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James II Stuart, King of England, King of Ireland, King of Scotland, was born 14 October 1633 in St. James Palace, Greater London, England, United Kingdom to Charles I of England (1600-1649) and Henrietta Marie de Bourbon (1609-1669) and died 16 September 1701 St. Germain-En-Laye, Seine-Et-Oise, France of unspecified causes. He married Anne Hyde (1637-1671) 24 November 1659 in Breda, Netherlands. He married Maria Beatrice d'Este (1658-1718) 21 November 1673 in Dover, England, United States.

Biography

King James II of England, also known as James VII of Scotland, was born on October 14, 1633, in London, England. He was the second surviving son of King Charles I and his wife, Henrietta Maria of France.

James was raised in the Anglican Church, but his mother was a devout Catholic, and he became a convert to Catholicism in 1668. This caused tensions with his brother, King Charles II, who was suspicious of Catholics and feared that James would use his position to promote Catholicism in England.

In 1673, James married Mary of Modena, a Catholic princess from Italy. This marriage further fueled fears of a Catholic plot to take over England, as it was widely believed that James was plotting with France to establish Catholicism in England.

In 1685, upon the death of his brother, Charles II, James became king. He immediately set about promoting Catholicism and granting religious toleration to Catholics and other non-Anglican groups, such as Quakers and Jews. This was seen as a direct threat to the Anglican Church and to the Protestant religion in general.

James also clashed with Parliament over issues such as the use of royal prerogative and the appointment of Catholics to high positions in government and the military. This led to the Glorious Revolution of 1688, in which James was deposed and replaced by his daughter Mary and her husband, William of Orange.

After his ousting, James fled to France and was given asylum by his cousin, King Louis XIV. He spent the rest of his life in exile, attempting unsuccessfully to regain his throne. He died in 1701 at the age of 67.

In summary, King James II was a controversial figure in English history, due to his Catholicism and attempts to promote religious toleration. His reign was marked by tensions with Parliament and with the Anglican Church, which ultimately led to his downfall and exile.

Marriages and Family

King James II had two wives and several mistresses, and he fathered many children. His children and descendants played important roles in English and European history, including as monarchs, military leaders, and religious figures.

1st Marriage: Anne Hyde

His first wife was Anne Hyde (1637-1671), daughter of the Earl of Clarendon. They married in 1659, and she converted to Catholicism shortly before their marriage. They had eight children together, but only two survived to adulthood: Mary and Anne.

  1. Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1660-1661)
  2. Mary Stuart (1662-1694) - married William of Orange and became Queen of England after James was deposed.
  3. James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1663-1667)
  4. Anne of Great Britain (1665-1714) - succeeded William and became Queen of England after Mary's death., Last of the Stuart dynasty.
  5. Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal (1666-1667)
  6. Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1667-1671)
  7. Henrietta Stuart (1669-1669)
  8. Catherine Stuart (1671-1671)

2nd Marriage: Mary of Modena

After Anne's death in 1671, James married Mary of Modena, a Catholic princess from Italy. They had several children together, including two sons who died in infancy, and a son named James Francis Edward, who was born in 1688.

James Francis Edward's birth was controversial, as many believed that he was not James's biological son and that he was smuggled into the royal bedchamber in a warming pan. This belief, known as the "warming pan" scandal, fueled opposition to James's reign and contributed to his downfall.

  1. Catherine Laura Stuart (1675-1676)
  2. Isabel Stuart (1676-1681)
  3. Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1677-1677)
  4. Elizabeth Stuart (1678-c1678)
  5. Charlotte Maria Stuart (1682-1682)
  6. James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766) subject of the "warming pan" scandal.
  7. Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart (1692-1712)

Other Relationships

In addition to his wives, James had several mistresses, including Arabella Churchill, sister of the famous general John Churchill (later Duke of Marlborough), and Catherine Sedley, daughter of Sir Charles Sedley. He fathered several children with his mistresses, including a daughter named Henrietta FitzJames, who later became a nun, and a son named James FitzJames, who was created Duke of Berwick and served as a military commander in France.


