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House of Luxembourg
Arms of Luxembourg.svg
Coat of arms
Country Holy Roman Empire
Kingdom of Bohemia
Kingdom of Hungary
Kingdom of Germany
County of Luxembourg
Parent house House of Ardennes
Titles Holy Roman Emperor
King of the Romans
King of Bohemia
King of Hungary
Duke of Luxembourg
Duke of Görlitz
Margrave of Brandenburg
Margrave of Moravia
Count of Luxembourg
Count of Tyrol
Count of Ligny
Count of Saint-Pol
Count of Conversano
Count of Marle
Count of Soissons
Lord of Beaurevoir
Founder Henry V, Count of Luxembourg
Final ruler Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor
Founding year 963
Dissolution 1437(Senior branch);
1415(Ligny);
1482(Saint-Pol);
1608-16(Brienne);[1]
Ethnicity German/French (Low Countries)
Cadet branches Ligny, Saint-Pol, Brienne

The House of Luxembourg (Czech: Lucemburkové) was a late medieval European royal family, whose members between 1308 and 1437 ruled as King of the Romans and Holy Roman Emperors as well as Kings of Bohemia (Čeští králové). Their rule over the Holy Roman Empire was twice interrupted by the rival House of Wittelsbach.

History[]

The Luxembourg line was initially a cadet branch of the ducal House of LimburgArlon, when in 1247 Henry, younger son of Duke Waleran III of Limburg inherited the County of Luxembourg upon the death of his mother Countess Ermesinde, a scion of the House of Namur. Her father, Count Henry IV of Luxembourg, was related on his mother's side to the Ardennes-Verdun dynasty (also called the elder House of Luxembourg), which had ruled the county since the late 10th century.

Holy Roman Empire under Charles IV

  Habsburg
  Luxembourg
  Wittelsbach

Count Henry V's grandson Henry VII, Count of Luxembourg upon the death of his father Henry VI at the 1288 Battle of Worringen, was elected Rex Romanorum in 1308. The election was necessary after the Habsburg king Albert I of Germany had been murdered, and Henry, backed by his brother Archbishop-Elector Baldwin of Trier, prevailed against Charles, Count of Valois. Henry arranged the marriage of his son John with the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia in 1310, through whom the House of Luxembourg acquired the Kingdom of Bohemia, enabling that family to compete more effectively for power with the Habsburg and Wittelsbach dynasties. One year after being crowned Holy Roman Emperor at Rome, Henry VII, still on campaign in Italy, died in 1313.

The prince-electors, perturbed by the rise of the Luxembourgs, disregarded the claims raised by Henry's heir King John, and the rule over the Empire was assumed by the Wittelsbach duke Louis of Bavaria. John instead concentrated on securing his rule in Bohemia and gradually vassalized the Piast dukes of adjacent Silesia from 1327 until 1335. His son Charles IV, in 1346 mounted the Imperial throne. His Golden Bull of 1356 served as a constitution of the Empire for centuries. Charles not only acquired the duchies of Brabant and Limburg in the west, but also the former March of Lusatia and even the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1373 under the Kingdom of Bohemia.

The family's decline began under Charles' son King Wenceslaus, deposed by the prince-electors in 1400 who chose the Wittelsbach Elector Palatine Rupert. In 1410 rule was assumed by Wenceslaus' brother Sigismund, who once again stabilized the rule of the Luxembourgs and even contributed to end the Western Schism in 1417; however, with his death in 1437, the senior branch of the dynasty became extinct. He was succeeded by his son-in-law, the Habsburg archduke Albert V of Austria. The Habsburgs finally prevailed as Luxembourg heirs, ruling the Empire until their extinction upon the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.

