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Gumla district
गुमला जिला
—  district  —
Country  India
State Jharkhand
Administrative Division South Chotanagpur division
Headquarters Gumla
 • Total 5,327 km2 (2,057 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 1,025,656
 • Density 193/km2 (500/sq mi)
 • Official
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
LokSabha Lohardaga (shared with Lohardaga district)

Gumla district (Hindi: गुमला जिला) is one of the twenty-four districts of Jharkhand state, India, and Gumla town is the administrative headquarters of this district.


For centuries, the place was a meeting center for people from the hinterland who flocked here to exchange goods using the barter system, and the place was called Gaw-Mela. Gumla is believed to derive its name from Gaw-Mela, which consists of two words of Hindi (also used in several local dialects), namely, Gaw (cows and the cattle) and Mela, that is, a fair. The place became known as Gaw-mela, and then the word transformed itself into Gumla.


During British rule Gumla was under Lohardaga district. In 1843 it was brought under Bishunpur province that was further named Ranchi. In fact Ranchi district came into existence in 1899. In 1902 Gumla became Sub-division under Ranchi district. On 18 MAY 1984 Gumla District came into existence .Sri Jagannath Mishra then ruling Chief Minister of Bihar inaugurated it and Sri Dwarika Nath Sinha acquired the post of 1st deputy commissioner of the just born district.

Gumla is considered to be the birth place of the Hindu God Hanuman. A temple a few kilometers away from the city off the Gumla-Ghaghra road is dedicated to him and his mother. The district contains mountains named "Risyamook", which are mentioned in the Ramayana.

The district is currently a part of the Red Corridor.[1]


Gumla is located at 23°00′N 84°30′E / 23, 84.5. Geographically, Gumla is located on southern part of the Chota Nagpur plateau which forms the eastern edge of the Deccan plateau system.

There are three major rivers, which flow through the Gumla district viz. the South Koel, the North Koel and the Sankh. There are various streams/ tributaries to the main rivers on which there are some picturesque waterfalls, as for example Sadni Falls.

The terrain is highly undulating and there are existence of many rivers and streams. The forest cover of the district is 1.35 lakh hectares out of the total 5.21 lakh hectares of land i.e. round 27% of the total area of the district.


Gumla district enjoys a good climate characterized by a pleasant cold and temperate weather conditions. Gumla has a sub-tropical climate. Temperature ranges from maximum 40 to 20°C during summer, and minimum 21 to 3°C during winter. The annual rainfall is about 1450 mm. From June to September the rainfall level is about 1,150 mm.


Gumla district has rich natural and mineral resources. There are 23 Bauxite mines and 68 Stone mines in Gumla district. Besides these there is good number of brick makers. In Gumla District the important minerals like Bauxite and Laterite (Aluminium ore) are found in villages of Amkipani, Langdatanr, Chirodih, Jalim, Narma, Bahagara and Gurdari of Bishunpur block, Langatanr, Lupungpat and Chota-Agiatu in Chainpur block and Harup, Serengdag and Jalim in Ghaghra block. Beside these china clay is also found in some part of the district. Other mining activities like stone crusher, Brick kiln and stone chip mining lease are also available in different part of the district.

In 2006 the Indian government named Gumla one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640).[2] It is one of the 21 districts in Jharkhand currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).[2]


According to the 2011 census Gumla district has a population of 1,025,656,[3] roughly equal to the nation of Cyprus[4] or the US state of Montana.[5] This gives it a ranking of 439rd in India (out of a total of 640).[3] The district has a population density of 193 inhabitants per square kilometre (500 /sq mi) .[3] Its population growth rate over the decade 2001-2011 was 23.21 %.[3] Gumla has a sex ratio of 993 females for every 1000 males,[3] and a literacy rate of 66.92 %.[3]

As of 2011, India census,[6] Gumla had a population of 1,025,656 which is 3.11% of total Jharkhand Population. Out of total 1,025,656: 514,730 are males and 510,926 are female; this makes the sex ratio of Gumla 993, which better than India's sex ratio. Gumla has an average literacy rate of 66.92%. In Gumla, 15% of the population is under 6 years of age.


The major languages spoken in this region of Jharkhand are Nagpuri or Sadri, Hindi, Oriya & Kurukh.

Languages spoken here also include Asuri, an Austro-Asiatic language spoken by approximately 17 000.[7]


Gumla has a rich aadiwasi culture and is colourful with the shades of nature. "Chhotanagpur ki raani", a hill station is located in this district.

Gumla has a rich tribal culture. The majority of people (about 80%) speak Nagpuri, but Hindi is used for communicating with non-tribal people.

Tourist Attractions[]

  • Anjan - Small village about 18 km away from Gumla. The name of the village has been derived from the name of goddess Anjani, mother of Hanuman. Many objects of archeological importance obtained from this place has been placed at Patna Museum. It is birth place of Hanuman.
  • Baghmunda - It is famous for religious stone idols (Ajanta caves stone idols).
  • Rajendra - It has great scenic value. It is surrounded by hills on all sides. It is as beautiful as any other famous hill stations in India.
  • Dewaki - It is a place of religious importance. It is famous for a Shiv-Parvati temple. During Sawan month devotees from every corner visit here to offer water to the Shiva Linga and the place becomes a fair ground.
  • Hapamuni - Famous and ancient village Mahamaya temple that is the identity of this village.
  • Palkot
  • Nagfeni - It is famous for the Jagannath temple and there is a big rock in the shape of snake 'Nag'. It has its own natural beauty.
  • Tanginath
  • Birsa Munda Agro Park

Flora and fauna[]

It is home to a variety of flora and fauna.


  1. ^ "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 2009-12-11. Retrieved 2011-09-17. 
  2. ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (September 8, 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. Retrieved September 27, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". 2011. Retrieved 2011-09-30. 
  4. ^ US Directorate of Intelligence. "Country Comparison:Population". Retrieved 2011-10-01. "Cyprus 1,120,489 July 2011 est." 
  5. ^ "2010 Resident Population Data". U. S. Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-09-30. "Montana 989,415" 
  6. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Gumla Census 2011 Highlights
  7. ^ M. Paul Lewis, ed (2009). "Asuri: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. Retrieved 2011-09-28. 

External links[]


Template:South Chotanagpur Division

Template:South Chotanagpur Division topics

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Gumla district. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.