|— Federal Subject of Russia —|
|Established||July 5, 1944|
|• Body||Oblast Duma|
|• Governor||Anatoli Artamonov|
|• Federal Subject of Russia||29,800 km2 (11,500 sq mi)|
|• Federal Subject of Russia||1,011,600|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-KLU|
Kaluga Oblast is located in the central part of the East European Plain. The Smolensk Highland (height -- 279 meters) lays in the western and north-western part of the oblast, while the Central Russian Highland - in the eastern part. The territory of the oblast is covered by hills, and in some parts by flat plains interspersed by numerous river valleys, hollows, and ravines.
From the north to the south, the territory of the oblast extends for more than 220 km from 53° 30' to 55° 30' NL, and from west to the east – by 220 km. The territory of the oblast is 29,900 km².
Kaluga Oblast borders with Bryansk, Smolensk, Moscow, Tula, and Oryol Oblasts.
There are 2,045 rivers with a total length of 11,853 km, of which 256 have a length of more than 10 km each, with a total length of 7,638 km (including the Oka and the Desna), and 1,763 rivers and streams with a length of less than 10 km each, with a total length of 4,215 km. There are also 17 water reservoirs with a water storage capacity of 79 mln m³ (Lyudinovskoe — 30 mln m³, Kirovskoe-Verkhnee — 7.8 mln m³, Brynskoe — 14 mln m³, Yachenskoe — 5 mln m³, Milyatinskoe — 7.6 mln m³, Slobodskoe — 3.7 mln m³). Out of 473 ponds of common use, there are 213 ponds with a water storage capacity of up to 50,000 m3 equipped with basic discharge facilities. The main rivers are: the Oka, the Ugra, the Zhizdra, and the Bolva (all those rivers' names are of Lithuanian language origin).
The climate is moderately continental; the average temperature in January is - 9°C, the average temperature in July is + 17°C. The precipitation rate per annum is 650 mm. The vegetation period is 177-184 days.
Vegetation: mixed coniferous broad-leafed forests (birch, aspen, pine, fir, oak, alder, and lime).
Soil: derno-podzolic, moderate coal clay, clay sand, and sand.
Terrain, geological structure, and mineral resources
The oblast is located between the Central Russian Highland (the average height of the hills is over 200 m and maximum height is 275 m in the south-eastern part) and the Smolensk-Moscow Highland and the Dneprovsko-Desninskaya province. The Baryatino-Sukhinichi Highland is located in the center of the oblast. The Spas-Demensk ridge is located in the western part of the oblast on a glacial plain. There is a frontal plain located further away in the south which is part of the Bryansk-Zhizdra woodlands with an average height of up to 200 m. There is a morainic plain in the north-western part of the oblast with osokamic formations within the Ugra and Protva Lowlands.
The lowest point in the territory of Kaluga Oblast is 108 meters above the sea level and it is located on the border with Tula and Moscow Oblast at the confluence of the Protva and the Oka rivers. The highest point is 279 meters above the sea level and it is located at the Spas-Demensk ridge near the Dolgoe village. On the left bank of the Oka in the vicinity of Kashurka village, there is a maximum elevation difference of 108 meters over the shoreline.
Kaluga Oblast is located in the central part of the East European Platform. The thickness of the upper (sedimentary) structural layer varies from 400 - 500 meters in the south to above 1,000 -1,400 meters in the north. Most of the sedimentation cover consists of Devon deposits. Their share in the south of the oblast exceeds 80% of the total sedimentation layer (including quaternary formations).
The subsoil is made up of mostly flame-proof and heat-proof clays (the total clay deposits are 220 mln m³), the deposits of vitreous material – 11.6 mln tons, and there are also deposits of phosphates of 94.7 mln. tons of ore (7.5 mln tons worth of Р2O5) in Khvastovichi district and on the border between Duminichi and Lyudinovo districts.
Deposits of brown coal have been discovered in Moscow Oblast coal basin with the aggregate commercial reserves of up to 1.24 bln tons, of which: in Vorotynsk (410 mln tons), North-Ageevskoe (151 mln tons), Seredeiskoe (150 mln tons), Studenevsk sections (103 mln tons) and others, which, despite the low quality of coal, are of interest due to the proximity of these coal deposits to major consumers. The commercial reserves of peat are around 24 mln tons.
