|— District —|
|• Collector||Debjani Chakrabarti, IAS|
|• Member of Parliament||Yashbant Narayan Singh Laguri, BJD|
|• Total||8,240 km2 (3,180 sq mi)|
|Elevation||480 m (1,570 ft)|
|• Density||217/km2 (560/sq mi)|
|• Official||Oriya, Hindi, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||0.987 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Keonjhar|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||6|
|Precipitation||1,535.5 millimetres (60.45 in)|
The district has an area of 8240 km², and lies between 21°1' N and 22°10' N latitude and 85°11' E to 86°22' E longitude. It is bounded by Mayurbhanj District and Bhadrak District to the east, Jajpur District to the south, Dhenkanal District and Sundargarh District to the west, and East Singhbhum district of the state of Jharkhand to the north.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Economy
- 3.1 Natural resources and related Industries
- 4 Divisions
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Flora and fauna
- 8 References
- 9 External links
The district of Keonjhar presents a panorama of millennia, both from the geographical and anthropological point of view. It is as varied as the whole of Orissa with water-falls roaring gorges, mountains and minerals. The manifold expressions of nature in this district are unique in Orissa.
Anthropologically, its two main tribes, namely the Juangs and the Bhuyans carry a distinct and primitive past. The Juang claims themselves to be the most ancient tribe of the world. In spite of their modern ways of living, many aboriginal practices are still prevalent among them.
After the integration of the feudatory states with Orissa on 1 January 1948 the state of Keonjhar emerged as one of its districts of Orissa, with its headquarters at Keonjhar. Since then the name has been changed to Kendujhar District.
The whole district of Keonjhar was a princely state before its merger with Orissa. The early history of the State is not adequately known. It was most probably a part of the old Khijjinga territory with headquarters at Khijjinga Kota, identified with modern Khiching. It became a separate state with Jyoti Bhanja as its ruling chief sometime during the first half of the 12th century A.D. The then State of Keonjhar comprised only the northern half of the modern district for a long time prior to the installation of Jyoti Bhanja as King. During the latter part of the 15th century the southern half was occupied by King Govinda Bhanja under whose rule Keonjhar was extended from Singhbhum in the north to Sukinda (a Zamindari in Cuttack district) in the South and from Mayurbhanj in the East to the borders of the States of Bonai, Pallahara and Anugul in the West. During the rule of Pratap Balabhadra Bhanja (1764–1792 A.D.) two small areas of Tillo and Jujhpada were purchased from the Zamindar of Kantajhari and were added to the State. These were recognised as parts of Keonjhar in the Sanad granted by the East India Company to Raja Janardan Bhanj in 1804. Since then there had been no territorial changes of the State till its merger with the Province of Orissa. But after merger largely for the reasons of administrative expediency the areas of Tillo (7.51 km2) and Jujhpada (9.06sq.km.) were transferred to the districts of Baleshwar and Cuttack respectively, while a number of villages called Ambo group (14.84 km2.) of Balasore district were added to Keonjhar district.
The kings who had the rein of Kendujhar in chronological order are listed below.
- Shri Jagannath Bhanja (1688–1700)
- Shri Raghunath Bhanja (1700–1719)
- Shri Gopinath Bhanja (1719–1736)
- Shri Narasingha Narayan Bhanja (1736–1757)
- Shri Dhaneshwar Narayan Bhanja (1757–1758)
- Shri Jagateshwar Narayan Bhanja (758–1762)
- Shri Pratap Balabhadra Bhanja (1764–1792 / 1762–1797)
- Shri Janardan Bhanja (1794–1825 / 1797–1832)
- Shri Gadadhar Narayan Bhanja Deo (1825–1861 / 1832–1861)
- Shri Dhanurjay Narayan Bhanja Deo (1861–1905)
- Shri Gopinath Narayan Bhanja Deo (1905–1926)
- Shri Balabhadra Narayan Bhanja Deo (1926–1948)
Keonjhar is a land locked district with an area of 8240 km2. It is situated in the northern part of Orissa. It is surrounded by Singhbhum district of Jharkhand in the North, Jajpur in the South, Dhenkanal and Sundargarh in the West and Mayurbhanj and Bhadrak in the East. It lies at an altitude of 480 metres.
