Main Births etc
—  State  —
Official seal of Jharkhand झारखण्ड ঝাড়খণ্ড (Bengali) ଝାଡ଼ଖଣ୍ଡ (Oriya) جھاڑکھنڈ (Urdu)
Location of Jharkhand in India
Map of Jharkhand
Coordinates (Ranchi Patna): 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35, 85.33Coordinates: 23°21′N 85°20′E / 23.35, 85.33
Country  India
Established 15 November 2000
Capital Ranchi
Largest city Jamshedpur
 • Governor Syed Ahmed
 • Speaker
 • Chief Minister President's rule under Pranab Mukherjee
 • Legislature Unicameral (82 seats)
 • Parliamentary constituency 14+6
 • Total 79,714 km2 (30,778 sq mi)
Area rank 15th
Population (2011)
 • Total 32,966,238
 • Rank 13th
 • Density 414/km2 (1,070/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
ISO 3166 code IN-JH
HDI increase 0.513 (medium)
HDI rank 24th (2005)
Literacy 67.63% (27th)
Official languages Hindi, Urdu, Bengali, Maithali, Santhali
Website [2]

Jharkhand (Jhārkhaṇḍ, pronounced [ˈdʒʱaːrkʰəɳɖ] ( listen)) is a state in eastern India. It was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15 November 2000.[1] Jharkhand shares its border with the states of Bihar to the north, Uttar Pradesh and Chhattisgarh to the west, Odisha to the south, and West Bengal to the east. It has an area of 79,714 km2 Or 30,778 sq mi (79,710 km2). The industrial city of Ranchi is its capital and Dumka is sub capital while Jamshedpur is the largest and the biggest industrial city of the state. Some of the other major cities and industrial centres are Dhanbad, Bokaro and Hazaribagh.

Currently Jharkhand is under the President's rule under President Pranab Mukherjee from 18 January 2013 till date.[2]

The name "Jharkhand" means "The Land of Forests".


According to some writers like Gautam Kumar Bera,[3] there was already a distinct geo-political, cultural entity called Jharkhand even before the period of Magadha Empire. Bera's book (page 33) also refers to the Hindu Mythological book Bhavishya Purana. The tribal rulers, some of whom continue to thrive till today were known as the Munda Rajas, who basically had ownership rights to large farmlands.[4] During the Mughal period, the Jharkhand area was known as Kukara.

British rule[]

After the year 1765, it came under the control of the British Empire and became formally known under its present title, "Jharkhand"—the Land of "Jungles" (forests) and "Jharis" (bushes). Located on Chhota Nagpur Plateau and Santhal Parganas, the place has evergreen forests, rolling hills and rocky plateaus with many places of keen beauty like Lodh Falls.

The subjugation and colonisation of Jharkhand region by the British East India Company resulted in spontaneous resistance from the local people. Almost one hundred years before Indian Rebellion of 1857, adivasis of Jharkhand were already beginning what would become a series of repeated revolts against the British colonial rule:

The period of revolts of the Adivasis to protect their Jharkhand land took place from 1771 to 1900 AD. The first ever revolt against the landlords and the British government was led by Tilka Manjhi,[5] a Santhal leader in Santal tribal belt in 1771. He wanted to liberate his people from the clutches of the unscrupulous landlords and restore the lands of their ancestors. The British government sent its troops and crushed the uprisings of Tilka Manjhi. Soon after in 1779, the Bhumij tribes rose in arms against the British rule in Manbhum, now in West Bengal. This was followed by the Chero tribes unrest in Palamau. They revolted against the British rule in 1800 AD. Hardly seven years later in 1807, the Oraons in Barway murdered their big landlord of Srinagar west of Gumla. Soon the uprisings spread around Gumla. The tribal uprisings spread eastward to neighbouring Tamar areas of the Munda tribes. They too rose in revolt in 1811 and 1813. The Hos in Singhbhum were growing restless and came out in open revolt in 1820 and fought against the landlords and the British troops for two years. This is called the Lakra Kol Risings 1820–1821. Then came the great Kol Risings of 1832. This was the first biggest tribal revolt that greatly upset the British administration in Jharkhand. It was caused by an attempt by the Zamindars to oust the tribal peasants from their hereditary possessions. The Santhal rebellion broke out in 1855 under the leadership of two brothers Sidhu and Kanhu. They fought bitterly against the British troops but finally they too were crashed down. Other notable Adivasi warriors are Jabra Paharia, Veer Budhu Bhagat, Poto Sardar, Telenga Kharia, Phulo-Jhano, Manki Munda, Gaya Munda.

Then Birsa Munda revolt,[6] broke out in 1895 and lasted till 1900. The revolt though mainly concentrated in the Munda belt of Khunti, Tamar, Sarwada and Bandgaon, pulled its supporters from Oraon belt of Lohardaga, Sisai and even Barway. It was the longest and the greatest tribal revolt.[7] It was also the last tribal revolt in Jharkhand. All of these uprisings were quelled by the British through massive deployment of troops across the region.

British Government faced a lot of tribal revolt in Chhota Nagpur Division. Wherever resistance to British rule existed they tried to divide them. The policy of "Divide and rule" was made effective by Lord Curzon, when he was Governor General of India. He carried out Partition of Bengal in 1905, when the Princely states of Gangpur and Bonai of Chota Nagpur States were transferred from the control of Commissioner of Chhota Nagpur Division to Odisha division and Princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Chang Bhakar and Koriya were transferred from Chhota Nagpur Division to Chhattisgarh Division of Central Provinces, leading to shrinkage of Chhota Nagpur Division. Due to popular resistance to Partition of Bengal, the two Bengals were united in 1912 by Governor General Harding and the province of Bihar—Odisha was created by taking out of Bengal the Bihar division, Chhota Nagpur Division and Odisha division. During this creation Midnapur, Purulia and Bankura remained with Bengal. Thus, whenever there was reorganisation of Provinces, Chhota Nagpur Division lost some area. Thus during British rule, tribal areas, although geographically continuous, were put under different administrations. As a result of this, when India gained independence in 1947 and after the Princely states acceded to Government of India in 1948, the Princely states of magadha were put under Odisha province, Princely states of Jashpur, Surguja, Udaipur, Chang Bhakar and Koriya were put under Madhya Pradesh and Midnapur, Purulia and Bankura were put under West Bengal. Princely states of Gangpur and Bonai were combined together to form Sundergarh District. Princely states of Koriya and Chang bhakar were combined together to form Koriya district and Udaipur was included in Raigarh District.