The oblast has rich deposits of non-ore construction materials such as limestone (15.3 mln m³), sand (90 mln m³), stones, brick, ceramic, and bloating clays (over 100 mln m³), bergmehl (over 12 mln m³), chalk-stone (2.6 mln tons), mineral paints, and mineral waters.
The climate of Kaluga Oblast is moderately continental with distinct seasons: moderately hot and humid summers and moderately cold winters with stable snow cover. The average temperature in July is +18 °C, and in January - 9 °C. The duration of the warm period (with the average temperatures above zero) is 215 - 220 days. The territory of the oblast is exposed to a substantial amount of solar radiation -- around 115 Kcal per cm². The average annual air temperature varies from 3.5 - 4.0°C in the north and the north-east to up to 4.0 - 4.6°C in the west and the east of the oblast. The duration of the frost-free season is 113 - 127 days. The northern part of the oblast is the coldest , while the central part is moderately cold. In the south, in the zone of forest steppes, the climate is relatively warm. The precipitation rates in Kaluga Oblast are rather high. The precipitation is distributed unevenly in the territory of the oblast varying from 780 to 826 mm in the north and the west and up to 690 - 760 mm in the south. The climate of the oblast is characterized by frequent spring frosts as well as alternation of hot dry and cold humid summers, which makes agricultural production in this oblast risky. There are six meteorological stations of the Russian Meteorological Service operating in the oblast (the current meteorological data).
There are 2,043 rivers in the oblast with a total length of 11,670 km, of which 280 rivers have a length of over 10 km with a total length of 7,455 km, and there are 1,763 rivers and small streams that have a length of less than 10 km. Their total length is 4,215 km. The average density of the river network is 0.35 km/km². The Oka is the main river in the regional river system. There are also other large rivers in the oblast, including the Ugra, the Zhizdra, the Protva, the Vorya, the Ressa, the Shanya, and the Yachenka. There are 19 water reservoirs in the oblast with a water storage capacity of over 1 mln m³ each. The total water storage capacity of the water reservoirs is around 87 mln m³. The water reservoir Lompad (Upper Lyudinovskoe) at the Nepolot river (the affluent of the Bolva river) is located in Lyudinovo district and occupies an area of 870 ha; the Upper Kirovo water reservoir at the Pesochnya river (the affluent of the Bolva river) is located in the Kirovo district and occupies an area of 215 ha; the Bryn water reservoir is located at the Bryn river in Duminichi district (the affluent of the Zhizdra) and occupies an area of 490 ha; the Milyatino water reservoir is located at the Bolshaya Vorona river (the affluent of the Ugra) in the Baryatino district and occupies an area of 458 ha; and the Yachenka water reservoir is located at the Yachenka river and occupies an area of 230 ha. There are only few lakes in the oblast. These include Bezdon, Svyatoe, Galkino, Bezymyannoe, Sosnovoe (Baryatino, Dzerzhinski, Yukhnov, Kozelsk, and Zhizdra districts). There are around 500 mosses in the oblast, most of which occupy an area of less than 100 ha. The total area of the oblast occupied by marshes is less than 1%. The marshes are concentrated mainly in the north and west of the oblast. The largest marshes are Ignatovskoe, Kalugovskoe, Krasnikovskoe, and Shatino.
The predominant soils in the oblast are sod-podzolic (around 75.6%). Telopodzol soils are predominant at the watersheds. Criptopodzol soils are predominant in the northern part of the territory in the east and south-east of the oblast, and alluvial soils are predominant in the plain floods. Sod-podzolic gleyed soils are predominant in the south. Gray and light gray soils (occupying an area of 12.4%) are predominant in the central and eastern parts of the oblast.