The National Highway-215 passing through Kendujhargarh approximately bi-sects the district into two similar natural regions. To the East of this Highway are the planes of Anandapur and a portion of Sadar Sub-division. To the West is a range of lofty hills which contains some of the highest peaks of Orissa namely Gandhamardan (3477 ft.), Mankadnacha (3639 ft.), Gonasika ( 3219 ft.) and Thakurani ( 3003 ft.). About half of the area of this district spreading about 4043 km2. is covered by forests of Northern tropical moist deciduous type and contains Sal, Asan, Piasal etc. The river Baitarani comes out of Gonasika Hills and flows to the north touching the border of Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. It again flows East entering Anandapur Sub-division and the district of Bhadrak. The soil is mostly red throughout the district and in the South there is a small patch of black cotton soil. The important minerals available in huge quantity in the district are Iron-ore, Manganese and Chromites. (http://kendujhar.nic.in)
Keonjhar has the distinction of containing one of the oldest rocks of the world, approximately 38,000 million years old covering an area of 100 km2 at Asanpat. The district bears the oldest stone inscription found in Orissa, paleogeologically belonging to the Gupta period. In Sitabinj, one finds the fresco paintings in the cave shelter of Ravana Chhaya dating back to 5th Century A.D.
The district of Keonjhar is highly rich in mineral resources and has vast deposits of iron, manganese and chromium ores. About 30 percent of its total area is covered with tracts of dense forests. But the district, in spite of its immense mineral and forest wealth, still remaining economically backward.
The district consists of a compact area and its extreme length from North to South is nearly 145 km. The average breadth from East to West is about 65 km. It is divided into two widely dissimilar tracts-the lower Kendujhar and the upper Kendujhar. The former is a region of valleys and low lands, while the latter includes mountainous highlands with a general slope from North to South. The highlands consisting of clusters of rugged crags afford a safe retreat to its inhabitants in troubled times. The mountaintops appear from the low lands to be sharply ridged or peaked, but in reality they have extensive tablelands on their summits, fit both for pasture and for tillage. The average elevation in its central part is about 500m. At places, isolated hills rise abruptly from the plains. But most of the areas have a general elevation of over 600m. which forms the watershed of some rivers. The Baitarani River takes its rise in the hilly North Western division. In between these two natural divisions passes the State Highway from Chaibasa to Jajpur Road through the headquarters, Kendujhargarh.
The climate of the district is characterised by an oppressively hot summer with high humidity. Summer generally commences in the month of March. Temperature begins to rise rapidly attaining the maximum in the month of May. During the Summer maximum temperature is 38.2 °C. The weather becomes more pleasant with the advent of the monsoon in June and remains as such up to the end of October. The temperature in the month of December is lowest i.e. 11.7 °C. Sometimes it even drops down to 7 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1534.5 mms.
In 2006 the Ministry of Panchayati Raj named Kendujhar one of the country's 250 most backward districts (out of a total of 640). It is one of the 19 districts in Orissa currently receiving funds from the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme (BRGF).
Kendujhar District is highly rich in mineral resources and has vast deposits of iron, manganese and chromium ores. About 30 percent of its total area is covered with dense tracts of forests. But the district in spite of its immense mineral and forest wealth is still economically backward.
Kendujhar is one of the premier mineral producing districts in Orissa. The district occupies a prominent place in the mineral map of the Country.
Iron ore formations occupy most part of the district which can be traced from the Jharkhand border in the north to the Jajpur border in the South.
Extensive deposits of Manganese ore are found in Thakurani and Joda East hills of Barbil.
Good deposits of Chromite, an important and strategic mineral are found in Boula area near village Nuasahi of Anandapur sub-division. There are also some other mineral deposits in the district such as Quartzite, Bauxite, Gold, Pyrophillite and Limestone.
