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Gallatin County, Illinois
Gallatin County Courthouse in Shawneetown
Map of Illinois highlighting Gallatin County
Location in the state of Illinois
Map of the U.S. highlighting Illinois
Illinois's location in the U.S.
Founded 1812
Named for Albert Gallatin
Seat Shawneetown
Largest city Shawneetown
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

328 sq mi (850 km²)
323 sq mi (837 km²)
5.1 sq mi (13 km²), 1.6
Population
 - (2020)
 - Density

4,946
Congressional district 15th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5

Gallatin County is a county located in the U.S. state of Illinois. According to the 2020 census, it has a population of 4,946, making it the third-least populous county in Illinois. Its county seat is Shawneetown.[1] It is located in the southern portion of Illinois known locally as "Little Egypt".

Located at the mouth of the Wabash River, Gallatin County, along with neighboring Posey County, Indiana, and Union County, Kentucky form the tri-point of the Illinois-Indiana-Kentucky Tri-State Area.

History[]

Salt production served as the state's first major industry in the early 19th century. Saltworks developed first by Native Americans, and the French had settled at the Great Salt Spring on the south side of the Saline River, about five miles downstream from Equality. Beginning in 1803, salt works were also developed at Half Moon Lick, southwest of Equality on the north side of the Saline River. Half Moon Lick is now on private land, but the Great Salt Springs are on public lands in the Shawnee National Forest, about one mile west of the Saline River bridge across Illinois Route 1 on Salt Well Road.[2]

Gallatin county was organized in 1812 from land formerly in Randolph County. It was named for Albert Gallatin,[3] who was then Secretary of the Treasury. The bank at Shawneetown was the first in Illinois. It was originally in the John Marshall House, which has been rebuilt and serves as the museum of the Gallatin County Historical Society. This should not be confused with the State Bank of Illinois building, which is a state historic site a block away in Old Shawneetown

Geography[]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 328 square miles (850 km2), of which 323 square miles (840 km2) is land and 5.1 square miles (13 km2) (1.6%) is water.[5]

The Wabash and Ohio rivers join in the northeastern part of the county. The Saline River is a major drainage in the county, and it feeds into the Ohio River.

Climate and weather[]

Climate chart for Shawneetown, Illinois
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
3.48
 
41
21
 
 
3.68
 
47
24
 
 
4.71
 
57
33
 
 
4.75
 
68
42
 
 
5.02
 
76
52
 
 
4.19
 
84
60
 
 
4.22
 
87
65
 
 
3.49
 
87
63
 
 
3.24
 
80
55
 
 
3.22
 
70
43
 
 
4.41
 
57
34
 
 
4.29
 
46
25
temperatures in °Cprecipitation totals in mm
source: The Weather Channel[6]

In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of Shawneetown have ranged from a low of 21 °F (−6 °C) in January to a high of 87 °F (31 °C) in July, although a record low of −22 °F (−30.0 °C) was recorded in January 1994 and a record high of 104 °F (40 °C) was recorded in August 2007. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 3.22 inches (82 mm) in October to 5.02 inches (128 mm) in May.[6]

Major highways[]

  • US 45.svg U.S. Highway 45
  • Illinois 1.svg Illinois Route 1
  • Illinois 13.svg Illinois Route 13
  • Illinois 141.svg Illinois Route 141
  • Illinois 142.svg Illinois Route 142

Adjacent counties[]

National protected area[]

  • Shawnee National Forest (part)

Government[]

Gallatin County government is led by a five-member county board. In addition, the county is divided into ten townships.

Politics[]

As the most culturally Southern of all Illinois counties, Gallatin County was pro-Confederate during the Civil War and even provided a few volunteers to the Confederate Army. It then became solidly Democratic for the next century and a third, voting Republican only in the GOP landslides of 1920, 1952, 1972 and 1980. Even in those four elections, no Republican candidate received more than Richard Nixon’s 53.7 percent in his 3,000-plus-county 1972 triumph.

Since 2000, Gallatin County has followed the same political trajectory as Tennessee, Missouri, Kentucky, West Virginia and Appalachian regions of adjacent states, whereby the Democratic Party’s liberal views on social issues have produced dramatic swings to the Republican Party amongst its almost entirely Southern white population.[7] Over the five elections from 2000 to 2016, Gallatin County has seen a swing of 84 percentage points to the Republican Party – an average of 17 percentage points per election – so that Hillary Clinton’s 24.3 percent vote share in 2016 is barely half the worst Democratic percentage from before 2010. However, despite its sharp rightward turn, it followed the wave in 2008 within the state that elected Barack Obama president, who remains the last Democrat to win the county in a presidential election.

In 1994, Gallatin County was the only one in the state to vote for the Democratic candidate for governor. It voted for the Democrat in every gubernatorial election from 1924 to 2006, finally flipping in 2010 and then voting Republican again in 2014 and 2018.