The 20th century Jharkhand movement may also be seen as moderate movement as compared to the bloody revolts of the 19th century. Having the Chhotanagpur Tenancy Act 1908 to protect their lands, the tribal leaders now turned to socio-economic development of the people. In 1914 Jatra Oraon started what is called the Tana Movement. Later this movement joined the Satyagrah Movement of Mahatma Gandhi in 1920 and stopped giving land tax to the Government. In 1915 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj was started for the socio-economic development of the tribals. This organisation had also political objectives in mind. When the Simon Commission came to Patna in 1928, the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj sent its delegation and placed its demand for a separate Jharkhand State for self-rule by the tribals. The Simon Commission however did not accede to the demand for a separate Jharkhand State. Thereafter Theble Oraon organised Kishan Sabha in 1931. In 1935 the Chhotanagpur Unnati Samaj and the Kishan Sabha were merged with a view to acquire political power.

Jharkhand Movement: post-Indian independence[]

For almost six decades the movement had been changing colour and strategy to gain a foothold. Gradually, the Jharkhand Party grew politically stronger but the commissions examining the demands for a separate Jharkhand State rejected it one after another. In August 1947 the Thakkar Commission rejected it saying that it would not be beneficial for the Adivasis. In 1948 Dar Commission also examined the demand for a separate Jharkhand state but rejected it on linguistic grounds. Despite these reports of these commissions going negative in nature, Jharkhand Party never lost sight of its ultimate target: a separate state of Jharkhand. Jharkhand Party contested the 1952 elections with a declared aim of strengthening the demand of a tribal homeland and won 32 seats in the Bihar Assembly. In the second General Election in 1957, too, Jharkhand Party won 32 seats and for two terms the party remained the leading opposition party. In 1955 the Report of the State Reorganisation Commission came out. Here, too, the demand for a separate Jharkhand state was rejected. In the third general election in 1962 the party could win only 23 seats in the Bihar Assembly. Personal interests of the Jharkhand leaders started playing upper hands. The following year Jharkhand Party aligned with Congress and Jaipal Singh became a minister in Vinodanand Jha's government in Bihar. With this, the demand for the Tribal Homeland was put into cold storage for nearly a decade.

In the 4th General Election held in 1967 the party had a very poor show. It could win only eight Assembly seats. The party was soon split into several splinter groups each claiming to be the genuine Jharkhand party. These were the All India Jharkhand Party led by Bagun Sumroi, the Jharkhand Party led by N.E. Horo, the Hul Jharkhand Party led by Justin Richard which got further fragmented and came to be called the Bihar Progressive Hul Jharkhand Party and it was led by Shibu Soren. The movement was infused with a new radicalism when Santhal leader Shibu Soren formed the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha (JMM) in league with the Marxist co-ordination Committee in 1972. In its early years, the JMM under Soren's leadership, brought industrial and mining workers mainly non-tribals belonging to Dalit and Backward communities such as Surdis, Doms, Dusadh and Kurmi-Mahtos, into its fold. However Soren's association with the late congress M.P. Gyanranjan brought him close to then prime minister of India, Indira Gandhi, in New Delhi. He won the Dumka Lok Sabha seat in 1972. Irked by Soren's association with the Congress, a few of the younger members of the JMM banded together in Jamshedpur and set up the All Jharkhand Students' Union (AJSU). This did nothing to stunt the growth of the JMM in the 1991 Lok Sabha election where the JMM won six seats.

That year saw the emergence of another foreign educated scholar, Ram Dayal Munda, who reignited the movement by unifying splinter groups among the tribals. Under his guidance the Jharkahnd Coordination Committee was constituted in June 1987, comprising 48 organisations and group including the JMM factions. Due to Munda, Soren, Mandal and AJSU leaders like Surya Singh Besra and Prabhakar Tirkey briefly shared a political platform. But the JMM pulled out of JCC as it felt that 'the collective leadership was a farce'. The JMM/AJSU and JPP successfully orchestrated bandhs, economic blockades in 1988–89. In the interim, BJP came out with its demand for a separate "Vananchal" state comprising 18 districts of Bihar, arguing that demand for a greater Jharkhand is "not practical".

In response, Buta Singh, the then home minister, asked Ram Dayal Munda, the then Ranchi University vice chancellor, to prepare a report on Jharkhand. Munda handed his report in September 1988, advising the Home Ministry to grant 'autonomy' to 'Greater Jharkhand'. In August 1989, the Union Home Ministry formed a committee on Jharkhand Matters (CoJM) to look into the issue. These were followed by further talks between the then Bihar Chief Minister, Satyendra Narayan Sinha, the central government and Jharkhand groups. In September 1989 the COJM submitted its report proposing the alternatives to the formation of a greater Jharkhand, a Union Territory or a Jharkhand general council. In 1995 the Jharkhand Area Autonomous Council (JAAC) was set up after a tripartite agreement was signed by the Union government represented by the then minister of state for home, Rajesh Pilot, the Bihar government represented by the chief minister Lalu Prasad Yadav and Jharkhand leaders like Soren, Munda, Mandal, Besra and Tirkey. Horo did not sign this agreement. He dubbed the JAAC as the 'fraud' and stuck to his demand for Tribal Homeland. So did the AJSU and JPP.

Jharkhand—a separate state[]

The state of Jharkhand became a functioning reality on 15 November 2000 after almost half a century of people's movements around Jharkhandi identity, which disadvantaged societal groups articulated to augment political resources and influence the policy process in their favour. Its the 28th state of India. The Jharkhandi identity and the demand for autonomy was not premised solely on the uniqueness of its tribal cultural heritage but was essentially a fallout of the failure of development policy to intervene in socio-economic conditions of the adivasis and non-adivasis in the region.

The dynamics of resources and the politics of development still influence the socio-economic structures in Jharkhand, which was carved out of the relatively 'backward' southern part of Bihar. According to the 1991 census, the state has a population of over 20 million out of which 28% is tribal while 12% of the people belong to scheduled castes. Jharkhand has 24 districts, 212 blocks and 32,620 villages out of which only 45% are electrified while only 8,484 are connected by roads. Jharkhand is the leading producer of mineral wealth in the country after Chattisgarh state, endowed as it is with vast variety of minerals like iron ore, coal, copper ore, mica, bauxite, graphite, limestone, and uranium. Jharkhand is also known for its vast forest resources.