The total area occupied by forests is around 1,380,000 ha (46% of the territory of the oblast) (2006). The total reserves of timber are 228.3 mln m³, most of which are birches and aspens. Protective forests occupy an area of 585,300 ha (44 %), and merchantable forests occupy an area of 808,800 ha (56 %). Forty four percent of the oblast territory is covered by forests. The total forest cutting area in 2007 was 2,507,800 m³, including 300,500 m³ of pines, 42,000 m³ of hard-leafed trees, 2,168.3 m³ of soft-leafed trees (including 1,072,700 m³ of birch trees). The actual volume of trees cut in 2005 was 379,200 m³ (17 % of the forest cutting area), including 133,400 m³ of conifers (55.6 % of the forest cutting area). There are vast expanses of broad-leafed tree forests in the south-east of the oblast – the Оrlovsko-Kaluzhsky Forest. As of the beginning of 2005, the agricultural lands occupied an area of 1,350,000 ha (44% of the territory), of which tillage lands -- 32%, and forage lands -- 12% of the total land area of the oblast. The main crops grown in the oblast are forage cereals, potatoes, vegetables, and feed grains (wheat, barley, rye, oats, buckwheat), and fiber-flax. The area covered by marshes is relatively small -- around 0.5% of the total territory, and there are fewer marshes in the east as compared to the western part of the oblast.
Kaluga Oblast is inhabited by animals such as elks, wild bores, wolves, foxes, hares, squirrels, minks, ferrets, and other. With regard to birds, the most common species found in the oblast are black-cocks, hazel grouses, quails, snipes, woodpeckers, wood grouses, and other. With regard to fish, the most common species found in the oblast are daces, chubs, nerflings, rudds, tenchs, pikes, catfish, and other.
Kaluzhskiye Zaseki nature reserve, Ugra National Park, Tarusa Nature Reserve, and Kaluzhsky Pine Forest nature sanctuary.
As a result of the disaster at Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station, some parts of the oblast's territory, primarily in the south, are contaminated by radioactive isotopes of Cesium 137. The spots with the contamination level of 5 Ku/km² are located in Zhizdra district (2,700 ha), Ulyanovo district (5,300 ha), and Khvastovichi district (4,400).
The oblast was founded in accordance with the decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR of July 5, 1944. Kaluga Oblast included the following cities and districts: the city of Kaluga, Babyninsky, Detchinsky, Dugninsky, Kaluzhsky, Peremyshlsky, and Tarussky Districts (formerly part of Tula Oblast); Borovsky, Vysokinichsky, Maloyaroslavetsky, and Ugodsko-Zavodsky Districts (formerly a part of Moscow Oblast); Baryatinsky, Dzerzhinsky, Duminichsky, Iznoskovsky, Kirovsky, Kozelsky, Kuybyshevsky, Medynsky, Meshchovsky, Mosalsky, Spas-Demensky, Sukhinichsky, and Yukhnovsky Districts (formerly a part of Smolensk Oblast); and Zhizdrinsky, Lyudinovsky, Ulyanovsky, and Khvastovichsky Districts (formerly a part of Oryol Oblast).
Based on the 2002 Census results, the population of the oblast was 1,040,900 people, of which 779,700 (74.9 %) was the urban population, and 261,200 (25.1%) -- the rural population.
As of January 1, 2010 the total population of the oblast was 1,001,600 people, of which 763,900 was the urban population.
|Ethnic Groups||Number in 2002, peoples (*)|
|Only those ethnic groups whose total number exceeds 1,000 people are included in this table|
|Inhabited localities with the population of over 5,000|
as of January 1, 2010
Administrative and municipal divisions
Municipally, the territories of the administrative districts are incorporated into twenty-four municipal districts and the territories of the two cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban okrugs. Two other cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban settlements within Urban Okrugs (Circles) corresponding municipal districts.
|№||Coat of Arms||Name of
|№||Coat of Arms||Name of rayon||Area
|11||-||Kuibyshev Rayon||1243.0||13||8,041||21||Vetlitsa||3,868 (2002)|
|17||Peremyshl Rayon||1156.0||17||11,613||16||Peremyshl||3,235 (2002)|
|22||-||Feraikovo Rayon||1249.9||12||16,583||10||Feraikovo||4,392 (2002)|
|23||-||Khvastovich Rayon||1413.3||4||10,851||17||Khvastovichi||4,596 (2002)|
The Gross Regional Product (GRP): RUR 214.45 bln (2010) (153.2 bln— 2008) (111.8 bln — 2007)
Per capita GRP: RUR 214,235 (2010) (152,600 — 2008) (111,100 — 2007)
The economic structure of Kaluga Oblast is typical of the Central region of Russia. The share of industry in the GRP is around 36% (2008), of which 32.1% is manufacturing (primarily machine building and food industry), and 3.2% is power generation. The agricultural complex accounts for 8.2 % of the GRP (2008), of which construction is 10.6%.
