
- Friday 5:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Front Page Philippines
- Sundays 11-11:30 am & Thursdays 12-12:30 pm on OMNI.2 Television
- Batang Bibo
- Tuesdays 5:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Filipinos Talk Wrestling
- Fridays 9:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Freestyle Fridays
- Saturdays 9:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Gamer's Galaxy
- Wednesday 9:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Live Breathe Yoga
- Saturday 5:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Lutong Pinoy Eh!
- Thursday 9:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- MEaningFULL Conversations
- Mondays 5:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Pinoy Crossover
- Fridays 9:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Saan Ba?
- Thursday 6:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Striving Artist
- Wednesday 7:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- The Hub Daily
- Monday - Friday 7:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- The Inner Voice
- Sundays 12:00 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- The Panorama
- Fridays 7:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Thursday 9:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Work It!
- Wednesday 9:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
- Worker's Agenda
- Wednesday 5:30 pm Eastern Time Filipino TV
|June||Filipino Heritage Month||Toronto, ON|
|June||Pistahan sa Toronto||Toronto, ON|
|June||Philippine Festival||Vancouver, BC|
|June||Philippine Heritage Celebration||Winnipeg, MB|
|June||Kalayaan Picnic||Mississauga, ON|
|June 12||Philippine Independence Day||Nationwide, Canada|
|July||Fiesta Ng Kalayaan||Mississauga, ON|
|July||Pista sa Nayon||Montreal, QC|
|July||PCUAA Summerfest||Toronto, ON|
|July||Pateros Town Fiesta||Edmonton, AB, Toronto, ON, Vancouver, BC and Winnipeg, MB|
|July||Filipinos Making Waves||Toronto, ON|
|August||Mabuhay Philippines Festival||Toronto, ON|
|August||Filipino Day at Wonderland||Vaughan, ON|
|August||Philippine Summer Festival||Vancouver, BC|
|August||Kultura Filipino Arts Festival||Toronto, ON|
|August||Filipino CommUNITY Family Fun Day||Fredericton, NB|
|August||Pistang Pinoy||Regina, SK|
|September||Filipiniana Festival||Winnipeg, MB|
|December 16 to 24||Simbang Gabi Christmas Dawn Masses||Nationwide, Canada|
|December 25||Pasko Christmas Feast||Nationwide, Canada|
|December 30||Jose Rizal Day||Nationwide, Canada|
- Cris Aglugub – Manitoba former NDP MLA, the Maples 1999
- Mable Elmore – first Filipina-Canadian MLA in BC (NDP) (2009–present)
- Tobias C. Enverga – first Filipino-Canadian Senator (Conservative); first Filipino-Canadian and visible minority elected to the City of Toronto in 2010 (to the Toronto Catholic District School Board as trustee)
- Flor Marcelino – first Filipino woman elected MLA in Manitoba
- Rey Pagtakhan – first Filipino-Canadian Member of Parliament (1988–2004), first Filipino-Canadian Cabinet Minister (2001–2004)
- Conrad Santos – first Filipino Canadian elected in Canada in 1981 (to the Manitoba Legislature), and first Filipino Canadian to run for the leadership of a political party (Manitoba NDP, 1989)
- Victor Cui – CEO and owner of Asia's biggest MMA promotion, ONE FC
- Joey Albert – recording artist
- Maria Aragon – 10-year-old singer; known for performing a cover of "Born This Way" by Lady Gaga
- AC Bonifacio - dancer/female member of Lucky Aces
- Mikey Bustos – Canadian Idol finalist; singer from Toronto
- Nancy Castiglione – half Italian and half Filipina actress and singer in the Philippines; actress on Sana Ay Ikaw Na Nga
- Ma-Anne Dionisio – theatre actress; roles include Kim (Miss Saigon) and Eponine (Les Misérables)
- Lexa Doig – actress on Stargate SG-1 and Gene Roddenberry's Andromeda
- Darren Espanto - The Voice Kids- Philippines season one runner-up, singer, recording artist
- Elise Estrada – singer; recording artist; Pinoy Pop Superstar finalist
- Emmalyn Estrada - singer; former G.R.L. member
- Carlo Gimenez – British Columbia-based guitarist of the American indie rock, acoustic band Meg & Dia
- Emm Gryner – Toronto-based singer/songwriter of mixed Filipino ancestry; multiple Juno Awards nominee
- Danko Jones – recording artist
- Ron Josol – stand-up comedian from Toronto
- Elena Juatco – Canadian Idol finalist; roving reporter for season 4 of Canadian Idol
- Mig Macario – actor; filmmaker; actor on Once Upon A Time, Less Than Kind, The Troop, Santa Baby 2, Fringe
- Casey and Jennifer Mecija – musicians from the band Ohbijou
- Shay Mitchell – actress on Pretty Little Liars
- Dominic Panganiban – animator and Youtuber