Notable members[]

Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor and King of Bohemia

  • Henry VII (1275–1313) — elected King of the Romans in 1308 succeeding assassinated Albert of Habsburg, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1312. He was succeeded by Louis IV from the House of Wittelsbach.
    • Baldwin — brother of Henry, Prince-Archbishop of Trier and thereby Archchancellor of Burgundy 1307–54.
  • John the Blind (1296–1346) — only son of Henry. He was enfeoffed with the Bohemia by his father in 1310, married the Přemyslid heiress Elisabeth of Bohemia and deposed the Bohemian king Henry the Carinthian.
  • Charles IV (1316–78) — eldest son of John. He was elected King of the Romans in opposition to Louis IV in 1346 and succeeded his father as king of Bohemia in the same year, crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1355.
  • Wenceslaus (1361–1419) — eldest surviving son of Charles. As Margrave of Brandenburg from 1373 to 1378, he was elected King of the Romans in 1376 and succeeded his father as King of Bohemia in 1378. Declared deposed by the prince-electors in 1400, he was succeeded by Rupert of Wittelsbach.
  • Sigismund (1368–1437) — younger son of Charles. Margrave of Brandenburg from 1378 to 1388, he was King of Hungary from 1387 in right of his wife Mary of Anjou, and was elected King of the Romans in 1411,[2] succeeding his brother as King of Bohemia in 1419, being crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 1433 yet he left no heirs male.
  • Jacquetta of Luxembourg (1415/1416-1472) — Mother of Queen Consort, Elizabeth Woodville and subsequent ancestress of all English and British monarchs including the current monarch, Elizabeth II.
    • Elizabeth of Luxembourg, only child of Emperor Sigismund, married Archduke Albert V of Austria from the Albertinian line of the House of Habsburg in 1422, becoming queen consort of Hungary from 1437 as well as Queen of the Romans and queen consort of Bohemia from 1438 until Albert's death in 1439: she was the heiress who conveyed the major portion of the Luxembourg inheritance to the Habsburgs and, later, the Jagiellons through her daughter Elisabeth of Austria.

According to the Salic law, the succession could have been disputed, in which case it would have passed collaterally to the cadet branch of Ligny. That branch descended from a younger son of Henry V, and was headed by Louis de Luxembourg, Count of Saint-Pol, before he was executed for treason by Louis XI of France.[3]

Genealogy[]

Staufen dynasty.JPG

House of Limburg–Arlon[]

 

Waleran I
(† 1082)
Count of Limburg

Henry I
(1059 † 1119)
Count of Limburg

Waleran II
(1085 † 1139)
Duke of Limburg

Henry II
(1111 † 1167)
Duke of Limburg

Henry III
(1140 † 1221)
Limburg Old Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg

Waleran III
(1180 † 1226)
Armoiries Chypre.svgLimburg New Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg



Henry IV
(† 1247)
Limburg New Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg


Waleran
(† 1242)
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg
Lord of Fauquemont

Henry V
(1217 † 1281)
Arms of Luxembourg.svg
Count of Luxembourg


Gerard
(† 1276)
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg
Count of Durbuy



Adolf IV
(1220 † 1259)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Berg

Waleran IV
(† 1279)
Limburg New Arms.svg
Duke of Limburg

Henry VI
(1250 † 1288)
Arms of Luxembourg.svg
Count of Luxembourg

Waleran I
(1252 † 1288)
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg
Lord of Ligny


Adolf V
(† 1296)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Berg

William I
(† 1308)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Berg

Henry of Windeck
(† 1292)





Ermengarde
(† 1283)
Limburg New Arms.svg
x Reginald I of Guelders

Henry VII
(1275 † 1313)
Armoiries Henri VII de Luxembourg.svg
Holy Roman Emperor

Waleran II
(1275 † 1354)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Ligny.pngBerg Arms.svg
Lord of Ligny
Adolf VI
(† 1348)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Berg
John the Blind
(1296 † 1346)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg.svg
King of Bohemia
John I
(1300 † 1364)
Berg Arms.svg
Lord of Ligny


Charles IV
(1316 † 1378)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia

John Henry
(1322 † 1372)
Armoiries Jean-Henri de Luxembourg.svg
Margrave
of Moravia

Wenceslaus I
(1337 † 1383)
Armoiries Wenceslas de Luxembourg.png
Duke of
Luxembourg

Guy
(1340 † 1371)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Ligny
Count of Saint-Pol



Wenceslaus IV
(1361 † 1419)
Armoiries empereur Charles IV.svg
King of the Romans
King of Bohemia

Sigismund
(1368 † 1437)
Armoiries empereur Sigismond Ier.svg
Holy Roman Emperor
King of Bohemia and Hungary

John
(1370 † 1396)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duke of Görlitz




Jobst
(1351 † 1411)
Armoiries Josse de Luxembourg.svg
margrave
of Moravia and
Brandenburg

