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Holmes County, Ohio
Cfiles56380.jpg
Holmes County Courthouse, with the Grant Memorial Statue
Seal of Holmes County, Ohio
Seal
Map of Ohio highlighting Holmes County
Location in the state of Ohio
Map of the U.S. highlighting Ohio
Ohio's location in the U.S.
Founded January 4, 1825
Named for Andrew Holmes
Seat Millersburg
Largest village Millersburg
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

424 sq mi (1,098 km²)
423 sq mi (1,096 km²)
1.4 sq mi (4 km²), 0.3%
Population
 - (2020)
 - Density

44,223
auto/sq mi (Expression error: Unrecognized word "auto"./km²)
Congressional district 7th
Time zone Eastern: UTC-5/-4
Website http://www.co.holmes.oh.us/

Holmes County is a county located in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2020 census, the population was 44,223.[1] Its county seat is Millersburg.[2] The county was formed in 1824 from portions of Coshocton, Tuscarawas and Wayne counties and organized the following year.[3] It was named after Andrew Holmes, an officer killed in the War of 1812.[4]

Holmes County, which was about 42% Amish in 2010,[5] is home to the second largest Amish community (after Lancaster County, Pennsylvania) in the world,[6] which draws many visitors to the county.

History[]

Holmes County was formed on January 20, 1824 from portions of Coshocton, Tuscarawas and Wayne counties. It was named after Major Andrew Holmes, a fatal casualty in the Battle of Mackinac Island. In 1863, during the Civil War, numerous small anti-draft riots took place, mainly in the German-speaking areas. Holmes County at the time was a Democratic stronghold, dominated by its Pennsylvania Dutch settlers, along with many recent German immigrants. With the passage of the Conscription Act in March 1863, Holmes County politicians denounced both Congress and President Lincoln as despotic, saying that forced military service was little different from slavery. Conscription had been common in their former German homelands, and it was one of the reasons they had moved to America. Violent protests broke out in June, and they continued until the Union Army marched into the county and declared martial law.[7]

When vaccines became available for COVID-19, the county posted the lowest vaccination rates of Ohio's 88 counties and among the lowest in the country.[8] As of July 27, 2021, fewer than 16% of country residents had been vaccinated[8] as compared to approximately 50% statewide.[9]

Geography[]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 424 square miles (1,100 km2), of which 423 square miles (1,100 km2) is land and 1.4 square miles (3.6 km2) (0.3%) is water.[10]

Adjacent counties[]

Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1830 9,135
1840 18,088 98.0%
1850 20,452 13.1%
1860 20,589 0.7%
1870 18,177 −11.7%
1880 20,776 14.3%
1890 21,139 1.7%
1900 19,511 −7.7%
1910 17,909 −8.2%
1920 16,965 −5.3%
1930 16,726 −1.4%
1940 17,876 6.9%
1950 18,760 4.9%
1960 21,591 15.1%
1970 23,024 6.6%
1980 29,416 27.8%
1990 32,849 11.7%
2000 38,943 18.6%
2010 42,366 8.8%
U.S. Decennial Census[11]
1790-1960[12] 1900-1990[13]
1990-2000[14] 2020 [15]

Amish farmer plowing fields with horses

2000 census[]

As of the census[16] of 2000, there were 38,943 people, 11,337 households, and 9,194 families living in the county. The population density was 92 people per square mile (36/km2). There were 12,280 housing units at an average density of 29 per square mile (11/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 99.03% White, 0.33% Black or African American, 0.06% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.13% from other races, and 0.40% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.75% of the population. 56.1% spoke English, 20.1% Pennsylvania German, 15.8% German and 7.1% "Dutch, i.e. Pennsylvania Dutch."[17] as their first language.

There were 11,337 households, out of which 44.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 71.50% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 18.90% were non-families. 16.10% of all households were made up of individuals, and 6.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.35 and the average family size was 3.82. Religious breakdown for those who gave a religion (68.33 of the total population) was 89.79% Evangelical Protestant, 8.04% Mainline Protestant and 2.16% Catholic. There were 140 Amish congregations with 17,654 adherents. There were several other unrelated Amish congregations and Mennonite congregations. There was one Catholic congregation.[18]

In the county, the population was spread out, with 35.60% under the age of 18, 10.40% from 18 to 24, 25.70% from 25 to 44, 17.80% from 45 to 64, and 10.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 28 years. For every 100 females there were 99.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.50 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $36,944, and the median income for a family was $40,230. Males had a median income of $28,490 versus $20,602 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,197. About 10.50% of families and 12.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 17.40% of those under age 18 and 13.30% of those age 65 or over.