- D Pryde – Brampton, Ontario-based rapper and recording artist
- Ariel Rivera – singer-songwriter, multi-platinum recording artist, actor
- Jeff Rustia – TV host and VJ, BPM:TV
- Tisha Silang – former Bb. Pilipinas-Universe; beauty queen; TV host; entrepreneur
- Cassie Steele – actress on Degrassi: The Next Generation
- Maylee Todd – indie pop singer
- C. E. Gatchalian – playwright, poet, fictionist
- J. Torres – award-winning Filipino-born Canadian comic book writer
- Jonathan de Guzmán – midfielder for Feyenoord Rotterdam
- Julian de Guzmán – professional soccer player
- Crispin Duenas – Olympic archer
- Mathew Dumba - professional hockey player (NHL)
- Rey Fortaleza – Olympic boxer
- Gilmore Junio - Winter Olympics long track speed skater
- Alex Pagulayan – 2004 world pool champion
- Matthew Wright - basketball player for Westports Malaysia Dragons
- Overseas Filipinos
- Canada-Philippines relations
- Asian Canadians
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- ^ "Move over Mandarin, Tagalog and Farsi are the fastest growing languages in Toronto" (in en). CBC News. http://www.cbc.ca/news/canada/toronto/census-languages-toronto-1.4234423.
- ^ Toronto, City of (2017-11-14). "Neighbourhood Profiles" (in en-CA). City of Toronto. https://www.toronto.ca/city-government/data-research-maps/neighbourhoods-communities/neighbourhood-profiles/.
- ^ a b Population by selected ethnic origins, by province and territory
- ^ NHS Profile, 0029.00, Manitoba, 2011, Statistics Canada
- ^ NHS Profile, 0030.00, Manitoba, 2011, Statistics Canada
- ^ Petz, Sarah. Filipinos find a home in Winnipeg as family ties drive immigration in Manitoba, National Post, May 29, 2014.
- ^ Tweedie, Gregory; Dressler, Anja; Schmidt, Cora-Leah (12 November 2018). "Supporting Reconnecting Immigrant Families with English Language Learners in Rural Schools: An Exploratory Study of Filipino Arrivals to Alberta". https://bild-lida.ca/journal/volume_2_2_2018/supporting-reconnecting-immigrant-families-with-english-language-learners-in-rural-schools-an-exploratory-study-of-filipino-arrivals-to-alberta/.
- ^ Marlene Birao Schachter Script error: No such module "webarchive".
- ^ Alberta Heritage Community Foundation. "Heritage Community Foundation profile". http://www.abheritage.ca/albertans/people/filipino.html. Retrieved 2008-01-02.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2012-12-30. https://web.archive.org/web/20121230050756/http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2011/permanent/10.asp. Retrieved 2013-01-10. , Facts and figures 2011 — Immigration overview: Permanent and temporary residents — Permanent residents
- ^ "Visible minority population, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2009-11-06. http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo53c-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ "Visible minority population, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2009-11-06. Archived from the original on 2011-08-10. https://web.archive.org/web/20110810205754/http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo53g-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ "Visible minority population, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2009-11-06. http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo53e-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ "Visible minority population, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2009-11-06. http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo53f-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ "Visible minority population, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2009-11-06. http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo53b-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ "Visible minority population, by census metropolitan areas (2006 Census)". 0.statcan.gc.ca. 2009-11-06. http://www40.statcan.gc.ca/l01/cst01/demo53d-eng.htm. Retrieved 2010-07-07.
- ^ , National Household Survey (NHS) Profile, 2011
- ^ Balita
- ^ http://www.pinoy-canada.com
- ^ Philippine Canadian Inquirer
- ^ http://www.pinoytimes.ca
- ^ Waves News
- ^ Sigaw ng Bayan Montreal
- ^ http://www.ctvnews.ca/politics/harper-names-five-new-senators-to-the-red-chamber-1.945999
- Angela Reyes; Adrienne Lo; Bonnie McElhinny; Valerie Damasco; Shirley Yeung; Angela F. De Ocampo; Monina Febria; Christianne Collantes et al. (2008). ""Talk about Luck" Coherence, Contingency, Character, and Class in the Life Stories of Filipino Canadians in Toronto". Beyond Yellow English : Toward a Linguistic Anthropology of Asian Pacific America. Oxford University Press. pp. 93–110. ISBN 978-0-19-971670-8. https://books.google.com/books?id=o-iVC6AvY_IC&pg=PA93.