The two important mineral based industries in the district are the "Kalinga Iron Works" Barbil and the "Ferro-Manganese Plant", Joda.
The Kalinga Iron Works, Barbil
The Kalinga Iron Works was initially named as the Kalinga Industries in the private sector with technical collaboration of M/S. Fried Crupp of West Germany having one low shaft furnace with a capacity to produce 30000 M.T. of pig iron per annum. It was taken over by the Industrial Development Corporation of the Government of Orissa on 1 April 1963. It has since been named as “Kalinga Iron Works”.
Presently the Kalinga Iron Works produces 100000 M.T. of foundry grade pig iron by three low shaft furnaces. Besides, it has a power generating plant of its own which supplies power to the GRIDCO, Orissa to the extent of 2.3 M.W. This industry was running with a capital investment of Rs.1,011.27 lakh in 1985. At present 1,320 persons (both skilled and unskilled) are working in the unit.
Under the diversification programme Kalinga Iron Works is also giving to undertake the production of Ductite Iron Spun pipes in close collaboration with TOR-STEEL and MECON. Ductite Iron Spun pipes have a tremendous marketing potential in foreign countries.
Ferro-Manganese Plant, Joda
The Ferro-Manganese plant at Joda was taken over by the Tata Iron And Steel Co-Ltd. in December 1957. It was established with a capital investment of Rs.3000 lakhs in 1985. At present 391 employees are working in the unit.
The plant is primarily meant for supplying Ferro-Manganese for TISCO's own plant at Jamshedpur.
Three more medium industries have been set up in the district during 1983 as given below.
|Name of the Industry||Location||Investment
|M/S Spun Pipe plant||Matkambeda, Barbil||3,00,090||391||C.I. Pipe|
|M/S Orissa Sponge Iron Ltd.||Palaspanga||3,22,200||383||Sponge Iron|
|M/S Durby Industrial Barbil Projects (P) Ltd.||Barbil||23,892||27||Liquid Oxygen|
|M/S ARDENT STEEL LTD.||KEONJHAR||45,000||250||PELLET INDUSTRIES|
A sponge iron factory in the name of IPITATA is under implementation by the Tata Iron and Steel Company in collaboration with the Industrial Promotion and Industrial Corporation of Orissa Ltd. at Beleipada. The capital investment of the factory is Rs.35 crores which provides employment to 375 persons.
Charge Chrome, Brahmanipal
A charge chrome factory is being set up at Brahmanipal. The capital investment of the factory is Rs.412 crores and it provides employment to 400 persons.
The establishment of the mineral-based industries and factories paved the way for many small scale industries to grow in the district which are largely concentrated in the areas around Keonjhar, Barbil and Joda.
Engineering and Metal based Industries
There are 53 small industries in the district employing 274 persons with an investment of 23.56 lakhs.
Products- Automobiles spare parts, Fabrication work (steel furnitures), almirah, trunks, boxes, grills and steel metal products.
Chemical and allied industries including Plastic industries
These 48 industries are mostly concentrated at Keonjhar, Barbil and Ghasipura. There are 268 persons woring with capital investment of 30.79 lakhs.
Products- Agarbati, Candles, bore-metal, battery plates, Lime powder, washing powder soap, spray paints.
Agro and Marine-based Industries
These are mainly situated at Keonjhar, Jhumpura, Tara, Erendei and Saraskolla. The 242 industries have given employment to 893 persons with an investment of 86.96 lakhs.
Products- Processing of paddy, wheat, oil seeds and bakery products.
There are also many small industries found in the district as detailed below.
- Textile based industries- 119 in Keonjhar, Anandapur, Champua; Investment- 47.22 (in Lakhs); Employees- 494; Products- Readymade garments,Tassar &cotton cloths.
- Power loom industry- 01 at Jagannathpur, Keonjhar; Investment-0.39 (in Lakhs); Employees- 05; Product- Goods worth 1.6 lakhs per annum.