The industrial sector plays a key role in the economy of Kaluga Oblast. Based on the economic results of 2010, the oblast had the highest industrial growth rate in Russia – 144.7%. Kaluga Oblast is a spectacular example of a region dominated by manufacturing industries. The machine building and metal-working manufacturing sectors account for the largest share of industrial output (67%), followed by the food industry (14%), the timber processing complex (4.5%), and the power sector (4.5%). Various machine-building industries are also well developed in the oblast:
- Volkswagen Group Rus OOO,
- Volvo Vostok ZAO,
- Peugeot-Citroen-Mitsubishi-Avto Rus ООО
Car Parts Manufacturing Plants
Canadian Magna International, Spanish Gestamp Automocion, German Benteler AG. There are also production facilities for manufacture of locomotives (Lyudinovo Locomotive Plant ОАО), rolling stock (Kaluga Remputmash Plant ОАО, Kalugaputmash АО), turbines (Kaluga Turbine Plant ОАО), television sets (Samsung Electronics Rus Kaluga ООО), metal building structures (Ruukki Rus ООО, Agrisovgaz ООО) and others. Development of new production facilities in the industrial parks and zones had a very positive impact on the development of the machine building complex of Kaluga Oblast. The formation of the auto cluster along with car manufacturing will help ensure growth in the production of car components, and contribute to the development of car service and maintenance companies.
The food industry is represented by factories for production of beer (SABMiller Rus OOO), meat products (Кaluga Meat Factory OAO , Invest Alyans ООО), grape wines (Detchino Zavod ZAO), dairy products (Оbninsk Dairy Plant, which is a branch of Vimm-Bill-Dann OAO, MosMedynAgroprom ОАО), and other factories.
In addition to the timber processing industry (paper, cardboard packaging, flake board and fiberboard, parquet blocks), there are also plants producing construction materials (bricks, ceramic sanitary ware, reinforced concrete structures), rubber and plastic products (pipes and moldings), chemicals (pharmaceuticals, plastics) and textiles (men’s clothing, special clothes). In the energy sector, the main focus is on power, gas, and water distribution.
Development of the pharmaceuticals sector is one of the promising areas Kaluga Oblast industrial complex development. Availability of an efficient system for development and implementation of biotechnologies for production of ready-to-use products, starting from the design and laboratory testing of new pharmaceuticals and ending with industrial production of finished products, made it possible to start the formation of a biotechnology and pharmaceuticals cluster. The main outcome from the implementation of measures aimed at the formation of the cluster will be creation of an effective system for supporting and promoting science-intensive and innovative projects from the concept stage to the large scale production.
In 2006, Grabtsevo Industrial Park started to be developed in the city of Kaluga. Volkswagen car making plant is being built in the territory of the Industrial Park (the first stage of the plant was commissioned in 2007, and the full production cycle was achieved in October 2009). At the end of December 2007 it was announced that a car making plant of the French company PSA Peugeot Citroën will be built in the village of Rosva which is located in the suburbs of Kaluga. Agreements for construction of Volvo Trucks truck making plant by 2009  and Samsung Electronics plant that will be manufacturing household appliances by 2010  have been signed. Vorsino Industrial Park (Samsung Electronics plant to manufacture television sets, Nestle Purina PetCare to produce pet foods, NLMK electro metallurgical plant, etc.) has been under construction since 2007.
71 agreements in total were signed with investors in 2006-2010, including:
- 12 agreements in the first half of 2010
- 16 agreements in the second half of 2010
The total value of investments envisaged by the agreements signed in 2006-2010 was RUR 218.8 bln, including RUR 70.9 bln envisaged by the agreements signed in 2010. The total number of jobs to be created under the agreements signed in 2006-2010 is 22,108, including 4,582 jobs under the agreements signed in 2010. The total amount of capital investments made in 2006-2010 was RUR 83 bln, including RUR 42.7 bln in 2010.