Geography and climate[]


Most of the state lies on the Chota Nagpur Plateau, which is the source of the Koel, Damodar, Brahmani, Kharkai, and Subarnarekha rivers, whose upper watersheds lie within Jharkhand. Much of the state is still covered by forest. Forest preserves support populations of tigers and Asian Elephants.

Soil content of Jharkhand state mainly consist of soil formed from disintegration of rocks and stones, and soil composition is further divided into:

  1. Red soil, found mostly in the Damodar valley, and Rajmahal area
  2. Micacious soil (containing particles of mica), found in Koderma, Jhumri Telaiya, Barkagaon, and areas around the Mandar hill
  3. Sandy soil, generally found in Hazaribagh and Dhanbad
  4. Black soil, found in Rajmahal area
  5. Laterite soil, found in western part of Ranchi, Palamu, and parts of Santhal Parganas and Singhbhum


There are three well-defined seasons in Jharkhand. The cold-weather season, from November to February, is the most pleasant part of the year. High temperatures in Ranchi in December usually rise from about 50 °F (10 °C) into the low 70s F (low 20s C) daily. The hot-weather season lasts from March to mid-June. May, the hottest month, is characterized by daily high temperatures in the upper 90s F (about 37 °C) and low temperatures in the mid-70s F (mid-20s C). Maximum rainfall takes place during the months from July to September that accounts for more than 90% of total rainfall in the state.

Flora and fauna[]

State symbols of Jharkhand
Formation day 15 November (Day of
separation from Bihar)
State animal Elephant[8] 2005-bandipur-tusker.jpg
State bird Koel Asian koel.jpg
State tree Sal[8] Sal (Shorea robusta)- flowering canopy W Picture 117.jpg
State flower Palash[8] STS 001 Butea monosperma.jpg

Jharkhand has a rich variety of flora and fauna. The National Parks and the Zoological Gardens located in the state of Jharkhand present a panorama of this variety.

Betla National Park in the Latehar district, located 8 km away from Barwadih, covers an area of about 250 square kilometres (97 sq mi). The national park has a large variety of wildlife, including tigers, elephants, bisons (which are locally known as gaurs), sambhars, wild boar, and pythons (up to 20 feet (6.1 m) long), spotted deer(chitals), rabbits and foxes. The mammalian fauna to be seen at Betla National Park also include langurs, rhesus monkeys, blue bulls and wild boars. The lesser mammals are the porcupines, hares, wild cats, honey badgers, Malabar giant squirrels, mongooses, wolves, antelopes etc. In 1974, the park was declared a Project Tiger Reserve.

Part of the reason for the variety and diversity of flora and fauna found in Jharkhand state may be accredited to the Palamau Tiger Reserves under the Project Tiger. This reserve is abode to hundreds of species of flora and fauna,[9] as indicated within brackets: mammals (39), snakes (8), lizards (4), fish (6), insects (21), birds (170), seed bearing plants and trees (97), shrubs and herbs (46), climbers, parasites and semi-parasites (25), and grasses and bamboos (17).

The Hazaribag Wildlife Sanctuary, with scenic beauties, 135 kilometres (84 mi) away from Ranchi, is set in an ecosystem very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.

Jawaharlal Nehru Biological Park in Bokaro Steel City is the largest Zoological Garden in Jharkhand. It has many animal and bird species, spread over 200 acres (0.81 km2), including an artificial waterpark with boating facilities. Another zoo, Birsa Munda Jaiwik Udyan, is also located about 16 km from Ranchi, and a number of mammalian fauna have been collected there for visitors.


Santal women in Jharkhand, India

Jharkhand has a population of 32.96 million, consisting of 16.93 million males and 16.03 million females. The sex ratio is 947 females to 1000 males. The population consists of 28% tribal peoples, 12% Scheduled Castes and 60% others. The population density of the state is 414 persons per square kilometre of land; it varies from as low as 148 per square kilometre in Gumla district to as high as 1167 per square kilometre in Dhanbad district.

Census data since 1881 has shown a gradual decline of tribal population in Jharkhand as against the gradual increase of non-tribal population in the region. The reasons given for this are low birth rate and high death rate among the tribes; immigration of non-tribal peoples in the region; emigration of tribal peoples in the other places; and the adverse effects of industrialisation and urbanisation in the region. Tribal leaders assert, however, that their numbers are not as low as recorded by the census that they are still in the majority and that they remain a demographic force to reckon with.

The censuses show that 50% of the non-tribal immigrants to Hazaribagh and Palamu districts came from north Bihar. Ranchi received more than 60% of migrants from north Bihar initially in 1891, but later the number declined to 27% in subsequent censuses. Singhbhum also registered a gradual decline. But there was a spectacular increase in the percentage share of migrants from north Bihar in Manbhum districts from 10% in 1881 to 40% in 1951. In the same way as many as 60% of immigrants from Odisha, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh came to Manbhum in 1891 when coal production started there in earnest. Other immigrants came from Bombay, Punjab, Rajputana and other northwestern provinces increasing their numbers from 5% in 1881 to 16% in 1951.

Factors in population change[]

Industralization and urbanisation were other factors for rapid demographic change in Chhotanagpur (the present Jharkhand state) between 1881 and 1951. Immigration of labourers from Gaya, Munger, West Bengal and Madhya Pradesh for the mining of mica in Koderma and Giridih and coal in Dhanbad and Jharia was seen to the extent of 12% and 38.6% respectively in the early decades of 20th century. Similarly as many as 50% of the unskilled labourers and the majority of the skilled labourers came from north Bihar, Odisha, West Bengal, Bombay and Uttarpradesh to work at the iron and steel industries of Jamshedpur. Along with the immigration of majority Indian people to Jharkhand, there also started the emigration of tribal peoples to the tea plantations in Assam and West Bengal.

The demographic changes continued in Jharkhand more rapidly after independence, ironically through the very process of planned development in the country. Central water commission's report in 1994 reveals that 90 major dams were built in Jharkhand since 1951. Apart from these major dams, 400 medium size dams and 11,878 minor dams were built in the region. There are 79 major industries and factories in the region. These development projects benefited mainly those belonging to the formal economy but deprived tribal communities, especially those belonging to informal economy and dependent on the natural resources for a livelihood. About three million people were displaced and affected by development projects like dams, industries, mines, wildlife sanctuaries, defence establishments, airstrips, housing colonies and infrastructural development like roads and railways. About 90% of the displaced were part of tribal communities.


