|Grand Principality (Duchy) of Ryazan |
Великое княжество Рязанское
|Until 1097 part of Principality of Chernigov|
Coat of arms
|Capital||Ryazan, (Murom until 1161)|
|Languages||Old East Slavic|
|Religion||Eastern Orthodox Church|
|Grand Prince of Ryazan||Yaroslav Sviatoslavich|
|-||Incorporation into Moscovy||1521|
Prior to the invasion of Batu Khan
Sometime between 1097 and 1155, the principality became a sovereign state and until 1161, according to the Hypatian Codex, the official name was the Principality of Murom and Ryazan. The first ruler of Ryazan was supposedly Yaroslav Sviatoslavich, Prince of Chernigov (a city of Kievan Rus'), later Prince of Murom and Ryzan. The capital of the Grand Principality became Ryazan, however the present-day city of Ryazan is located 40 miles north from the original site of the capital today known as Ryazan Staraya (Old Ryazan). By the end of 12th century, the Principality waged wars with the neighboring Grand Principality of Vladimir-Suzdal. In the course of that stand-off, the city of Ryazan was burned twice in a span of twenty years from 1186 to 1208. In 1217, there was a culminate point in history of Ryazan when during the civil war inside the Duchy six leaders of the state were killed by Gleb Vladimirovich who later defected to Cumans. Sometime around that time the Duchy came under a great influence from the Vladimir-Suzdal which was a factor in the fight of Ryazan to resume its sovereignty. In 1217, Gleb Vladimirovich with the support of Cumans tried to take Ryazan back out of the influence of neighboring northern principality of Vladimir, but he was defeated by another Ryazan prince Ingvar Igorevich who in turn became a sole ruler of the state.
In December 1237, the Duchy became the first of all other former states of Kievan Rus' to suffer from the Mongol invasion. The Duchy was completely overrun, with almost the whole princely family killed, the capital destroyed, and later moved to another location. In 1238, some of the armed forces of Ryazan withdrew to unite with the Vladimir-Suzdal army and meeting the forces of Batu Khan near Kolomna.
Golden Horde period
In 1301 Prince Daniel of Moscow took Ryazan due to the boyars' betrayal and imprisoned Prince ru (Konstantin Romanovich). In 1305 Daniel's son Prince Yury of Moscow ordered his death. The two next successors of Konstantin were killed by the Golden Horde. In 1380, Prince Oleg Ivanovich did not take part in the Battle of Kulikovo, although he was in ally of Mamai.
During almost all the its history, the Ryazan Principality was in conflict with its provincial Pronsk Principality until Ryazan completely annexed Pronsk in 1483 during the regency of Anna of Ryazan.
Annexation of Ryazan
In 1520, Grand Prince Vasili III of Russia captured and imprisoned in Moscow the last Grand Prince of Ryazan Ivan V because of his relations with the Crimean Khan Mehmed I Giray. In 1521, Prince Ivan Ivanovich fled into the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. After that, in 1521, the Ryazan Principality was merged with Muscovy.
Muromo-Ryazan principality, Ryazan principality , the Ryazan Grand Duchy principality , Grand Duchy of ← ← Flag of None.svg 1129 - 1521
Coat of arms of Russia (XV Century) .svg → Kievan Rus in 1237 (en) .svg Muromo-Ryazan principality before the separation of the Murom Principality Capital Ryazan , Pereyaslavl Ryazanskiy Languages) Old Russian Religion Orthodoxy Population Eastern Slavs , Murom , Mordva , Meshchera Form of government feudal monarchy Prince , Grand Duke
- 1129 - 1143 Svyatoslav Yaroslavich (first) - 1,500 - 1521 Ivan Ivanovich (last)
- 1129 Formation of the unit - 1153 The beginning of independence - 1521 Accession to the Moscow Principality
The Ryazan Grand Duchy is a medieval Russian feudal state that existed from the 12th to early 16th centuries in the Middle Oka . Originally the Ryazan land together with the Murom land belonged to the Chernigov princedom , then they were separated into a separate Muromo-Ryazan principality with the capital first in Murom and then in Ryazan . Soon after the capital moved to Ryazan in the middle of the 12th century there was a division into the Murom principality and the Ryazan principality with its capital in Ryazan . Since the XIV century - the Ryazan Grand Duchy. After the Mongol invasion, the Murom and Ryazan principalities finally separated from each other. The capital of the Ryazan principality was moved to Pereyaslavl Ryazan .