United States presidential election results for Gallatin County, Illinois[8]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 2,019 75.48% 622 23.25% 34 1.27%
2016 1,942 71.74% 657 24.27% 108 3.99%
2012 1,492 57.99% 1,029 39.99% 52 2.02%
2008 1,212 42.20% 1,587 55.26% 73 2.54%
2004 1,619 50.20% 1,573 48.78% 33 1.02%
2000 1,591 44.72% 1,878 52.78% 89 2.50%
1996 856 24.37% 2,113 60.15% 544 15.49%
1992 990 25.10% 2,371 60.12% 583 14.78%
1988 1,580 38.89% 2,455 60.42% 28 0.69%
1984 1,939 47.15% 2,164 52.63% 9 0.22%
1980 1,700 50.21% 1,678 49.56% 8 0.24%
1976 1,499 36.36% 2,611 63.33% 13 0.32%
1972 2,148 53.69% 1,844 46.09% 9 0.22%
1968 1,802 43.01% 1,980 47.26% 408 9.74%
1964 1,394 32.89% 2,845 67.11% 0 0.00%
1960 2,179 47.68% 2,386 52.21% 5 0.11%
1956 2,179 49.35% 2,230 50.51% 6 0.14%
1952 2,300 51.56% 2,153 48.26% 8 0.18%
1948 1,789 42.60% 2,385 56.79% 26 0.62%
1944 2,073 48.27% 2,175 50.64% 47 1.09%
1940 2,588 43.65% 3,293 55.54% 48 0.81%
1936 2,004 34.71% 3,701 64.10% 69 1.20%
1932 1,279 26.57% 3,469 72.08% 65 1.35%
1928 2,002 45.78% 2,343 53.58% 28 0.64%
1924 1,792 39.16% 2,385 52.12% 399 8.72%
1920 2,184 49.94% 2,000 45.74% 189 4.32%
1916 1,985 39.03% 2,920 57.41% 181 3.56%
1912 1,051 33.78% 1,697 54.55% 363 11.67%
1908 1,411 41.77% 1,845 54.62% 122 3.61%
1904 1,401 44.70% 1,540 49.14% 193 6.16%
1900 1,432 40.94% 2,004 57.29% 62 1.77%
1896 1,468 41.02% 2,067 57.75% 44 1.23%
1892 1,211 38.35% 1,675 53.04% 272 8.61%



Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1820 3,155
1830 7,405 134.7%
1840 10,760 45.3%
1850 5,448 −49.4%
1860 8,055 47.9%
1870 11,134 38.2%
1880 12,861 15.5%
1890 14,935 16.1%
1900 15,836 6.0%
1910 14,628 −7.6%
1920 12,856 −12.1%
1930 10,091 −21.5%
1940 11,414 13.1%
1950 9,818 −14.0%
1960 7,638 −22.2%
1970 7,418 −2.9%
1980 7,590 2.3%
1990 6,909 −9.0%
2000 6,445 −6.7%
2010 5,589 −13.3%
U.S. Decennial Census[9]
1790-1960[10] 1900-1990[11]
1990-2000[12] 2010-2020[13]

2000 census age pyramid for Gallatin County

2010[]

Whereas according to the 2010 census:

2000[]

As of the 2010 census, there were 5,589 people, 2,403 households, and 1,556 families residing in the county.[14] The population density was 17.3 inhabitants per square mile (6.7 /km2). There were 2,746 housing units at an average density of 8.5 per square mile (3.3 /km2).[5] The racial makeup of the county was 97.9% white, 0.3% American Indian, 0.2% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.4% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 1.2% of the population.[14] In terms of ancestry, 23.6% were German, 22.9% were Irish, 10.7% were English, and 7.0% were American.[15]

Of the 2,403 households, 26.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 50.6% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families, and 31.1% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.32 and the average family size was 2.87. The median age was 44.4 years.[14]

The median income for a household in the county was $38,003 and the median income for a family was $48,892. Males had a median income of $38,801 versus $22,425 for females. The per capita income for the county was $21,537. About 12.4% of families and 18.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.9% of those under age 18 and 14.9% of those age 65 or over.[16]

Communities[]

City[]

  • Shawneetown

Villages[]

  • Equality
  • Junction
  • New Haven
  • Old Shawneetown
  • Omaha
  • Ridgway

Unincorporated communities[]

  • Cottonwood
  • Elba
  • Kedron
  • Lawler

Townships[]

  • Asbury
  • Bowlesville
  • Eagle Creek
  • Equality
  • Gold Hill
  • New Haven
  • North Fork
  • Omaha
  • Ridgway
  • Shawnee

See also[]

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Gallatin County, Illinois

References[]

  1. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  2. ^ Jon Musgrave. 2004, Rev. ed. 2005. Slaves, Salt, Sex & Mr. Crenshaw: The Real Story of the Old Slave House and America's Reverse Underground Railroad. Marion, Ill.: IllinoisHistory.com. 57-65.
  3. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off.. pp. 133. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_9V1IAAAAMAAJ. 
  4. ^ White, Jesse. Origin and Evolution of Illinois Counties. State of Illinois, March 2010. [1]
  5. ^ a b "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/GCTPH1.CY10/0500000US17059. 
  6. ^ a b "Monthly Averages for Shawneetown, Illinois". The Weather Channel. http://www.weather.com/weather/wxclimatology/monthly/graph/USIL1075. 
  7. ^ Cohn, Nate; ‘Demographic Shift: Southern Whites’ Loyalty to G.O.P. Nearing That of Blacks to Democrats’, New York Times, April 24, 2014
  8. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS. 
  9. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  10. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  11. ^ "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/il190090.txt. 
  12. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  13. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/17/17059.html. 
  14. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/0500000US17059. 
  15. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/10_5YR/DP02/0500000US17059. 
  16. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/10_5YR/DP03/0500000US17059. 

Further reading[]

External links[]

Coordinates: 37°46′N 88°14′W / 37.76, -88.23

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Gallatin County, Illinois. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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