Most members of the scheduled tribes of Jharkhand follow the animistic Sarna religion. Sarna is the Mundari word for ‘Sacred Grove’. Sarna involves belief in a great spirit called the Sing Bonga. Tribal belief holds the world to be inhabited by numerous spiritual beings of different kinds. Tribal communities consider themselves as living and doing everything in close association with these spirits. Rituals are performed under the groves of Sal trees called Sarna (also called Jaher), where Bonga is believed to appear or express himself.

Many Hindus believe that this is not a separate religion but a part of the great Hindu tree where in most of the villages the trees are worshiped. Further Karma is always on Karma Ekadashi (Bhadrapad Shukla Ekadashi) and Sarhul on Chitra Shukla Tritiya exactly as per Hindu calendars.

Officially Reported Religion in Jharkhand
Religion Percent

As per the 2001 census Hinduism is followed by 68.5% of the population of Jharkhand. Islam is followed by 13.8% of the population and the animisitic Sarna religion is practised by 13% of the population. Christianity with 4.1% of the population is the fourth largest religious community in Jharkhand. Jainism, Buddhism and Sikhism are all practised, making few less than 1%.[11]

Jharkhand has 32 tribal groups. These are the Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gond, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharia, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Munda, Oraon, Parhaiya, Santal, Sauria-Paharia, Savar, Bhumij, Kol and Kanwar. In some of the districts of Jharkhand, the tribal population forms a clear majority.

Although Hindi is the state language, the people of Jharkhand speak a number of languages belonging to three major language families: the Munda languages which include Santhali, Mundari, Ho, Kharia, Bhumij; the Indo-Aryan languages which includes Bengali, Oriya, Maithili,[12] Nagpuri, Sadri, Khortha, Kurmali and Panchpargania; and the Dravidian languages which include Oraon (Kurukh), Korwa, and Paharia (Malto).

Santali is spoken predominantly in Dumka, Jamtara, Pakur, Godda, Sahibganj and in parts of East Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharsawan distrcits. Mundari is spoken mainly in Khunti and parts of Ranchi, West Singhbhum, Gumla, Simdega and Latehar districts. Ho is mainly spoken in West Singhbhum and Saraikela-Kharswan districts. These three languages can be considered as sister languages as all of them are grammatically similar and 80%–90% of the words used are same.[13]


Being a tribe dominated state, nature has been given utmost importance in every sphere of life and culture. Branches of sacred trees are brought and ceremonially planted in the courtyards. Devotees then worship these tree parts associated with gods/goddesses. Karma puja, Jitia Puja, Sarhul are a few examples. Poush Mela or Tusu Fair is a significant occasion celebrated during the Makar Sankranti wherein brightly coloured excellently decorated symbolic artefacts of folk deity are carried by the People. This is a folk harvesting festival. Tusu is a folk belief, not about any God or Goddess, but about a sweet little girl of the tribal folk. The festival takes place as new crops are harvested. The entire festival is a very colourful one. It takes the shape of the all-around festive mood of the tribal people, where everyone takes part.


Jharkhandis have a cuisine in which spices are rarely used and rice is the staple. They prepare different dishes of rice like different types of Rotis, Pittha, Dhuska, Dudhauri, kera-dudhauri, etc. Dhuska is a famous dish of Jharkhand cooked with mashed rice and pulses and served with either aaloo dum or mutton curry; kera-dudhauri is a famous dish prepared with milk, rice, ghee and gur. In many parts of Jharkhand including Panch Pargana area (Bundu, Rahe, Sonahatu, Silli, Angara, Arki and Tamar Blocks of Ranchi & Khunti districts) a special food item "Charpa" is prepared by frying mashed rice mixed with spicy vegetable preparations; hence the name follows viz. Sembi Charpa, Egg Charpa and many more depending upon the ingredient vegetable source.

Jharkhandis use different types of flowers as vegetables, such as the flowers of drum-stick, August and Jhirool. Use of Sag, i.e. leaves of different shrubs and other small plants, is perhaps another peculiarity of Jharkhandi food. Commonly used sags are Palak, Beng, Kataei, Gendhari, Saranti, Sunsunia, Koinar, methi, bhathua, Sarso and chana. "Maad Jhor" which a nutritious substitute for Daal is prepared by boiling saag in starch left after cooking rice. The same is made more delicious by adding flavour of Garlic fried in mustard oil (Tadka/Phodan in local language). Many vegetables and leaves are dried and stored for use out of season, and the same are consumed in the form of "Maad Jhor". In many village markets of Jharkhand you can easliy see women selling powdered dried leaves or other dried food items.

One more interesting food item is dried Mushrooms (various types of eatable fungi) which is dried and stored when mushrooms are found abundantly during rainy season in the forests and/or sparsely populated remote villages. Fresh mashrooms (Khukhdi/Chhatu in local language) are given local names depending upon their place of origin/growth viz. Bala Chhatu, Jamun Khukhdi etc. are consumed in dry fried form (without spices) or with spicy curry/gravy.

Local alcoholic drinks include rice beer, originally known as Handiya, named after the vessel (earthen pot) used to make it. Handiya is culturally associated with native i.e. Tribals as well as Sadan, as this drink is consumed by both men and women, on social occasions like marriage and other festivals. Another common liquor is called Mahu, made from fruit/flowers of the "Mahua" tree (Madhukam Indicum).

There are many foods that are a part of the traditional cuisine that are also known for their medicinal values, like Kurthi (Horse gram), which is used like a kind of pulses and is considered a cure for kidney stones and is also recommended for fast recovery after childbirth. Fruits such as Jackfruit, Blackberry, Mango and Litchi are found in abundance.

Administrative districts[]

The state was formed with 18 districts, which were formerly part of south Bihar. Some of these districts were reorganised to form 6 new districts, namely, Latehar, Saraikela Kharsawan, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Khunti and Ramgarh. Presently, the state has 24 districts:Ranchi, Lohardaga, Gumla, Simdega, Palamu, Latehar, Garhwa, West Singhbhum, Seraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, Dumka, Jamtara, Sahebganj, Pakur, Godda, Hazaribag, Chatra, Koderma, Giridih, Dhanbad, Bokaro, Deoghar, Khunti and Ramgarh.