- Wood and forest industries- 142 in Keonjhar, Anandapur; Investment- 38.91 (in Lakhs); Employees- 607; Product- Furnitures
- Bricks manufactures, stone crushing and other allied industries- 06 in Keonjhar and Anandapur; Investment- 2.51(in Lakhs); Employees- 117; Products- Bricks,stone chips
- Live stock leather industries- 16 in Patna, Madhapur, Sananeuli, Chemana; Investment- 4.01 (in Lakhs); Employees- 77; Products- Shoes,Chappals
- Servicing and miscellaneous Industry- 246 in Keonjhar, Anandapur, Joda-Barbil; Investment- 39.35 (in Lakhs); Employees- 749; Products- Bidies, paperbag, body building of vehicles.
- Glass and ceramic based industry- 130 in Keonjhar, Anandapur, Joda-Barbil; Investment- 49.04 (in Lakhs); Employees- 1861; Product- Glass and ceramic products.
- Subdivisions- 03, 1. Anandapur, 2. Champua, 3. Kendujhar
- Tehsils- 8
- Blocks- 13: Anandapur, Banspal, Champua, Ghasipura, Ghatgaon, Harichandanpur, Hatadihi, Jhumpura, Joda, Keonjhar, Patna, Saharpada, Telkoi
- Revenue Circles- 50
- Gram Panchayats- 286
- Sub-Registrar Office- 06
- Police Stations- 20
- Towns- 06
- Municipalities- 04: 1. Anandapur, 2. Barbil, 3. Kendujhar, 4. Joda
- N.A.C- 01
- Inhabited Villages- 2135
- Fire Stations- 05
- District Jail/ Special Jail- 01
- Sub-Jails- 02
- Agricultural Districts- 03
- ICDS Projects- 14
- Treasury/SubTreasury- 07
- HQ.Hospital/Hospitals- 04
- Community Health Centre/UGPHC- 13
- Public Health Centre- 81
- Sub Centre (Health)- 316
According to the 2011 census, Kendujhar district has a population of 1,802,777. This gives it a ranking of 264th in India (out of a total of 640). The district has a population density of 217 inhabitants per square kilometre (560 /sq mi) . Its population growth rate over the decade 2001–2011 was 15.42%. Kendujhar has a sex ratio of 987 females for every 1000 males, and a literacy rate of 69%.
The Scheduled Tribes of the district constitute 44.5% of the total population whereas, the Scheduled Castes constitute 11.62%. The literacy rate of the district is 69.00%. The district has 3 Subdivisions, Anandapur, Champua, and Keonjhar, and ten tehsils.
Oriya is the major language in this region.Other languages include Bhunjia, spoken by approximately 7000 Bhunjia Adivasis.
The Scheduled Tribes of Keonjhar district which totalled 4,99,657 in 1981 census increased to 5,95,184 in 1991 census thus registering a growth of 11.90% in a decade (1981–1991). As per 1991 census there were 46 Scheduled Tribes in the district. Out of these the principal tribes were Bathudi, Bhuyan, Bhumij, Gond, Ho, Juang, Kharwar, Kisan, Kolha(Kol), Kora, Munda, Oraon, Santal, Saora, Sabar and Sounti. These sixteen tribes constituted 96.12% of the total tribal population of the district. The Juangs claim to be the most ancient tribe and though they have become more modern in their way of life, there are still noticeable traces of aboriginal practices.
The concentration of Scheduled Tribes is the highest in Keonjhar and lowest in the Anandapur Sub-Division. The majority of the Scheduled Tribes are in agricultural occupations or in mining, quarrying and other services.
The literacy among the Scheduled Tribes was 15.25% in the 1981 census but it has increased to 24.89% in the 1991 census. This percentage is higher than the State average of 22.31%
The spread of education and communication facilities and the implementation of various development projects have helped the Scheduled Tribes a lot to change their manners and customs to some extent. (http://kendujhar.nic.in)
Social and Cultural Organizations
- District Library
The District Library was started functioning in Keonjhar from since 1977. it is functioning in a room of District RED CROSS Building situated near District Headquarters hospital. As per the Stock Register and Catalogue that total 10,870 nos. of books are available in District Library. The books received from Sahitya Academy are being sold here. Now two hundred books are available for sell.