Territory The Ryazan princedom occupied the territory from the Middle Oka , where the heart of the Ryazan land was located to the border of the Zalessk lands in the north, and the upper reaches of the Don and Voronezh in the south, including the basins of small rivers such as Moscow , Pary, Moksha , Vurdy , Natiros, Maidens and Potudani . To the west was the Chernigov principality , and to the south was the Wild Field , from which the constant incursions of the Polovtsians occurred .
By the fourteenth century, the political situation had changed. Northeastern lands became part of the Moscow principality , in the west Lithuania was located , and the south was occupied by the Golden Horde .
All the historical capitals of the principality were located on the Oka , the advantageous position of which allowed for constant trade with the northern and southern lands. In addition to them, the largest cities and watchtowers on the Oka and small rivers: Pereyaslavl-Ryazan, Kolomna , Zaraysk , Ozhsk , Olgov , Kadom , Belgorod , Izveslavl , Pronsk , Donkov , Tula , Dubok , Venev , Rostislavl-Ryazansky , Rastovets , Borisov- Glebov, Lopaste , Kashira, Teshilov , Kir Mikhailov [ source is not specified 79 days ] , Murom , Shilov , Voino , Perevitsk , Glebov .
After the expulsion of Yaroslav Svyatoslavich from Chernigov by Vsevolod Olgovich ( 1127 ), the principality with a center in Murom, which included Ryazan and in historiography designated as the Muromo-Ryazan principality , separated from the Chernigov principality under the rule of the descendants of Yaroslav. Ryazan princeling emerged as a destiny in its composition in 1129 .
After the death of Yaroslav in Murom, his sons [[Yuri] , Svyatoslav (the first in the Ryazan district, 1129-1143), and Rostislav (the first in the Pronsk estate, 1129-1143) consistently reigned . Rostislav, after passing his brother's death to the capital of the principality - Murom, in Ryazan planted his youngest son Gleb (1145), violating the patrimonial rights of Svyatoslavich, and they found protection from Yuri Dolgoruky and Svyatoslav Olgovich. Rostislav entered into an alliance with Dolgoruky's main opponent, Izyaslav Mstislavich. In 1147, Rostislav's eldest son, Andrei, was mentioned in the chronicle in Yeletsk (the news is put to doubt by the historians, since the chronicle was created under the leadership of Metropolitan Daniil, a Ryazan by birth).
In the 1150s the center of the Muromo-Ryazan principality moved from Murom to Ryazan.
In 1152, the Ryazan people participated in Rostislav's campaign with Yuri Dolgoruky to Chernigov. After the death of Rostislav in 1153, Vladimir Svyatoslavich turned out to be the oldest in the family , and the Nikon chronicle calls him the great Ryazan prince.
After the death of Vladimir (1161), his descendants established themselves in Murom, and Gleb Rostislavich and his descendants in Ryazan. From the beginning of the 1160s, the Murom Principality of Svyatoslavich separated and emerged from the power of the Ryazan princes Rostislavich (nevertheless, in the historiography the existence of the Muromo-Ryazan principality is sometimes brought up to the Mongol invasion ).
Ryazan principality =
Under Gleb Rostislavich, the Ryazan people participated in the campaigns of Andrei Bogolyubsky against the Volga Bulgars in 1172 and under Vyshgorod in 1173. Under the year 1205, their independent campaign against the Polovtsians was reported.
The policy of neighboring Vladimir princes
After the death of Andrei Bogolyubsky, Gleb took part in the struggle for power in Northeast Russia on the side of the brothers of his wife, Rostislav Yurievich's sons , against Mikhail Yurievich, Mikhail and Vsevolod , supported by Svyatoslav Chernigovsky . During the war, Gleb managed to even ruin Vladimir , but in the end he was forced to return the stolen, lost the battle on Koloksha and was captured. Vsevolod Yuryevich suggested that he renounce the Ryazan princedom and go to the south, but Gleb did not agree. Despite the diplomatic efforts of Mstislav the Brave of the Smolensk branch of Rurikovich, married to the daughter of Gleb, Gleb remained imprisoned and died (1178). The sons of Gleb received his father's inheritance with the permission of Vsevolod.
The elder of Glebovichy, Roman , married to the daughter of Svyatoslav of Kiev, sought to increase the Ryazan domain in violation of the rights of younger brothers, and in 1180 Vsevolod intervened in the Ryazan principality and planted Glebovichy according to the order of precedence. There was a break Vsevolod with his former patron Svyatoslav of Kiev, he invaded the principality of Vsevolod, but the troops met on a water obstacle , and soon Svyatoslav retired without a fight. In 1186, Roman managed to take Pronsky (despite the fact that Vsevolod in Kolomna collected troops, including Murom), but Vsevolod again ruined the Ryazan land and restored the status quo. In 1184, the Ryazan people participated in his campaign against the Volga Bulgars, in 1196 - againstThe Olgovichi .