Government and politics[]

Jharkhand is currently under the presidency rule after, Arjun Munda of the Bharatiya Janata Party, resigned as the eighth Chief Minister of Jharkhand, on 9 January 2013.

Jharkand is one of the thirteen states in which the Naxalite rebels have considerable influence. On 5 March 2007, Sunil Mahato, a member of the national parliament, was shot dead by Naxalite rebels while watching a football match on the Hindu festival of Holi near Kishanpur, 160 km (99 mi) east of the state capital, Ranchi.[15] His wife, Suman Mahato, the Jharkhand Mukti Morcha candidate, won the Jamshedpur Lok Sabha by-election in September 2007. Mahato defeated her nearest rival, Dinesh Sarangi of the Bharatiya Janata Party, by a margin of 58,816 votes.

Naxal insurgency[]

Jharkand has been at the centre of the Naxalite-Maoist insurgency. Since the uprising of the Naxalites in 1967, 6,000 people have been killed in fighting between the Naxalites and counter-insurgency operations by the police, and its paramilitary groups such as the Salwa Judum.[16]

Despite having a presence in almost 7.80% of India's geographical area[17] (home to 5.50% of India's population), the state of Jharkand is part of the "Naxal Belt" comprising 92,000 square kilometres,[17] where the highest concentrations of the groups estimated 20,000 combatants[18] fight. Part of this is due to the fact that the state harbours a rich abundance of natural resources, while its people live in abject poverty and destitution.[19] The impoverished state provides ample recruits for the communist insurgents, who argue that they are fighting on behalf of the landless poor that see few benefits from the resource extractions.[19] As the federal government holds a monopoly on sub-surface resources in the state, the tribal population is prevented from staking any claim on the resources extracted from their land.[19] In response, the insurgents have recently begun a campaign of targeting infrastructure related to the extraction of resources vital for Indian energy needs, such as coal.[17]

In response to the growing influence of the insurgents, the Indian government has recently enacted a scheme by which free mobile phones would be handed out in exchange for villagers' cooperation with security forces—although intelligence officials express concern at the possibility of misinformation, and the difficulty in determining villagers from rebels.[16]


Jharkhand's gross state domestic product for 2004 is estimated at $14 billion at current prices. Born out of partition from old Bihar state in 2000, Jharkhand produces about 70% of the output of the old Bihar state. Since it is rich in minerals, the state per capita income is likely to increase in the coming years.

Jharkhand has a concentration of some of the country’s highly industrialised cities such as Jamshedpur, Ranchi, Bokaro Steel City, Dhanbad and Ramgarh. It also has several firsts in India, including:

  • Largest fertiliser factory of its time in India (since shut down) at Sindri, Dhanbad
  • First Iron & steel factory at Jamshedpur
  • Largest Steel plant in Asia, Bokaro steel plant, Bokaro.
  • Biggest explosives factory at Gomia, Bokaro.
  • Tata Steel has established country’s first coal washery at Ghato, Ramgarh district in the year 1951.
  • First methane gas well at Parbatpur, Bokaro.

Major industrial units[]

Bokaro Steel Plant

  • Bokaro Steel Plant, Bokaro.
  • Electrosteel Plant, Bokaro.
  • Bharat Refractories Limited, Bokaro.
  • Chandrapura Thermal Power Station, Chandrapura, Bokaro.
  • Tenughat Thermal/Hydro Power Station, Bokaro.
  • Bokaro Thermal Power Station, Bokaro Thermal, Bokaro.
  • Indian Explosive Limited, Gomia, Bokaro
  • Jay Pee Cement, Bokaro.
  • Ashok Industries, Bokaro Industrial Area.
  • BMW Steel, Bokaro.
  • Bokaro Power Supply Co. Pvt. Ltd.,Bokaro
  • Imperial Chemical Industries,Gomia,Bokaro
  • Kargali Coal Washery,CCL,Kargali,Bokaro
  • Kathara Coal Washery,CCL,Kathara,Bokaro
  • Bokaro Timber Seasoning Plant, BIADA,Bokaro
  • Dugda Coal Washery,BCCL,Dugda,Bokaro
  • HIndustan Steel Works Construction Limited,HSCL,Bokaro
  • Ratan Industries,Balidih,Bokaro
  • Inox Air Products, Bokaro
  • ONGC, Talgaria, Bokaro
  • Udaya Vijaya Steel Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Hanuman Alloy Apex Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Sundaram Steels Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Indian Oil Bottling Plant,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Royal Steel Pvt. Ltd.,Chas,Bokaro
  • Kalyaneshwari Ispat Udyog Pvt. Ltd.,BIADA,Bokaro
  • Tata Steel Plant, Jamshedpur.
  • Metalsa, Seraikella, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Power, Jojobera, Jamshedpur.
  • Tayo Rolls Limited, Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Pigment, Jugsalai, Jamshedpur.
  • Timken India Limited, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Robins Fraser, Jamshedpur.
  • Auto Cluster, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Yodogawa limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Hindustan Coca Cola Beverages Private Limited, Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Motors, Jamshedpur.
  • Usha Martin Industries Limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Rayrson, Jamshedpur.
  • Turamdih Gold Mine, Musabani, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Cummins, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Growth Shops, Gamharia, Jamshedpur.
  • JMT Auto Limited, Adityapur, Jamshedpur.
  • TRF Limited, Jamshedpur.
  • Tata Consulting Engineers, Jamshedpur
  • UCIL, Sundernagar, Jamshedpur.
  • Lafarge Cement, Jamshedpur.
  • Adhunik Alloyes Limited, Kandra, Jamshedpur.
  • Jamshedpur Utilities & Services Company Limited, Jamshedpur.
  • BOC Gases, Burmamines, Jamshedpur.
  • Hindustan Copper Limited, Ghatsila, Jamshedpur.
  • Praxair Gas, Sakchi, Jamshedpur.
  • Tinplate, Jamshedpur.
  • Concast Cement, Hata, Jamshedpur.
  • Steel Strip Wheels, Jamshedpur.
  • Jindal Steel and Power Limited, Potka, Jamshedpur.
  • Adhunik Power and Natural Resources Limited, Kandra, Jamshedpur.
  • Heavy Engineering Corporation,(HEC Ltd., Dhurwa), Ranchi.
  • Patratu Thermal Power Station, Ramgarh.
  • Maithon Hydro Power Station, Maithan, Dhanbad.
  • Panchet Hydro Power Station, Panchet, Damodar Valley Corporation, Dhanbad.
  • Telaiya Hydro Power Station, Telaiya, Damodar Valley Corporation
  • Jindal Steel Plant,Balkudra, Patratu,Ramgarh.
  • Kashish News, Ranchi
  • Usha Martin, Ranchi.
  • Central Coalfields Limited, Ranchi
  • Bharat Coking Coal Limited, Ranchi
  • Eastern Coalfields Limited.
  • Central Mine Planning & Designing Institute Limited (CMPDI), Ranchi
  • Metallurgical and Engineering Consultancy (MECON) Limited, Ranchi
  • Sun-Tech, NABL accredited Laboratory as per ISO/IEC 17025:2005 at Ranchi by Govt. of India
  • Abhijeet Group at Thermal Power Plant and Steel Plant at Chandwa, Saraikela
  • Essar power Ltd. at Chandwa
  • Jay Solar Systems at Dhanbad
  • NetSanchar. Net, Dhanbad, Jharkhand