Holmes County has a relatively high number of residents who do not speak English at home. According to the 2000 census, almost 36% of the population speak either Pennsylvania German or German at home, and a further 7% speak "Dutch", i.e. Pennsylvania Dutch.[17] 42.92% of the total population and 50.28% of the children in 5-17 age range uses German/Pennsylvania German or "Dutch"[17] at home.[19]

2010 census[]

As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 42,366 people, 12,554 households, and 10,035 families living in the county.[20] The population density was 100.3 inhabitants per square mile (38.7 /km2). There were 13,666 housing units at an average density of 32.3 per square mile (12.5 /km2).[21] The racial makeup of the county was 98.7% white, 0.3% black or African American, 0.1% Asian, 0.1% American Indian, 0.2% from other races, and 0.5% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 0.8% of the population.[20] In terms of ancestry, 37.8% were German, 10.8% were American, 6.6% were Irish, and 6.3% were English.[22]

Of the 12,554 households, 42.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 69.7% were married couples living together, 6.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 20.1% were non-families, and 17.2% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 3.31 and the average family size was 3.80. The median age was 29.7 years.[20]

The median income for a household in the county was $43,533 and the median income for a family was $49,133. Males had a median income of $36,644 versus $24,317 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,009. About 10.5% of families and 13.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.9% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over.[23]

Amish community[]

The Amish community in Holmes County established in 1808, had a 17,654 adherents in 2010,[24] or 41.7% of the county's population.

Economy[]

Tourism is an important part of the economy. In 2017, Holmes County was the second most popular tourist destination in Ohio.[25] Tourism is centered on the Amish community, which makes up almost half the county's population, the highest density in the world.[25]

Politics[]

Prior to 1944, Holmes County was a stronghold of the Democratic Party in presidential elections, with every Democratic presidential candidate from 1856 to 1940, except for Al Smith, carrying the county. The county has since become a Republican stronghold, with Lyndon B. Johnson being the only Democrat since 1940 to carry it, in his 1964 landslide, although Harry S. Truman came within just 16 votes of winning it in 1948.

United States presidential election results for Holmes County, Ohio[26]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 10,796 83.19% 1,994 15.36% 188 1.45%
2016 8,720 78.52% 1,788 16.10% 598 5.38%
2012 8,702 75.23% 2,608 22.55% 257 2.22%
2008 7,720 69.34% 3,141 28.21% 273 2.45%
2004 8,468 75.47% 2,697 24.04% 55 0.49%
2000 6,754 73.85% 2,066 22.59% 325 3.55%
1996 5,213 57.39% 2,531 27.86% 1,340 14.75%
1992 5,079 56.08% 1,969 21.74% 2,008 22.17%
1988 5,064 69.22% 2,179 29.78% 73 1.00%
1984 5,146 74.11% 1,737 25.01% 61 0.88%
1980 3,860 60.37% 2,094 32.75% 440 6.88%
1976 2,870 54.16% 2,242 42.31% 187 3.53%
1972 3,752 69.97% 1,507 28.11% 103 1.92%
1968 3,350 58.47% 1,898 33.13% 481 8.40%
1964 2,106 37.18% 3,559 62.82% 0 0.00%
1960 4,432 69.41% 1,953 30.59% 0 0.00%
1956 3,955 68.78% 1,795 31.22% 0 0.00%
1952 3,891 65.07% 2,089 34.93% 0 0.00%
1948 2,496 50.10% 2,480 49.78% 6 0.12%
1944 3,093 54.69% 2,563 45.31% 0 0.00%
1940 3,201 48.87% 3,349 51.13% 0 0.00%
1936 2,247 34.93% 4,097 63.70% 88 1.37%
1932 1,953 31.60% 4,096 66.28% 131 2.12%
1928 3,457 67.43% 1,631 31.81% 39 0.76%
1924 1,824 38.26% 2,539 53.25% 405 8.49%
1920 2,065 38.78% 3,211 60.30% 49 0.92%
1916 955 24.71% 2,846 73.64% 64 1.66%
1912 465 12.81% 2,429 66.90% 737 20.30%
1908 1,252 28.74% 3,043 69.84% 62 1.42%
1904 1,377 34.77% 2,486 62.78% 97 2.45%
1900 1,269 26.83% 3,394 71.75% 67 1.42%
1896 1,284 25.93% 3,622 73.16% 45 0.91%
1892 1,152 25.56% 3,151 69.91% 204 4.53%
1888 1,241 25.81% 3,388 70.45% 180 3.74%
1884 1,366 28.57% 3,368 70.43% 48 1.00%
1880 1,370 29.36% 3,281 70.30% 16 0.34%
1876 1,241 28.12% 3,171 71.84% 2 0.05%
1872 1,089 30.08% 2,530 69.89% 1 0.03%
1868 1,083 27.47% 2,859 72.53% 0 0.00%
1864 1,066 28.45% 2,681 71.55% 0 0.00%
1860 1,392 37.41% 2,281 61.30% 48 1.29%
1856 1,285 37.87% 2,103 61.98% 5 0.15%