Children


Offspring of James II of England and Anne Hyde (1637-1671)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1660-1661) 22 October 1660 Worcester House, Strand, Greater London, England, United Kingdom 5 May 1661 Whitehall Palace, Whitehall, Greater London, England, United Kingdom
Mary Stuart (1662-1694) 30 April 1662 St. James's Palace, London, England, United Kingdom 28 December 1694 Kensington Palace, London, England, United Kingdom Willem III van Oranje (1650-1702)
James Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1663-1667)
Anne of Great Britain (1665-1714) 6 February 1665 St James's Palace, London, England, United Kingdom 12 August 1714 Kensington Palace, London, England, United Kingdom George of Denmark (1658-1708)
Charles Stuart, Duke of Kendal (1666-1667)
Edgar Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1667-1671)
Henrietta Stuart (1669-1669)
Catherine Stuart (1671-1671)


Offspring of James II of England and Maria Beatrice d'Este (1658-1718)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Catherine Laura Stuart (1675-1676)
Isabel Stuart (1676-1681)
Charles Stuart, Duke of Cambridge (1677-1677)
Elizabeth Stuart (1678-c1678)
Charlotte Maria Stuart (1682-1682)
James Francis Edward Stuart (1688-1766) 10 June 1688 St. James's Palace, London, England, United Kingdom 1 January 1766 Palazzo Muti, Rome, Italy Maria Clementina Sobieska (1702-1735)
Louisa Maria Teresa Stuart (1692-1712)


Offspring of James II of England and Arabella Churchill (1648-1730)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Henrietta FitzJames (1667-1730) 1667 St. James's Square, Westminster, England, United Kingdom 3 April 1730 Henry Waldegrave, 1st Baron Waldegrave (1661-1690)
Piers Butler, Earl of Newcastle (1652-1740)
James FitzJames, Duke of Berwick (1670-1734)
Henry FitzJames, Duke of Albemarle (1673-1702) 6 August 1673 6 December 1702 Bagnols-sur-Cèze Marie Gabrielle d'Audibert de Lussan (1675-1741)
Arabella FitzJames (1674-1704)


Offspring of James II of England and Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester (1657-1717)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Catherine Darnley (c1681-1743) 1681 13 March 1743 James Annesley, 3rd Earl of Anglesey (c1674-1702)
John Sheffield, 1st Duke of Buckingham and Normanby (1648-1721)



Siblings


Offspring of Charles I of England (1600-1649) and Henrietta Marie de Bourbon (1609-1669)
Name Birth Death Joined with
Charles James Stuart, Duke of Cornwall and Rothes (1629-1629)
Charles II of England (1630-1685) 29 May 1630 St.James's Palace, England, United Kingdom 6 February 1685 Whitehall, England, United Kingdom
James II of England (1633-1701) 14 October 1633 St. James Palace, Greater London, England, United Kingdom 16 September 1701 St. Germain-En-Laye, Seine-Et-Oise, France Anne Hyde (1637-1671)
Maria Beatrice d'Este (1658-1718)
Arabella Churchill (1648-1730)
Catherine Sedley, Countess of Dorchester (1657-1717)
Mary Henrietta Stuart (1631-1660) 4 November 1631 St. James's Palace, London, England, United Kingdom 24 December 1660 Whitehall Palace, London, England, United Kingdom Willem II van Oranje (1626-1650)
Elizabeth Stuart (1635-1650)
Anne Stuart (1637-1640)
Catherine Stuart (1639-1639)
Henry Stuart, Duke of Gloucester (1640-1660)
Henrietta Anne Stuart (1644-1670) 16 July 1644 Bedford House, Exeter, Devon, England, United Kingdom 30 June 1670 Château de Saint-Cloud, Saint-Cloud, France Philippe I d'Orléans (1640-1701)


See Also

  • James Stuart - disambiguation
  • Stuart Family
  • Stuart in England -
  • Stuart in Scotland -
  • Stuart in Ireland -