Upcoming mega projects[]

  • Supreme Office Systems, Ranchi
  • UIDAI Project

Jharkhand has several towns and innumerable villages with civic amenities. Urbanization ratio is 24.1% and the per capita annual income is US$ 726.8.[20] Jharkhand also has immense mineral resources: minerals ranging from (ranking in the country within bracket) from iron ore (1st), coal(3rd), copper ore (1st), mica (1st), bauxite (3rd), Manganese, limestone, china clay, fire clay, graphite (8th), kainite (1st), chromite (2nd), asbestos (1st), thorium (3rd), sillimanite, uranium (Jaduguda mines, Narwa Pahar) (1st) and even gold (Rakha Mines) (6th) and silver and several other minerals. Large deposits of coal and iron ore support concentration of industry, in centres like Jamshedpur, Bokaro and Ranchi. Tata Steel, a S&P CNX 500 conglomerate has its corporate office in Jharkhand. It reported a gross income of INR. 204,910 million for 2005. NTPC will start coal production from its captive mine in state in 2011–12, for which the company will be investing about Rs 1,800 crore.[21]


Education Minister of Jharkhand is Devjeet kumar singh.The literacy rate in Jharkhand is 67.63% (2011). As per the 2011 census conducted by Government of India the official literacy rate for the state was 67.63% (Male: 78.45%; Female: 56.21%) with 9 districts above the average literacy rate:[22][23]

  1. East Singhbhum (Jamshedpur): 77.13% (Male: 85.53%; Female: 68.20%)
  2. Ranchi: 76.13% (Male: 84.51%; Female: 67.33%)
  3. Dhanbad: 75.71% (Male: 85.68%; Female: 64.70%)
  4. Ramgarh: 73.92% (Male: 83.51%; Female: 63.49%)
  5. Bokaro: 73.48% (Male: 84.50%; Female: 61.46%)
  6. Hazaribagh: 70.48% (Male: 81.15%; Female: 59.25%)
  7. Saraikela Khasawan: 68.85% (Male: 81.01%; Female: 56.19%)
  8. Kodarma: 68.35% (Male: 81.25%; Female: 54.77%)
  9. Lohardaga: 68.29% (Male: 78.62%; Female: 57.86%)

Jharkhand has a network of government and privately run schools, although standards of teaching vary considerably from place to place, as also from school to school.

After formation of new state, Jharkhand Education Project Council (JEPC) has been implementing four projects for spread of elementary education namely DPEP, SSA, NPEGEL, KGBV. Hence works have been accomplished in the state towards achieving the goal of UEE but due to slow pace, the target of hundred percent enrolment and retention of children in schools is not yet attained.[24]

Jharkhand has made primary education so accessible that 95% of children of ages 6–11 are enrolled in school, as opposed to 56% in 1993–94, so this will likely to improve literacy a great deal. Some of the better known schools which operate chain of school nationally and regionally are DAV Hehal, St. Thomas School, Delhi Public School, Oxford Public School, De Nobili School, Kendriya Vidyalaya, Chinmaya Public School, Loyola school, Sacred Heart School, St. Xavier's, Shishu Mandir, Surendranath centenary School, etc. Students from Jharkhand have proved themselves on national as well as international level. Students from the state have always ranked well in almost all the national level competitive exams.[25]


The medium of instruction in schools is Hindi/ English with English/ Hindi/ Sanskrit/ Bengali/ Oriya as second language. After 10 years of schooling, students can join 2 years of Intermediate course (or +2 courses) in Arts, Science and Commerce. This is followed by 3 years of degree courses (graduation)or 4 years of Engineering/Agriculture/Medicine degree. On May 2008, Jharkhand became the first in India to introduce free haircuts for poor students. 40,000 barbers will be employed with a monthly salary of 1000 rupees (25 US dollars) which will cost the state government 40 million rupees (1 million US dollars).[26]

Universities and colleges[]

The Xavier School of Management (XLRI), in Jamshedpur, has consistently been ranked among the best private business schools in India.

Jharkhand has a number of engineering and management colleges: St.Columba's College, Hazaribagh is a renowned and the oldest college in the state established in 1859 by the Dublin University Mission. Indian School of Mines, Dhanbad, National Institute of Technology, Jamshedpur, Birla Institute of Technology, Ranchi, Jamshedpur Institute of Management Science, Jamshedpur, Netaji Subhas Institute of Business Management, Jamshedpur,D.A.V. Institute of Engineering and Technology, Daltonganj, R.v.s College of Engineering and Technology, Jamshedpur, Birsa Institute of Technology Sindri, Dhanbad, and the National Institute of Foundry and Forge Technology (NIFFT). Among which BIT mesra, NIT Jamshedpur and ISM Dhanbad are among top 15 technical colleges in the country.

B.I.T Sindri is the best Govt Engg college in Jharkhand ( Jharkhand Govt.) with anual intake of about 800 students in It has been ranked one all over INDIA in terms of RETURN ON INVESTMENT and overall ranking of 27 all over INDIA.

St Xavier's College, Ranchi, most reputed college in the state of Bihar and Jharkhand was started in the Ranchi Jesuit Society, on 3 July 1944.

ISM Dhanbad, established in 1926, is the most reputed engineering institute of Jharkhand. Admission to it is through IIT-JEE, the toughest engineering entrance examination in India. This institute attracts students from all over the country. It functions under MHRD, Govt of India.