Communities[]

Map of Holmes County, Ohio with Municipal and Township Labels

Amish couple in a horse-drawn buggy in rural Holmes County

Township Village Other places in township
Berlin Berlin (CDP)
Clark Baltic (north part) Charm (UIC)
Farmerstown (UIC)
Unionville (UIC)
Hardy Millersburg (county seat) Holmes County Airport
Killbuck Killbuck
Knox Nashville (south part)
Mechanic Lake Buckhorn (CDP)
Becks Mills
Saltillo
Monroe Welcome (UIC)
West Holmes High School
Paint Winesburg (CDP)
Prairie Holmesville
Richland Glenmont Stillwell
Ripley Big Prairie (UIC)
Salt Creek Mt. Hope (UIC)
Walnut Creek Walnut Creek (CDP)
Trail (UIC)
Washington Loudonville (east part)
Nashville (north part)
Lakeville (UIC)

CDP = Census-designated place
UIC = Unincorporated community TOWNSHIP WEBSITES | Ohio Township Association

Transportation[]

Holmes County Airport (FAA LID: 10G) located two miles southwest of Millersburg.

Amish community[]

A large Amish community of about 36,000 exists in Northeast-Central Ohio, centered on Holmes County and extending into surrounding counties.[27] The Holmes Old Order Amish affiliation with 140 church districts out of 221 in the Holmes County Amish settlement in 2009 is the main and dominant Amish affiliation.[28] Holmes County houses the highest percentage of Amish of any U.S. county, currently 42 percent of the population, and experts speculate that within -15 years Holmes County may be the first majority Amish county.[29] The Amish & Mennonite Heritage Center in Berlin explains traditional ways of the Amish and provides an illustrated history for visitors in its 10-foot-by-265-foot mural.[30]

The overall Amish population of the area, centered on Holmes County, is the largest Amish community in the world.[27] Called locally "Amish Country", it draws many visitors to the county, thus making tourism an important sector of the local economy.

In Holmes County Amish Settlements there are several Old Order Amish affiliations. The Holmes Old Order Amish affiliation is the main and original affiliation, the Swartzentruber Amish with three subgroups, that originated in 1917 in Holmes County, are the most conservative Amish in Holmes county. There are also Andy Weaver Amish (formed 1952), Stutzman-Troyer Amish, Old Order Tobe Amish and Roman Amish on the conservative side, whereas the New Order Amish (formed in the early 1960s), the New Order Tobe Amish the New Order Amish Christian Fellowship are on the more progressive side. Holmes County is home of more Amish affiliations than any other place in the world.[31][32]

See also[]

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Holmes County, Ohio
  • USS Holmes County (LST-836)

References[]