In 1207 Vsevolod Chermny captured Kiev, driving out Rurik Rostislavich , an ally of Vsevolod the Big Nest. Vsevolod suspected Ryazan princes in a secret alliance with Olegovichy and began collecting troops, calling his eldest son Constantine with Novgorod  and Murom. As a goal of the campaign Vsevolod called Chernigov. He came to the shore of Oka , where he summoned Roman Glebovich, Svyatoslav Glebovich with his two sons, Ingvar and Yuri Igorevich, captured them and moved to Pronsk. Mikhail Vsevolodovich Pronsky fled to his father-in-lawin the Chernigov. Oleg Vladimirovich laid siege to Izyaslav Vladimirovich Pronsk, defeated Roman Igorevich , who made the decommissioning blow from Ryazan . Vsevolod the Big Nest stopped the attack on Ryazan thanks to the intervention of Bishop Arseny. In the following year 1208 Vsevolod took Pronsk from Oleg Vladimirovich and handed it over to Davyd Muromsky , and appointed Ryazan as his son's governor to Yaroslav , then burned Ryazan and Belgorod . Mikhail and Izyaslav Pronsky returned Pronsk to themselves, raided the neighborhood of Moscow, but were defeated by Yuri Vsevolodovich .
After the death of Vsevolod the Big Nest (1212), the princes of Ryazan were released from Suzdal captivity. In 1217, Gleb Vladimirovich, together with his brother Constantine, tried to seize the entire principality, entered into an alliance with the Polovtsians and killed six relatives at the congress in Isad , but soon had to flee from the steppe. The absent at the congress Ingvar Igorevich in 1219 mastered the entire Ryazan principality with the participation of the Vladimir troops.  Subsequently, the Ryazan princes acted in alliance with the Vladimir (march to the Mordva in 1232).
The Mongol invasion
On the death of Ingvar in 1235 the throne was taken by his younger brother Yuri . Under him, the Ryazan princedom reached large proportions, along the middle course of the Oka River with its tributaries, and had a number of large cities ( Old Ryazan , Pereyaslavl Ryazan, Pronsk, Belgorod, Rostislavl , Izhoslavl, Dubok, Perevitsk , Kolomna, etc.).
In December 1237 the Principality of Ryazan became the first victim of the Mongol invasion of Russia . Yuri Igorevich remained with some of the forces to defend Ryazan, but on the sixth day the siege was killed, and the city was taken by the Tatars and was torn to the ground along with some neighboring cities. Also, the son of Yuri Fedor with his wife Evpraksiya and son Ivan  (according to another version  , another several Muromo-Ryazan princes were killed), nephew Oleg was captured by the Mongols , from which he was released only in 1252. Another part of the forces led by nephew Yuri Roman retreated to join forcesYuri Vsevolodovich and together with them was defeated in the Battle of Kolomna in the early days of January 1238. Then the squad of the Ryazan boyar Evpatiy Kolovrat, who returned from Chernigov to the ashes of Ryazan and overtook the Mongols in Suzdal, was defeated .
Grand Principality of Ryazan
Relations with Moscow and the loss of independence
The Grand Duchy of Ryazan in 1389. From the very beginning of the fourteenth century, the Ryazan princes entered the struggle against Moscow, lost Kolomna, and, owing to their mutual rivalry, especially the struggle between Pronska and Ryazan, fell under the strong influence of Moscow.
With the accession to the grand table of Oleg Ivanovich ( 1350 - 1402 ) the era of the greatest power of the Ryazan principality began. Unfavorable historical conditions prevented Oleg from creating a special center from Ryazan, near which North-East Russia could gather .
The symbol ( tamga ) of the Grand Duchy of Ryazan. From the coin of the prince of Ryazan Ivan Fedorovich (1427-1456 gg.)
The history of the Ryazan principality under Oleg Ivanovich's successors is a gradual transition from independence to the final capture by Moscow. Already the son of Oleg , Fedor († 1427 ), was completely subordinated to the Moscow prince. He was followed by his son Ivan , first mentioned in the chronicle of 1430 , when he, trying to get rid of the power of the Horde, entered into an alliance with Vytautas, committing him to "serve faithfully , " "without anyone's will to help anyone, not to finish it with anyone" . Soon this union he replaced an alliance with the Moscow prince, who helped in his struggle with Yuri Dmitrievich. After the defeat of Basil joined with Yuri, but seven years later was again in alliance with the Moscow prince, although he did not interrupt relations with the Lithuanian. Under him, the Tatars razed the Ryazan princedom several times. Before his death ( 1456 ) Ivan Fedorovich entrusted his reign and son to the Moscow prince, who after eight years of administration of Ryazan through his deputies returned her to Vasily Ivanovich , who reigned until 1483 in full harmony with his neighbors and with Moscow, which was greatly promoted by his wife, Princess Anna Vasilyevna , the sister of Ivan III .