Jamshedpur is home to one of the best business school in India, the Xavier Labour Relations Institute,(XLRI). It has been consistently ranked among the best private business school in India. A recent development, the Government of India has set up an Indian Institute of Management(IIM) at Ranchi under the mentorship of IIM Calcutta. The State Government has allocated land for the same near Birsa Agricultural University, Kanke.

Jharkhand has 4 universities  : Ranchi University & Birsa Agricultural University at Ranchi, Sidhhu Kanhu University at Dumka and Vinova Bhave University in Hazaribagh.

There are three medical colleges in Jharkhand namely M.G.M Medical College at Jamshedpur, Rajendra Institute of Medical Sciences (RIMS) at Ranchi and Patliputra Medical College And Hospital (PMCH) at Dhanbad.

Xavier Institute of Social Service (XISS) at Ranchi is also one of oldest business school well known for its Personnel management and Rural Development courses.[27] XISS ranked 6th in East and 31st in all India—Outlook MDRA B-Schools Ranking 2010 and Business Today in 2010 ranked XISS on 36th position in all India.

National University of Study and Research in Law, Ranchi(NUSRL) was established in year 2010 by Government of Jharkhand as the fourteenth national law university of India. NUSRL is currently functioning out of a temporary campus in BIT, Mesra. It was formally inaugurated by the Chief Justice of Jharkhand High Court and Supreme Court Judge designate Gyan Sudha Mishra on 26 April 2010, in the Birla Institute of Technology-Mesra campus. NUSRL is established to develop a holistic perspective of legal education in all its ramifications particularly advocacy, judicial and legal institutional services, legislations, law reforms and all the research in these

Redeemer Institute of Management And Technology (RIMT)[28] was established in 2011 in Munirka,New Delhi.In February 2012 RIMT have opened there branch in Ramgarh, Jharkhand.RIMT affiliated from Eastern Institute for Integrated Learning in Management University and Karnataka State Open University. RIMT College is organized by Redeemer Engisoft Private Limited (An ISO 9001:2008 Certified Organization).[29]


On account of salubrious climate, Jharkhand, particularly its capital Ranchi, has been like a health resort. As far back as 1918, facilities were set up for treatment of mentally challenged.[30]

In certain areas of Jharkhand, poverty and consequent malnutrition have given rise to diseases like tuberculosis (TB). In fact, TB has assumed epidemic proportions in certain areas of the state. For management and treatment of such TB, Itki TB Sanatorium, Ranchi, established in 1928 has been doing exemplary work as a premier institute for clinical and programmatic management of TB. The Itki TB Sanatorium is well equipped and accredited by Government of India for quality assurance and Culture and Drug Sensitivity Testing for M.TB. It provides free of cost treatment for TB as well as Drug resistant TB. Likewise, in the field of treatment of cancer, Tata Main Hospital, Jamshedpur,[31] is rendering pioneering work. In the same way Bokaro General Hospital equipped with modern facilities for the treatment Cancer and heart related problems with capacity of 1100 beds one of the largest in eastern India.

Although several public and private health facilities are available in the state, overall infrastructure for dispensing health related services require improvements. An exception is the famous Tata Motors Hospital which is an example of an ISO 14001 and 18001 certified hospital with DNB teaching facilities.

Ranchi, the capital has witnessed a sharp growth in the number of hospitals. Hospitals like Orchid Medical Centre have introduced world class healthcare services to the people of the state. However in rural areas facilities are still scarce and reliant on foreign aid projects (such as Traditional Healthcare in Datom) for the establishment of clinics

Fluoride in groundwater presents a public health problem in Jharkhand. A recent survey led by the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi in collaboration with UNICEF in the northwest districts of Palamau and Garhwa found fluoride levels above the drinking WHO drinking water guidelines.[32] Excessive amounts of fluoride in drinking water can lead to dental fluorosis, prevalent bone fractures, and skeletal fluorosis, an irreversible disabling condition.[33] Some work has focused on combating fluorosis through increased calcium intake by consuming local plants.[34] Researchers at Princeton University and the Birla Institute of Technology, Mesra, Ranchi are currently investigating defluoridation options, while performing an epidemiological survey to assess the extent of fluoride linked health problems and the impact of future interventions.[35][36]

Almost 80% of Jharkhand's people are farmers, although it contains 40% of India's mineral reserves it has some of India's poorest people, in Summer 2009 the state was threatened by drought, with people criticising the government for not providing food aid or assistance.[37]


Jharkhand has a diverse domestic animal population, including local and crossbred cattle, black Bengal goat, chhotanagpuri sheep, murrah and local buffalo, broilers and ducks of many varieties. The state Veterinary department runs Veterinary Dispensaries located throughout Jharkhand and posts Touring Veterinary officers, Block Animal Husbandary Officers, Touring Veterinary officers (mobile), Assistant Poultry Officers and Veterinary Surgeons to support the agricultural industry.

The state has a Veterinary College located at Kanke, Ranchi.


Cricket, Hockey and football are popular games with the people of Jharkhand. Jharkhand has given some brilliant players like Jaipal Singh, a former Indian hockey captain and Olympian and Manohar Topno, Vimal Lakra, currently playing for the Indian Hockey team. Jaipal Singh was the captain of the hockey team that won the first gold medal for India in Olympic games 1928 at Amsterdam. Mahendra Singh Dhoni who is the captain of Indian cricket team and the best wicket keeper batsman for India till date and led the Indian Cricket Team to ICC Cricket World Cup Glory on 2 April 2011 ending a 28-year wait to repeat the feat achieved by former Indian captain Kapil Dev in 1983 at Lords, England. Another rising cricketer from Jharkhand is Varun Aaron, India's fastest bowler and Saurabh Tiwary, left hand hard hitting batsman of India who represented Mumbai Indians from the 2008 Indian Premier League and currently playing for Royal Challengers Bangalore. He was one of the key batsmen in the Indian team that won the 2008 U/19 Cricket World Cup in Malaysia. Ashunta Lakra, sister of Vimal Lakra is the Indian Hockey Captain currently.And one of the emerging sport personality is Deepika Kumari, a young Indian athlete who competes in the event of Archery. She won gold medal in the 2010 Commonwealth games in the women's individual recurve event.