Every day the Library remains open from 11 am to 6 pm except Monday. As the Sunday is the working day of the Library staff, Department of Culture has fixed Monday as the weekly holiday.
- District Museum
The District Museum is functioning in the premises of Baladevjew Temple at Old town, Keonjhar and another branch museum is functioning at Khiching under Mayurbhanj district under the administrative control of District Culture Office, Keonjhar. Both the museums are being neglected due to lack of sufficient funds for management. Various antiquities have been collected and kept at District Museum, Keonjhar and Branch Museum, Khiching.
Keonjhar, the district headquarters town, has varieties of attractions like Vishnu Temple, Jagannath Temple and on its outskirts the shrines of Siddha Jagannath, Siddha Kali and Panchabati amidst picturesque settings. Sitabinji, 30 km from keonjhar, on river Sita, is a place having ancient fresco painting on a rock shelter called Ravan Chhaya.Asurkhol a place where cave,natural shiv ling and waterfall available 8 km from Rimuli,NH 215.
Places to Visit
Keonjhar district is a green land of panoramic beauties and a store house of mineral wealth. It offers a variety of attractions to the tourists which includes religious shrines, fresco painting, waterfalls and above all the exotic natural beauty. The terraced villages buzzing with the sweet melodies of the birds take the visitors to a dream land. The simplicity of the tribal folk mixed with the gaiety of their festivals can keep the visitors amused. A visit to the district will be an unforgettable experience.
- Kendujhar: Kendujhargarh, the district headquarters town is famous for Vishnu Temple, Baladevjew Temple and on its outskirts the shrines of Sidha Jagannath, Siddha Kali and Panchbati amidist picturesque settings. It is also most convenient base centre from where the visitors can plan their visit to various places of interest in the district. The place is well connected with Calcutta (354 km),Sambalpur (230 km), Tata (174 km), Rourkela (217 km) and Bhubaneswar (235 km).
- Ghatgaon : 50 km from Keonjhar on the National Highway No.215 towards Cuttack, the place is known throughout the state for the shrine of Goddess Maa Tarini.
- Sitabinji : It is situated on the river Sita. The spot has gained prominence as a place having ancient freso paintings on a rock shelter called Ravan Chhaya which is like a half opened umbrella. The painting depicts a royal procession. It is 30 km from Keonjhar (25 km on the Jajpur-Keonjhar Road up to Katrabeda and 5 km from there ).
- Badaghagara : It is 9 km from Keonjhar on NH-6 towards Sambalpur, it is yet another small ( 200 ft. high) but exciting waterfall. It is one of the most popular picnic spots of Keonjhar district.
- Sanaghagara : It is 6 km from Keonjhar on NH-6 towards Sambalpur. It is a small (100 ft. high) and beautiful waterfall,suitable for outing. The area is spread over 488 Ha. In a hilly tract with characteristic mixed deciduous and miscellaneous type of forest vegetation. The famous Sana Ghagara waterfall with perennial stream adds to the natural beauty of this forest tract and attracts large number of visitors throughout the year. The area is an extremely undulating terrain with hills, pediments and a "V" shaped narrow valley. The hills and pediments are very steep and the rock formation is of dolerite origin. The area drains into river Baitarani through Machhakandana Nala.
- Jhadeshwar Temple : It is famous for an old temple of Lord Shiva on the bank of River Baitarani near Ghasipura. In the month of March a famous festival called 'Baruni Jatra' is organised at this place.
- Deogaon (Kushaleswar) : On the River Kusei near Anandapur. The temple of Kushaleswar built in circa 900 AD is a famous centre of piligrimage. Once upon a time it was a flourshing seat of Buddhism. Even now a 5 feet high image of Abalokiteswar stands there as reminiscence of the Budhist activities in the past. Another important monument of the place is the stone embackment on the river which is the second of its kind in the state.