Bibliography

  • Ashley, Maurice (1978). James II. J.M. Dent & Sons. ISBN 9780460120210. https://archive.org/details/jamesii00maur. 
  • DeKrey, Gary S. (2008). "Between Revolutions: Re-appraising the Restoration in Britain" History Compass 6 (3): 738–773.
  • Earle, Peter (1972). The Life and Times of James II. London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson.
  • Glassey, Lionel, ed. (1997). The Reigns of Charles II and James VII and II.
  • Goodlad, Graham (2007). "Before the Glorious Revolution: The Making of Absolute Monarchy? Graham Goodlad Examines the Controversies Surrounding the Development of Royal Power under Charles II and James II" History Review 58: 10 ff.
  • Johnson, Richard R. (1978). "Politics Redefined: An Assessment of Recent Writings on the Late Stuart Period of English History, 1660 to 1714." William and Mary Quarterly 35 (4): 691–732. doi:10.2307/1923211
  • Miller, John (1997). The Glorious Revolution (2nd ed.). ISBN 0-582-29222-0. 
  • Miller, John (2004). The Stuarts. ISBN 9781852854324. 
  • Mullett, M. (1993). James II and English Politics 1678–1688. ISBN 0-415-09042-3.
  • Ogg, David (1957). England in the Reigns of James II and William III, 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon Press.
  • Van der Kiste, John (2021). James II and the first modern revolution. Barnsley: Pen & Sword.
  • Walcott, Robert (1962). "The Later Stuarts (1660–1714): Significant Work of the Last Twenty Years (1939–1959)" American Historical Review 67 (2): 352–370 doi:10.2307/1843428

External Links

Ancestry Trees

Contemporary References

Some of the best contemporary references for King James II include:

  1. "Memoirs of the Reign of King James II" by James II himself: This autobiography, written by James in exile, provides his own perspective on his reign and downfall. It is a valuable primary source for historians and is considered one of the most important works on the Glorious Revolution.
  2. "The History of England" by Thomas Babington Macaulay: This seminal work of English history, first published in the 19th century, includes a detailed and influential account of James II's reign and the events leading up to the Glorious Revolution.
  3. "The Popish Plot: A Study in the History of the Reign of Charles II" by John Pollock: This book, published in 1903, provides a detailed analysis of the religious and political tensions in England during the reigns of Charles II and James II, including the infamous Popish Plot, a fictitious Catholic conspiracy to assassinate Charles II.
  4. "The King's Mistresses: The Liberated Lives of Marie Mancini, Princess Colonna, and Her Sister Hortense, Duchess Mazarin" by Elizabeth C. Goldsmith: This book, published in 2012, provides a fascinating look at James II's mistresses and the role of women in his court.
  5. "James II: The Last Catholic King" by David Womersley: This biography, published in 2015, provides a comprehensive and balanced account of James II's life and reign, drawing on a wide range of primary sources.

Original Citations

Princess Mary's Letter: Flight to Exile

Letter written by Mary II to her sister Anne on December 13, 1688, describes the events surrounding James's flight and the subsequent establishment of William and Mary as joint monarchs. In the letter, Mary writes:

"My dearest Sister, I am in such confusion, that I scarce know how to write. Our affairs are so strangely altered since my last to you, that it seems almost incredible. The King went away on Friday night, and is now at Feversham, and the Prince is advanced within twenty miles of London, and I believe will be here tomorrow. The King has sent to the Prince, to desire him not to come to London, but I do not believe he will regard it. God Almighty grant a happy issue to all these things!"

Royal Succession Charts

James II of England (1633-1701)
Born: 14 October 1633 Died: 16 September 1701
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Charles II
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
1685–1688
Vacant
Glorious Revolution
Title next held by
William III & II and Mary II
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Heneage Finch, 3rd Earl of Winchilsea
Lord Warden of the Cinque Ports
1660–1673
Succeeded by
John Beaumont
Political offices
Vacant
Title last held by
Francis Cottington, 1st Baron Cottington
Lord High Admiral of England
1660–1673
Succeeded by
Charles II
Preceded by
Charles Stewart, 6th Duke of Lennox
Lord High Admiral of Scotland
1673–1688
Vacant
Title next held by
William Hamilton, Duke of Hamilton
Preceded by
John Maitland, 1st Duke of Lauderdale
Lord High Commissioner to
the Parliament of Scotland

1680–1685
Succeeded by
William Douglas, 1st Duke of Queensberry
Preceded by
Charles II
Lord High Admiral
1685–1688
Succeeded by
William III
Pretenders to the title
Loss of title
Glorious Revolution
— TITULAR —
King of England, Scotland and Ireland
1688–1701
Succeeded by
James III & VIII

References



Footnotes (including sources)

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