After him ruled Ivan Vasilyevich († 1500 ) and Ivan Ivanovich . The latter owned an already insignificant part of the Ryazan land, since in 1503 his uncle Fedor bequeathed his lot to Ivan III . Suspected in his relations with the Crimeans , Ivan Ivanovich was summoned by the Moscow Grand Duke to Moscow and imprisoned there ( 1520 ). The following year, during the invasion of Moscow by the Crimeans, he managed to escape from Moscow; not accepted in Pereyaslavl, he went to Lithuania and received from Sigismund I a lifetime possession of the place of Stoklishki in the Kovensky Povet where he died in 1534 .
With the capture of Ivan Ivanovich, the existence of the Ryazan principality ceased; it became the province of Moscow, governed by its governors. In 1565 , after Tsar Ivan the Terrible divided the Russian state into oprichnina and zemstvo , the city became part of the latter   .
Of the later events in the Ryazan region, one can only point out the ruin by the Tatars ( 1521 , 1541 , 1564 and 1594 ) and the participation of the Ryazans in the Time of Troubles in defending and liberating Moscow from the Poles.
Boyar surnames of the Ryazan princedom
Apraxins Verderevsky The Bazarovs Bashmakovy Baturins Burmina Buzovlevy Bulgakovs The Bogdanovs Birkin Glebovs Duvanovs Zykovy Izmailov Ivashkin Karandeyevs Treasurers Kobyakovy Corobines Conquels Koltowski Kolemins Kireeva Leontief Lyapunovs (princes)  Lubawa Maslova Meshchersky (princes) Nazarene Oltufevy Pronsk (rulers) The Poles Petrovo-Solovovo Selivanovy The Sunbulls Sidorovy Glebovs Karandeyevs Kobyakovy Kozhanov (princes) Kryukovs Rataevs Sidorovy Skopin Chevkina Taptykovy Tutyhin Leontief Chevkina Chernytsyny Khanykovy Sly Shilovsky Shishkins The names of the Ryazan bishops Gaverdovskiye Dmitrievy Ilyins (princes) 
See also commons: Grand Duchy of Ryazan on Wikimedia Commons
List of Russian principalities # Muromo-Ryazan principality History of Ryazan Region Ryazan district List of princes of Ryazan Territorial and political expansion of the Moscow Principality Notes ↑ D.I. Ilovaysky. "History of the Ryazan Principality". 1858g. ↑ According to the dating of the Novgorod annals, February-March, 1210; the starting point for the campaign of Novgorodians with Constantine to Ryazan was the capture of Vsevolod Chermnyi of Kiev in 1207, the consequence - the decline of his peace with Vsevolod the Big Nest in 1210. ↑ According to the EBC. ↑ according to the version of "The Tale of the Ruination of Ryazan by Batu" ↑ Voytovych L. Knyazіvskі dynastі Skidnoї Європи ↑ Storozhev VN Zemshchina // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : 86 t. (82 t. And 4 ext.). - St. Petersburg. , 1890-1907. ↑ Zemshchina // The Great Russian Encyclopedia : [in 35 tons] / Ch. Ed. Yu.S. Osipov . - M .: The Great Russian Encyclopedia, 2004-2017. ↑ The princes of Lyapunov "fell ill" after giving up their princely title when they transferred to the service of the Moscow sovereigns (the coat of arms of Count A. Bobrinsky). ↑ The princes of Ilyina "fell ill" after giving up their princely title when they moved to the service of the Moscow sovereigns (the coat of arms of Count A. Bobrinsky). Literature Ilovaisky DI The history of the Ryazan principality . - M. , 1858. Presnyakov AE Princely right in Ancient Russia. - M .: Science , 1993. The Ryazan Grand Duchy // Encyclopedic Dictionary of Brockhaus and Efron : 86 t. (82 t. And 4 dop.). - St. Petersburg. , 1890-1907. The Slavic Encyclopedia. Kievan Rus - Muscovy: in 2 tons / Author-compiler VV Boguslavsky . - T. 2 . - P. 291. Tropin N. A. Rural settlements of the XII-XV centuries of the Southern territories of the Ryazan land. - Voronezh: Voronezh University