  • Electronic media ETV Bihar/Jharkhand broadcasts Jharkhand-related news on a popular program called Johar Jharkhand at 7:30 am and 7:30 pm.
  • Print media include the Hindi newspapers, namely, Prabhat Khabar, Hindustan and Dainik Jagran, Dainik Bhaskar published from the state capital, Ranchi and available in almost all parts of the state. English newspapers like The Pioneer,[38] the Times of India and the Hindustan Times are published from Ranchi and are available across Jharkhand. Other important Indian newspapers in Hindi, English and local languages are also available in bigger cities by the afternoon and after a day’s delay in smaller towns. Most of the national magazines in Hindi and English are regularly available in bigger cities and at other places where supply may be arranged through newspaper vendors. The internet media like jharkhandmirror[39] and newswings[40] are also available.
  • Johar Disum Khabar[41] is only fortnightly newspaper published in local tribal & regional language from Ranchi. A monthly magazine "Johar Sahiya"[42] is also published in the state's popular regional language Nagpuri-Sadri."Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra"[43] also a multilingual quarterly magazine in tribal & Regional languages of Jharkhand.
  • There are also many lesser known news website like[44][45] and a more recent news website[46] These websites have been made exclusively keeping in mind the needs of Jharkhand.
  • Ranchi and Jamshedpur have around five radio stations and All India Radio is available throughout the state. In 2007, private FM Channels have also started operation in the state. Doordarshan, the national television broadcaster, is also available in almost all parts of the state. Bigger cities in Jharkhand are served by all television channels available in India and channels are received through cable. In some interior regions, channels are received via satellite dishes.
  • Landline telephone connectivity is provided by BSNL, Tata Indicom and Reliance Communications and covers almost all parts of the state. Cellular service, covering all major centres of the state, is provided by Vodafone, Airtel (GSM Service), Aircel, BSNL, Idea Cellular and Reliance Communications and also by Tata Indicom and Reliance Infocomm (CDMA Service). Internet connectivity is available in all the districts.
  • Kashish News is one of the round-the-clock electronic media being aired from Ranchi, Jharkhand.[47]

See also[]

Terrestrial globe.svg Geography


  1. ^ "Jharkhand – At a Glance". 
  2. ^
  3. ^ Gautam Kumar Bera (2008). The unrest axle: ethno-social movements in Eastern India. Mittal Publications. pp. 32–35. ISBN 978-81-8324-145-8. 
  4. ^ J.B. Hoffmann (1984). A missionary social worker in India. Editrice Pontificia Università Gregoriana. p. 54. ISBN 978-88-7652-539-1. 
  5. ^ "Freedom Struggle". 14 November 2000. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  6. ^ Birsa Munda and His Movement 1874–1901: A Study of a Millenarian Movement in Chotanagpur, by Kumar Suresh Singh. Oxford University Press, 1983
  7. ^
  8. ^ a b c "State animals, birds, trees and flowers" (PDF). Wildlife Institute of India. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 5 March 2012. 
  9. ^ "Birds and animals found in the forest of the Palamau district". Official website of the Palamau district. Retrieved 2009-04-05. 
  10. ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. Retrieved 2008-12-18. 
  11. ^ cite web|url= |title=Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities | |date= |accessdate=2011-11-12
  12. ^ "Bengali language in Jharkhand". Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  13. ^ "Census Reference Tables, C-Series Population by religious communities". Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  14. ^ "Jharkhand". Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner. 18 March 2007. Retrieved 2008-07-23. 
  15. ^ "South Asia | 'Maoist rebels' shoot Indian MP". BBC News. 5 March 2007. Retrieved 18 July 2010. 
  16. ^ a b Bhaumik, Subir (5 February 2009). "Cell phones to fight India rebels". BBC News. Retrieved 6 May 2010. 
  17. ^ a b c "Rising Maoists Insurgency in India". Global Politician. 15 January 2007. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  18. ^ Maoists who menace India, New York Times, 17 April 2006]
  19. ^ a b c 9 Aug 2006 (9 August 2006). "Hidden civil war drains India's energy". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  20. ^
  21. ^ "NTPC eyes 20K crore thermal plant in MP". Retrieved 27 Oct 2010. 
  22. ^ Dr. Arun C. Mehta. "District-specific Literates and Literacy Rates, 2001". Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  23. ^ "National Family Health Survey, 1998–99: Fact Sheet, Jharkhand, Section: Basic Socio-Demographic Features of Jharkhand". p. 3. 
  24. ^ Sanjay Pandey (16 October 2007). "The poor state of girl child education in Jharkhand State". 
  25. ^ Sanjiv Shekhar (26 May 2009). "Many clear IIT-JEE in Jharkhand". TNN. 
  26. ^ Tewary, Amarnath (13 May 2008). "South Asia | Free haircuts for India students". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  27. ^ "Xavier Institute of Social Service, Ranchi – 834001, Jharkhand, India". Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  28. ^ "Redeemer Institute of Management And Technology, Ramgarh – 829122, Jharkhand, India". Retrieved 2012-05-18. 
  29. ^ "Redeemer Engisoft Pvt Ltd, Ramgarh – 829122, Jharkhand, India". Retrieved 2012-03-13. 
  30. ^ Central Institute of Psychiatry, Ranchi.
  31. ^ "Welcome to Tata Memorial Centre". 1 January 2004. Retrieved 2010-07-18. 
  32. ^ "Fluoride alert for groundwater" The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008
  33. ^ (2005) "Severe bone deformities in young children from vitamin D deficiency and fluorosis in Bihar-India". Calcified tissue international 76 (6): 412–8. DOI:10.1007/s00223-005-0233-2. PMID 15895280. 
  34. ^ "Fluoride Toxicity in Jharkhand State of India," Disability News India
  35. ^ "Fluoride alert for groundwater," The Telegraph, Calcutta, Friday 11 January 2008.[1]
  36. ^ MacDonald, L. "Water and Health:An effective, sustainable treatment strategy to halt the fluorosis endemic in rural villages of Jharkhand State, India"
  37. ^ Pandey, Geeta (1 August 2009). "Jharkhand farmers despair at drought". BBC News. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  38. ^ The Pioneer
  39. ^ jharkhandmirror
  40. ^ newswings
  41. ^ "Johar Disum Khabar". 15 November 2010. Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  42. ^
  43. ^ "Jharkhandi Bhasha Sahitya Sanskriti Akhra". Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  44. ^
  45. ^ ranchiexpress
  46. ^ "". Retrieved 2011-11-12. 
  47. ^

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