In human genetics, Haplogroup F (defining mutations M89, P14, and M213) is a Y-chromosome haplogroup. This haplogroup and its subclades contain more than 90% of the world's extant male population, including almost everyone outside of Africa.


This ancient haplogroup may have first appeared in North Africa some 20,000 years before present. It is sometimes believed to represent a "second-wave" of expansion out of Africa. However, the location of this lineage's first expansion appears to have been in India or somewhere close to it within South Asia or the Middle East; all of Haplogroup F's descendant haplogroups also show a pattern of radiation from South Asia (haplogroups H and K) or the Middle East (haplogroups G and IJ).

Several lineages derived from Haplogroup F appear to have migrated into Africa from a homeland in Southwest Asia sometime during prehistory. Y-chromosome haplogroups associated with this hypothetical "Back to Africa" migration include J, K, and R. The occurrence of haplogroups J, K, and R among precolonial populations of Africa is highly correlated with the distribution of languages of the Afro-Asiatic phylum. However, certain subclades of Haplogroup E, which commonly occurs among all modern populations of Africa, are also closely associated with the distribution of Afro-Asiatic languages, both within Africa and in Southwest Asia, which many scholars have taken to support the hypothesis of a Northeast African origin of the Afro-Asiatic languages and subsequent colonization of Southwest Asia by Haplogroup E3b-bearing proto-Semites. Under the scenario of an African origin of Afro-Asiatic languages, the occurrence of Eurasian Y-chromosome haplogroups J, K, and R among Afro-Asiatic-speaking populations of North Africa and East Africa would imply Eurasian immigration or gene flow into northern Africa, accompanied by the loss of the Eurasians' ancestral language and assimilation into the indigenous Afro-Asiatic cultures.

Derivative haplogroups[]

Haplogroup F is an ancestral haplogroup to Y-chromosome haplogroups G (M201), H (M52), I (M170), J (12f2.1), and K (M9) along with K's descendant haplogroups (L, M, N, O, P, Q, and R).

Besides the major clades G, H, IJ, and K, other patrilines derived from Haplogroup F-M89 can still be detected at a very low frequency among many populations of the southern fringe of Eurasia and Oceania, from Portugal in the west to Korea and the Malay Archipelago in the east. India, Korea, and the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan Province in southwestern China appear to be the only regions where such lineages, which are grouped for convenience as Haplogroup F*, comprise a significant portion of the Y-chromosome diversity of the modern populations. Haplogroup F* Y-chromosomes have been found to be particularly common among the Kucong or Yellow Lahu, a group of hunter-gatherers who live in the Ailao Mountains of Yunnan.[1] Korean F* probably reflects a rare brother clade of haplogroups G, H, IJ, and K that may have experienced a geographically limited expansion during historical times, as such Haplogroup F* Y-chromosomes have not been found among the neighboring Japanese.


The rare clades F1 (P91, P104) and F2 (M427, M428) have been identified among some of the Haplogroup F-M89 Y-chromosomes that formerly were classified as F*. The extent of the distribution of haplogroups F1 and F2 is not yet known for certain, but these two clades, like F*, seem to occur only at a very low frequency among modern human populations and primarily only among populations of India.


The subclades of Haplogroup F with their defining mutation(s), according to the 2006 ISOGG tree (abbreviated for clarity to a maximum of five steps away from the root of Haplogroup F):


  1. ^ Combining Genetics and Population History in the Study of Ethnic Diversity in the People's Republic of China, M. L. Black, C. A. Wise, W. Wang, A. H. Bittles, Human Biology 2006 Jun;78(3):277-93

External links[]

Phylogenetic tree of human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups [χ 1][χ 2]
"Y-chromosomal Adam"
A00 A0-T [χ 3]
A0 A1 [χ 4]
A1a A1b
A1b1 BT
F1  F2  F3  GHIJK
I   J     LT [χ 5]       K2 [χ 6]
L     T    K2a [χ 7]        K2b [χ 8]     K2c     K2d K2e [χ 9]  
K-M2313 [χ 10]     K2b1 [χ 11] P [χ 12]
NO   S [χ 13]  M [χ 14]    P1     P2
  • Y-DNA by population
  • Y-DNA haplogroups of historic people

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Haplogroup F (Y-DNA). The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.