As of January 1, 2011, the total number of new jobs created under the agreements signed in the period of 2006-2010 was 9,211, including 4,940 in 2010.
The number of companies established in the period of 2006-2010 was 33, including:
- 9 companies in the first half of 2010
- 5 companies in the second half of 2010
The number of companies planned to be established in the first half of 2011 -- 2.
The World Organization of Creditors (WOC) determined the nominees for the "Investment Angel Award" as follows:
- The Most Attractive Region for Investors – Kaluga Oblast
- Investment Protection and Promotion -- Regional Development Agency of Kaluga Oblast
- The Best Foreign Investor -- Volkswagen, Novo Nordisk
The following development institutions have been created to support the implementation of investment policies of the Oblast Administration:
This is a government entity responsible for development of industrial parks and engineering infrastructure. Objective: establishment of new and development of the existing industrial parks, and construction of engineering infrastructure in the industrial parks.
This is a government entity responsible for provision of non-discriminative access to the logistic and railroad infrastructure. Objectives: establishment of logistic and customs terminals, and construction and operation of railroads in the industrial parks.
- The Regional Development Agency of Kaluga Oblast (autonomous entity of Kaluga Oblast)
This is a state entity responsible for provision of expert advice to investors in the process of implementation of investment projects. Objectives: attraction of investments in the economy of Kaluga Oblast, and promotion of the oblast into the international market.
In 2009, there was a total of 1,529 construction companies in Kaluga Oblast, and the value of the construction projects amounted to RUR 23.37 bln. In January-July 2010, 2,034 comfortable apartments with a total area of 193,300 sq.meters were built, up by 110% as compared to the period of January-July 2009 (January-July 2009 to January-July 2008 – 87.6%). Individuals constructed 1,191 buildings with a total area of 146,700 sq.meters (75.9% of the total residential housing commissioned in the oblast).
The five existing thermal power stations operating in the oblast generated a total of 407 mln kWt/h of electricity in 2005. The Federal Grid Company and the power generation systems of the neighboring regions meet most of the power demand (up to 90%). The volume of supplies of the energy resources in the oblast: natural gas – 1,640 mln m³ (2005), electric power – 4,520 mln kWt/h (2004). The oldest atomic power station in Russia -- Obninsk Atomic Power Station, which was put into operation in 1954 is located in Kaluga Oblast.
Power transmission systems and pipelines
A 500/220/10 kV Kaluzhskaya substation is located near the town of Maloyaroslavets. It is connected through a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line to the Smolensk Atomic Power Station, and there is a plan to connect it in the future to the Kalinin Atomic Power Station and Vladimirskaya substation (currently, the 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line is connected to Chagino-Mikhailovo 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line. In addition, there is a 500 kV high-voltage power transmission line going through the territory of the oblast connecting the Tula and Ryazan (Mikhailovskaya substation) systems to Smolensk Atomic Power Station.
Kaluga is part of the Transneftproduct system which supplies oil products through the pipeline of Plavsk fuel pumping station.
Moscow – Bryansk gas main is passing through the territory of the oblast. There is an underground gas storage facility located near Rezvan village.
The agro-industrial complex accounts for 12% of the GRP (2010). Eleven percent of the labor force is employed in the agricultural and timber processing sectors. The main agricultural activities are cattle breeding, potatoes growing, forestry, suburban vegetable farming, forage production, and flax growing. Production at private land plots accounts for more than 50% of the total agricultural output in the oblast.
Agricultural output in 2009: milk -- 231,200 tons, meat (live weight) – 79,000 tons, eggs – 237 mln., potatoes -- 352,100 tons, vegetables -- 107,100 tons. The total agricultural output in 2009 was worth RUR 20.45 bln.
The main regional transportation hubs are located in Kaluga, Obninsk, and Sukhinichi.