Waleran III
(1356 † 1415)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Ligny
and of Saint-Pol

John
(1370 † 1397)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Lord of Beauvoir
Count of Brienne




Elizabeth of Luxembourg
(1409 † 1442)
X Albert II of Habsburg

Elisabeth
(1390 † 1453)
Armoiries Luxembourg-Goerlitz.svg
Duchess of Luxembourg, sold duchy to the Dukes of Burgundy


Peter
(1390 † 1433)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Saint-Pol

Louis
(1418 † 1475)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Saint-Pol

Peter II
(† 1482)
Berg Arms.svg
Count of Saint-Pol


John II
(1392 † 1441)
Armoiries Jean de Luxembourg-Ligny.svg
Count of Ligny


Thibaud de Luxemburg
(† 1477)
Berg Arms.svg
sn de Fiennes, Cte de Brienne, Bp of Le Mans

Jacques de Luxemburg-Saint-Pol
(† 1487)
Blason Charles II de Ligny-Luxembourg (1576–1608).svg
sn de Fiennes et de Grave

Early Luxembourg counts[]

The first instance of the house of Luxembourg seems to be:

 
Cunigunda of Montjoie

Waleran III
Duke of Limburg
│ │
Ermesinde
Countess of Luxembourg



Henry IV
Duke of Limburg and Count of Berg
Limburg New Arms.svg

Waleran
Lord of Fauquemont
Armes Limbourg-Fauquemont.svg

Henry V
Count of Luxembourg
Armoiries Comtes de Luxembourg.svg

Gerard
Count of Durbuy
Armoiries Gérard de Durbuy.svg



Adolphe IV
Count of Berg
Berg Arms.svg

Waleran IV
Duke of Limburg
Limburg New Arms.svg

Henry VI
Count of Luxembourg
Armoiries Comtes de Luxembourg.svg

Waleran I
Lord of Ligny
Armoiries Waléran I de Ligny.svg

Ancestors[]

Two houses descended from the women of the counts of Luxembourg, the Counts of Loon and the Counts of Grandpré, wear a shield barry. Both families had a place in relation to the succession of the House of Ardennes. Indeed, the Count of Grandpré was the next heir of Conrad II of Luxembourg, the last representative of the Ardennes dynasty, but Emperor Frederick Barbarossa preferred that Luxembourg was held by a lord Germanic rather than French and attributed the county to Henry, son of Conrad's aunt Ermesinde and Count Godfrey I of Namur. The Counts of Loon are also in position to claim the inheritance Luxembourg, albeit weaker position:

 
Conrad I
(1040 † 1086)
Count of Luxembourg


Henry III
(† 1086)
Count of Luxembourg

William
(1081 † 1131)
Count of Luxembourg
X 1105 Matilda of Northeim

Ermesinde
(1075 † 1143)
X 1) Albert II, Count of Dagsburg
X 2) Godfrey I, Count of Namur



Conrad II
(† 1136)
Count of Luxembourg
s.p.

Liutgarde
(1120 † 1170)
X Henri II
(1125 † 1211)
Counts of Grandpré
Loon Arms.svg

Hugh VII1
(† 1137)
Count of Dagsburg

three children
died without issue

Mathilde1
X Folmar V
(† 1145)
Count of Metz

Henri IV²
(1112 † 1196)
Count of Namur and of Luxembourg

Ermesinde
(1186 † 1247)
X 1) Theobald I, Count of Bar
X 2) Waleran III, Duke of Limburg

Henry V
(1216 † 1284)
Count of Luxembourg
Armoiries Comtes de Luxembourg.svg


two sons
died without issue

Agnès
X Louis I, Count of Loon|Louis I
(1110 † 1171)
Counts of Loon
Loon Arms.svg
 
 
 
 

See also[]

References[]

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Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  1. ^ http://racineshistoire.free.fr/LGN/PDF/Luxembourg-Saint-Pol.pdf
  2. ^ "Sigismund (Holy Roman emperor) - Encyclopedia Britannica". Britannica.com. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/543594/Sigismund. Retrieved 2014-03-29. 
  3. ^ Cave, Roy and Coulson, Herbert (1965). A Source Book for Medieval Economic History. New York: Biblo and Tannen. p. 336. 


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