  1. ^ 2020 census
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  3. ^ "Ohio: Individual County Chronologies". Ohio Atlas of Historical County Boundaries. The Newberry Library. 2007. http://publications.newberry.org/ahcbp/documents/OH_Individual_County_Chronologies.htm. 
  4. ^ Gannett, Henry (1905). The Origin of Certain Place Names in the United States. Govt. Print. Off.. pp. 159. https://archive.org/details/bub_gb_9V1IAAAAMAAJ. 
  5. ^ Amish Groups, undifferentiated Counties (2010) at The Association of Religion Data Archives.
  6. ^ Twelve Largest Settlements at Amish Studies
  7. ^ Kenneth H. Wheeler, "Local autonomy and civil war draft resistance: Holmes County, Ohio," Civil War History, June 1999, Vol. 45 Issue 2, pp 147-58
  8. ^ a b Stratford, Suzanne (2021-07-29). "‘Not surprised’: Holmes County reporting lowest COVID-19 vaccination numbers in Ohio" (in en-US). https://fox8.com/news/not-surprised-holmes-county-reporting-lowest-covid-19-vaccination-numbers-in-ohio/. 
  9. ^ "Overview". 27 July 2021. https://coronavirus.ohio.gov/wps/portal/gov/covid-19/dashboards/covid-19-vaccine/covid-19-vaccination-dashboard. 
  10. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. https://www.census.gov/geo/maps-data/data/docs/gazetteer/counties_list_39.txt. 
  11. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/programs-surveys/decennial-census.html. 
  12. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  13. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/oh190090.txt. 
  14. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  15. ^ 2020 census
  16. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov. 
  17. ^ a b c It is likely that those reporting such confused Pennsylvania Dutch, a German dialect, with Dutch.
  18. ^ "The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports". https://www.thearda.com/rcms2010/r/c/39/rcms2010_39075_county_name_2010.asp. 
  19. ^ "Language Map Data Center". https://apps.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=39&county_id=75&mode=geographic&zip=&place_id=&cty_id=&ll=&a=&ea=&order=r. 
  20. ^ a b c "DP-1 Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 Demographic Profile Data". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_DP/DPDP1/0500000US39075. 
  21. ^ "Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 - County". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/DEC/10_SF1/GCTPH1.CY07/0500000US39075. 
  22. ^ "DP02 SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/10_5YR/DP02/0500000US39075. 
  23. ^ "DP03 SELECTED ECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS – 2006-2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". United States Census Bureau. http://factfinder.census.gov/bkmk/table/1.0/en/ACS/10_5YR/DP03/0500000US39075. 
  24. ^ The 12 Largest Amish Communities (2017). at Amish America
  25. ^ a b Lynch, Kevin (27 November 2017). "Holmes County tourism, hotels keep growing" (in en). https://www.the-daily-record.com/news/20171127/holmes-county-tourism-hotels-keep-growing. 
  26. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS. 
  27. ^ a b "Fact Sheets: Holmes County and Amish Country". Holmes County Chamber of Commerce. http://holmescountychamber.com/press_factsheets.php?ID=14. . Quote: "Approximately 36,000 Amish residents make the region the largest Amish community in the world. Centered in Holmes County, Amish Country extends into each of the surrounding five counties. The Amish community has existed in this region of Ohio since 1809."
  28. ^ Charles E. Hurst, David L. McConnell: An Amish Paradox: Diversity and Change in the World's Largest Amish Community, Baltimore 2010, pages 35-36
  29. ^ "Estimate: A New Amish Community is Founded Every 3 1/2 Weeks in U.S.". The Ohio State University. http://researchnews.osu.edu/archive/amishpop.htm. . Quote: "“My guess is that in 15 years, we'll witness a county whose population is majority Amish, and Holmes County is likely to gain that distinction first. Perhaps LaGrange County in Indiana will not be far behind,” Donnermeyer said."
  30. ^ "Amish & Mennonite Heritage Center". https://amishcountryinsider.com/amish-mennonite-heritage-center/. 
  31. ^ Charles E. Hurst, David L. McConnell: An Amish Paradox: Diversity and Change in the World's Largest Amish Community, Baltimore 2010, page 36.
  32. ^ "How many types of Amish are there?". https://amishamerica.com/how-many-types-of-amish-are-there/. 

External links[]

Coordinates: 40°34′N 81°56′W / 40.56, -81.93

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