M3 "Ukraine" is the main automobile highway, with a traffic density of up to 13,800 vehicles/day, which passes through the towns of Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Kaluga, Sukhinichi, and Zhizdra. An equally important role is played by Moscow - Warsaw federal highway, with a traffic density of up to 11,500 vehicles/day, which passes through Belousovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, Medyn, Yukhnov, and Spas-Demensk. In addition, there is also a highway of regional importance Vyazma-Kaluga-Tula-Ryazan, with a traffic density of up to 6,750 vehicles/day, and the road section M3 "Ukraine" which passes through the town of Balabanovo. The total length of automobile roads with hard surface is 6,564 km. The density of hard surface road network of common use is 165 km per 1,000 km².
The trunk railroad Moscow – Kiev is passing through Balabanovo, Obninsk, Maloyaroslavets, and Sukhinichi. In addition, there are also important single-track diesel locomotive lines located in the oblast, including Vyazma - Kaluga - Tula (through Myatlevo, Polotnyanny Zavod, Pyatovky, and Kaluga), Sukhinichi – Smolensk (through Spas-Demensk), Sukhinichi -- Roslavl (through Kirov), Sukhinichi – Tula (through Kozelsk), Kozelsk – Belyov, Vyazma – Bryansk (through Kirov and Ludinovo), and Bryansk - Dudorovsky. There is a large locomotive and diesel multiple unit depot located in Kaluga. The total length of the railroads of common use is 872 km. The density of the railroads of common use is 29 km per 1000 km².
There are four airfields in the oblast, including Grabtsevo airport located near the city of Kaluga (closed in 2008), military airfields in the town of Ermolino, and a large military airfield in Shaikovka.
The part of the Oka river flowing from Kaluga is one of the domestic waterways of Russia. There are tourist cruises from Serpukhov to Tarusa and from Serpukhov to Velegozh. In addition, there are two motor ships “Louch” operating along the Kaluga -- Aleksin route. The total length of the navigable and conditionally navigable waterways is 101 km. Of special importance is Moscow - Kaluga express (3 departures a day, time en route - 2 hours and 40 minutes).
The city transportation in Kaluga is remarkable for its trolleybus system.
There is a well-developed modern telecommunications infrastructure in Kaluga Oblast. There are a total of 210 companies providing telecommunication services in the territory of the oblast.
Cell services and the Internet
Around 90% of the oblast's territory is covered by cellular services. Cellular services are provided by five cellular service operators, including: the branch of Mobylnye TeleSystemy OAO in Kaluga (MTS), Vympel-Kommunikatsii KF OAO (Beeline), Megafon Kaluga RO TSF OAO, Smolenskaya Sotovaya Svyaz KF ОАО (TELE-2), and the branch of Astrata ZAO in Kaluga Oblast (Sky Link). The number of cellular service users in the territory of the oblast is 1.6 mln, or 1.6 active SIM-cards per capita (including children and elderly people). There are 44 cable and wireless Internet service providers in the territory of Kaluga Oblast. CentrTelecom KF OAO is the main cable Internet service provider in the urban centers and municipalities of the oblast. More than 70% of the population are using Internet services.
As of the beginning of 2010, there were 340,700 public telephone connections in the oblast. On a per capita basis, there 34 telephone connections per 100 people, which is one of the highest rates among the 18 federal subjects of the Central Federal District of Russia. Around 90% of the public telephone services in the territory of the oblast is provided by the Kaluga branch of CentrTelekom OAO. Completion of the construction of three fiber-optic lines currently planned for 2011 will make it possible to cover the entire territory of Kaluga Oblast by digital telephone services. With a view to providing the residents of the oblast with high-speed access to the Internet, CentrTelecom KF OAO implemented a new fiber-optical communication line (FTTB)-based Internet access technology, also known as Household Optics.
There are 450 postal offices in the territory of Kaluga Oblast, including 349 stationary postal offices in the rural areas. The comparative analysis of the postal services network shows that in terms of the technological intensiveness and staffing levels, the postal services network in Kaluga Oblast is one of the most advanced in the Central Federal District of Russia. Currently, there are 121 modern POS terminals used in the postal offices of Kaluga Oblast for drawing cash from plastic cards, and there are also 670 postal cash terminals. A chain of 205 Internet cafes (400 seats) was established. The post offices have access to high-speed telecommunication channels, which enables them to electronically process payment of utility bills, and also provide instant money transfer services.
