Hypothesized map of human migration based on mitochondrial DNA.

Another model of human migration based on Mitochondrial DNA

In human genetics, a human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup is a haplogroup defined by differences in human mitochondrial DNA. These haplogroups have led some researchers to trace the matrilineal inheritance of modern humans back to human origins in Africa and the subsequent spread across the globe.

Known haplogroups are assigned the following letter codes: A, B, C, CZ, D, E, F, G, H, pre-HV, HV, I, J, pre-JT, JT, K, L0, L1, L2, L3, L4, L5, L6, L7, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, UK, V, W, X, Y, and Z.

The woman who is at the root of all these groups is the most recent common matrilineal (female-lineage) ancestor of all living humans. She is commonly called Mitochondrial Eve.

Evolutionary relationship[]

Precise evolutionary relationships between human mitochondrial haplogroups are subject to academic debate.


  • Haplogroup L0
    • Haplogroup L0a [1]
      • Haplogroup L0a1
      • Haplogroup L0a2
    • Haplogroup L0d
    • Haplogroup L0f [2]
    • Haplogroup L0k [3]

L1 and its descendants[]

Descendants of haplogroup L3[]

Descendants of haplogroup M*[]

Descendants of haplogroup N*[]

Descendants of haplogroup R[]

  • Haplogroup P [62]
  • Haplogroup UK
    • Haplogroup U [63]
      • Haplogroup K
      • Haplogroup U1
        • Haplogroup U1a
        • Haplogroup U1b
      • Haplogroup U2
        • Haplogroup U2e
      • Haplogroup U3
      • Haplogroup U4
      • Haplogroup U5
        • Haplogroup U5a
        • Haplogroup U5a*
        • Haplogroup U5a1
        • Haplogroup U5a1*
        • Haplogroup U5a1a
        • Haplogroup U5b
        • Haplogroup U5b*
          • Haplogroup U5b1
        • Haplogroup U5b2
      • Haplogroup U6
        • Haplogroup U6a*
        • Haplogroup U6a1
        • Haplogroup U6b
      • Haplogroup U7
      • Haplogroup U8
      • Haplogroup pre-HV
        • Haplogroup pre-HV1
        • Haplogroup pre-HV2
        • Haplogroup HV [66]
          • Haplogroup HV*
          • Haplogroup HV1
          • Haplogroup H
            • Haplogroup H*
            • Haplogroup H1 [67]
              • Haplogroup H1*
              • Haplogroup H1a
                • Haplogroup H1a1
              • Haplogroup H1b
              • Haplogroup H1f
            • Haplogroup H2 [68]
              • Haplogroup H2*
              • Haplogroup H2a
                • Haplogroup H2a1
              • Haplogroup H2b
            • Haplogroup H3 [69]
            • Haplogroup H4 [70]
              • Haplogroup H4a
            • Haplogroup H5 [71]
              • Haplogroup H5a
                • Haplogroup H5a1
            • Haplogroup H6 [72]
              • Haplogroup H6a
                • Haplogroup H6a1
              • Haplogroup H6b
            • Haplogroup H7 [73]
            • Haplogroup H8 [74]
            • Haplogroup H9 [75]
            • Haplogroup H10 [76]
            • Haplogroup H11 [77]
              • Haplogroup H11a
            • Haplogroup H12 [78]
            • Haplogroup H13 [79]
            • Haplogroup H14 [80]
            • Haplogroup H15 [81]
            • Haplogroup H16 [82]
            • Haplogroup H21 [83]
          • Haplogroup V [84]

Table form[]

Human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  most recent common mt-ancestor    
L0   L1  
L2 L3   L4 L5 L6 L7
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A I O   R   S W X Y
C Z B F pre-HV   pre-JT P  UK

Other forms[]

For a graphical depiction of haplogroup branching, see Vincent Macaulay's mtDNA haplogroup skeleton. [85]

For information on the mutations which characterize each haplogroup, see the table of mtDNA haplogroup motifs. [86]

See also[]


External links[]

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Human mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.