Publishing House, 2004. - 264 p. Tropin NA Southern territories of the Chernigov-Ryazan pogrezhe in the XII - XV centuries. : The dissertation author's abstract on competition of a scientific degree of the doctor of historical sciences. - M. , 2007. The Grand Duchy of Ryazan: Historical and archaeological research and materials. - M .: Monuments of historical thought, 2005. - ISBN 5-88451-192-2 . Zavyalov VI , Terekhova NN Blacksmith's handicraft of the Grand Duchy of Ryazan / Otv. Ed. member corr. RAS, Doctor of History E. N. Chernykh ; Reviewers: Doctor of History, prof. A.V. Chernetsov , Candidate of History S. V. Kuz'minykh ; Institute of Archeology of RAS . - M .: IA RAS, 2013. - 272 p. - 300 copies. - ISBN 978-5-94375-152-3 . (per) A.I. Tsepkov. Summary of written sources. Volume 1. A.A. Zimin. Formation of the boyar aristocracy in Russia in the second half of the XV-first third of the XVI century. Reference Shebanin GA Historical geography of the western part of the Ryazan principality XII-early XVI century. // The Grand Duchy of Ryazan: historical and archaeological research and materials. - M .: Monuments of historical thought, 2005. - S. 458-480.
List of Princes of Ryazan
- 1127–1129 Yaroslav I of Murom and Ryazan *exiled from Chernigov
- 1129–1143 Sviatoslav of Ryazan *his son
- 1143–1145 Rostislav of Ryazan *lost Ryazan to Suzdal, but reclaimed it using Cumans
- 1145–1178 Gleb I of Ryazan *plundered Vladimir and Moscow, but died in captivity in Vladimir
- 1180–1207 Roman I of Ryazan *ruled as vasal of Vsevolod the Big Nest, Grand Prince of Vladimir, but died in his dungeon
- 1208–1208 Yaroslav II of Ryazan*son of Vsevolod the Big Nest
- 1208–1212 governors from Vladimir
- 1212–1217 Roman II of Ryazan *nephew of Roman I, held captive in Vladimir, but released as their vasal
- 1217–1218 Gleb II of Ryazan *nephew of Roman I, betrayed his uncle for Vladimir and executed Roman II and 6 of his relatives using Kumans
- 1218–1235 Ingvar I of Ryazan *brother of Roman II, defeated and exiled Gleb II
- 1235–1237 Yuri of Ryazan *his brother, killed by Mongols, city destroyed
In Pereslavl-Ryazansky, later renamed to Ryazan
- 1237–1252 Ingvar II of Pereslavl-Ryazansky *son of Ingvar I, his existence is disputed
- 1252–1258 Oleg the Red *his brother, captured by Mongols in Battle of Kolomna, but ruled as their vasal and died as a monk
- 1258–1270 Roman II of Ryazan , the Saint *his son, ruled as Mongol vasal but executed for his faith
- 1270–1294 Fyodor I of Ryazan *his son, resisted Tatar raids in 1278 and 1288
- 1294–1299 Yaroslav III of Ryazan *his son
- 1299–1301 Konstantin of Ryazan *his brother, executed in Moscow
- 1301–1308 Vasily I of Ryazan *his son, executed in Golden Horde
- 1308–1327 Ivan I of Ryazan *son of Yaroslav III, executed in Golden Horde
- 1327–1342 Ivan II Korotopol *his son, died in exile
- 1342–1344 Yaroslav IV of Ryazan *his cousin, usurped the throne with Tatar help
- 1344–1350 Vasily II of Ryazan *his cousin
- 1350–1402 Oleg II of Ryazan *son of Ivan II, in 1380 fought at Kulikovo on Tatar side, but secretly sent most of his army to help Moscow
- 1402–1427 Fyodor II of Ryazan *his son, married to daughter of Dmitry Donskoy and made alliance with Moscow
- 1427–1456 Ivan III of Ryazan *his son, renounced his allegiance to Golden Horde
- 1456–1483 Vasily III Tretnoy *his son, raised in the Moscow court, married to sister of Ivan III, ally of Moscow
- 1483–1500 Ivan IV of Ryazan *swore allegiance to Ivan III of Russia
- 1500–1521 Ivan V of Ryazan *the last Grand Prince, d.1534 in Lithuania
- (Russian) Ryazan Principality
- (Russian) Map of Ryazan Principality
- (Russian) Genealogy of Princes of Ryazan