Television and radio broadcasting
The Kaluga Regional Radio and Television Broadcasting Center, the branch of Russian Television and Radio Broadcasting Network FGUP, is the main operator broadcasting television and radio programs in the oblast. As of 2007, 100% of the oblast territory has been covered by television broadcasting services. TV programs of the regional television company and radio local news programs are broadcast in the entire territory of the oblast through satellite transmission equipment. In addition, cable television networks are being developed in the oblast. Starting from 2013, a federal project will be launched to introduce digital television and radio broadcasting with an increased number of TV and radio channels and improved quality of services.
Science, education, and culture
As of the beginning of the 2009-2010 academic year, there were 403 public day-time general education institutions for 85,500 students. As of 2009, there were 27 higher education institutions. As of 2009, there were 413 day-time general education institutions. In 2007, a center for training of car manufacturing industry specialists was established. Special classes with instruction in the French, German, and English languages were opened for children of foreigners working in Kaluga Oblast. The first Science Town – Obninsk that was established in Russia is situated in Kaluga Oblast. It carries out research in the areas of atomic power, space and telemechanic technologies, and radio equipment and instrument making industry. These are some of the major scientific institutions of the oblast:
- Physics and Energy Institute named after A.I. Leypunsky State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation
- The Obninsk branch of Physics and Chemical Institute named after L.Y. Karpov State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
- Technologiya Obninsk Scientific Production Company State Scientific Center of the Russian Federation.
- Kaluga Scientific Research and Radio Technology Institute Federal Scientific and Production Center
- Medical Radiological Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
- Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Center
- Space Materials Science” of the Crystallography Institute named after A.V. Shubnikov of the Russian Academy of Sciences Scientific Research Center
- Specialized Space Equipment Design Bureau of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences
- KNIITMU Federal State Unitary Enterprise
- All-Union Physiology, Biochemistry, and Animal Food Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Hydro Meteorological Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Electronic Equipment Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Agricultural Radiology and Agro-Ecology Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Agricultural Meteorology Scientific Research Institute
- All-Union Timber Processing Scientific Research Institute
These are the main education institutions of the oblast:
- Kaluga State University named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky
- Obninsk Atomic Power Institute NIYAU MIFI
- Kaluga branch of the Moscow State Technical University named after N.E. Bauman
- Kaluga branch of the Agricultural University
Kaluga Oblast is one of the 15 federal subjects in which the subject “Basics of the Orthodox Culture”. was introduced in the regional curriculum as of September 1, 2006. There is Kaluga Regional Dramatic Theater named after A.V. Lunacharsky in the oblast.
Tourism and recreation
The most popular among tourists are the administrative center Kaluga, Optina Pustyn monastery, the City of Military Glory - Kozelsk, Obninsk Science Town, the towns of Maloyaroslavets and Meschovsk where Napoleon’s army was stopped, the Goncharovs country estate in the Polotnyany Zavod, Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Svyato-Pafnutyev Borovsky monastery, the town of Tarusa, and Vorobyi zoo. A number of various tourist paths have been opened in the unique nature reserves -- Ugra National Park and Kaluzhskye Zaseki. There are 15 health centers and summer resorts with over 3,500 beds in Kaluga Oblast. The most popular among holidaymakers are the following health centers: Vyatichi, Beryozovaya Roscha, Vorobyevo, Zvezdny, and Signal. The State Space History Museum named after K.E. Tsiolkovsky that was established in 1967 in Kaluga attracts many visitors of all ages. The Oblast Ministry for Sports, Tourism, and Youth Policy adopted a program for the development of tourism for 2011-2016. The main objective of the program is to achieve a threefold increase in the number of tourists visiting the oblast through creation of tourism development centers. One of the most popular tourists locations is Dzerzhinsky district where Svyato-Tikhonova Pustyn monastery and Ugra National Park are situated, and where Arkhstoyanie and musical festivals are held in Matovo village.
These are some of the regular events that are organized for tourists:
- Arkhistoyanie festival
- [Pustye Kholmy festival]
- Bike festival in Maloyaroslavets
- [Belyi Krolik festival]
- [Mir Gitary festival]
- Zheleznye Devy rock music festival (in Kaluga)
Kaluga Football Club autonomous non-for-profit organization was established in December 2009 by the Ministry of Sports, Tourism and Youth Policy of Kaluga Oblast, the City Administration of Kaluga, and Galantus&K OOO. The Trustee Council is chaired by Kaluga Oblast Governor Anatoly D. Artamonov.
Kaluga Football Club won the tenth place in the Championship of Russia in the Center zone (2nd Division) of the 2010 season. As a result of the support that the Specialized Youth Football School of Olympic Reserve is receiving from the Kaluga Football Club, it is able to represent Kaluga Oblast in the Championship of Russia in four age groups. The trainings and football games of the official rounds of the Championship of Russia are held at the football stadium of Annenki Children and Youth Sports School.
Nika FM radio and Nika TV station operate in Kaluga Oblast.
The Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast
Baburin Viktor Sergeevich – the Chairman of the Legislative Assembly of Kaluga Oblast.
14 November 2004 Legislative Assembly Elections
The first elections were conducted based on a mixed voting system: 20 seats were allocated through party lists, and another 20 seats -- through single-seat constituencies. United Russia political party won in the party-lists elections in which it received 40% of the votes (10 seats). United Russia also won elections in 12 single-seat constituencies and it now has a majority of votes in the parliament (22 out of 40).
- КPRF — 13.4% of the votes (3 seats)
- "Rodina" — 11.2% (3 seats)
- LDPR — 9,9% (2 seats)
- Yabloko — 6.3% (2 seats)
- Agrarian Party — 4.7 % (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)
- Soyuz Pravyh Sil won four seats in the Legislative Assembly through single-seat constituencies elections, which will make it possible for this party to form its own fraction in the Legislative Assembly.
14 March 2010 Legislative Assembly Elections of the 5th Convocation
The elections were won by United Russia party which received 53.45% of the votes. This allowed this party to win 22 seats in the oblast parliament.
- Kaluga Oblast Branch of KPRF -- 21.17% of the votes (9 seats)
- Kaluga Oblast Branch of Spravedlivaya Rossiya— 11.2% (4)
- Kaluga Oblast Branch of LDPR -- 11.93% (5)
- Patrioty Rossii – 1.86 % (did not receive a sufficient number of votes to win seats)
- Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935) — a Russian and Soviet self-trained scientist, researcher, and school teacher.
- Amvrosy Optinsky (1812-1891) — a minister of the Russian Orthodox Church, Hieromonk.
- Pavel M. Golubitsky (1845-1911) — a Russian inventor of telephony and a public figure.
The following distinguished persons were born in Kaluga Oblast
- Valentin D. Berestov (1928—1998) — a Russian children’s poet, writer, translator.
- Georgy K. Zhukov (1896—1974) — a Soviet military leader, the Marshal of the Soviet Union (as of 1943)
- Evdokiya F. Lopukhina (1669—1731) — Tsarina, the first wife of Peter the Great.
- Alexandra V. Prokoshina (1918—2005) — a singer, the People’s Artist of the USSR (1979)
- Evdokiya L. Streshneva (1608—1645) — Tsarina, the second wife of Mikhail Fedorovich Romanov.
- Alexander N. Terenin (1896—1967) — a Russian physio-chemist, the Academic of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the Laureate of the Stalin Award.
- Pafnuty L. Chebyshev (1821—1894) — a Russian mathematician and mechanic engineer. The Honorary Member of the Scientific Council of IMTU.
- Mikhail M. Yanshin (1902—1976) — a Soviet actor, film director, and the People’s Artist of the USSR (1955)
- ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service). Численность постоянного населения Российской Федерации по городам, посёлкам городского типа и районам на 1 января 2010 г. (Permanent Population of the Russian Federation by Cities/Towns, Urban-Type Settlements, and Districts as of January 1, 2010) (Russian)
- Official website of Kaluga Oblast (Russian)
- Official website of Anatoly Artamonov, Governor of Kaluga Oblast (Russian)
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