- Hadagarh : The Salandi River flowing between two high mountains and a dam built over it are the main attractions for the tourists. This place is at a distance of 119 km from Keonjhar. It is 35 km. From Anandapur. One can approach the spot either from Bhadrak or from Anandapur and L.K.Road by bus,trekker and taxi etc.
- Gonasika : Surrounded by a series of valleys and wooded hills of varying colours,the place is famous as a centre of pilgrimage for the temple of Brahmeswar Mahadev established by the side of river Baitarani. In fact, this is the place from where the river starts flowing. A little away from the point of origin, the river goes underground ( and hence called guptaganga) only to be seen jumping after a short distance over a stone projection looking like the nostril of a cow. The scenic beauty of the place is simply charming. It is 33 km. From Keonjhar out of which service buses are available for 24 km. For rest 9 km tourist will have to go by either foot or hired vehicles. For accommodation tourists will have to stay at Keonjhar town.
- Murga Mahadev : It is situated by the side of a perennial spring of Thakurani hill in Champua Sub-Division of Keonjhar District. It is famous for the temple of Murga Mahadev. The spot is 70 km From Keonjhar ( of this 6 km, fair-weather road). Regular service buses are available up to Bileipada (64 km) from Keonjhar. No accommodation facilities is available at the spot. Tourist will have to stay either at Joda (11 km) or at Keonjhar (70 km).
- Asurkhol : a place where cave,natural shiv ling and waterfall available 8 km from Rimuli,NH 215.
- Handibhanga : It is magnificent waterfall falling from the height of about 200 ft. amidst lush green forest. The scenic beauty of the spot attracts many tourists. Moreover the place is a good picnic spot. The spot can be approached from Keonjhar (50 km) up to Kalimati (45 km pitch road and service bus available) and from Kalimati to the spot ( 5ms) metallic fair weather road. No accommodation facilities are available at the spot. The tourist will have to stay either at Keonjhar (50 km) or at Joda (30 km) or at Barbil (42 km).
- Gundichaghagi : It is famous for a small charming waterfall about 50 ft. high on the river Mudala being situated amidst lush green forest. It is ideal for picnic during winter. It is 65 km from Keonjhar via Ghatagaon. For accommodation a revenue rest shed at Harichandanpur (5 km) and PWD I.B.,tarini Yatri Niwas and Panthasala of Tourism Deptt. Are available at Ghatagaon.
- Khandadhar : A sparkling waterfall of 500 ft. amidst lush green forest. A shower in the cascading water is a great experience. This waterfall is a smoking waterfall because of the "Smoke like" appearance created by the spray of the plunging waters of the waterfall at this spot. The spot is ideal for picnic. It is 60 km from Keonjhar town ( of this about 40 km fair weather and only jeepable). No accommodation facilities at the spot. Tourist will have to stay at Keonjhar.
- Rajanagar: It is famous for the ruined palace of Keonjhar King. Also raghunath Jew Matha, Dadhibaban Jew temple and chadei Kudoor are other attraction of the spot. Different kinds of birds from different places gather here ( Chadhei Kudoor) in winter which is most enjoyable. It 27 km from Keonjhar. Tourist will have to visit the spot by hired vehicle. No accommodation facilities available there. The same are available at Keonjhar town.
- Kanjipani: Kanjipani 30 km from Keonjhar is a scenic spot. In winter the temperature falls below 0 °C and it is supposed that ice falls there. The beautiful landscaping, lush green forest and wild lives of the spot are very much impressive. Regular bus services are available from Keonjhar and Pallahara. For accommodation one N.H. I.B. is there.
- Podasingidi (Gadachandi and Chakratirtha)
Gadachandi: The place is famous for Goddess Chandi. A perennial stream which is a part of the Boula Mountains in Anandapur flows by the side of the Gadachandi Pitha is really marvelous. Besides this another attraction is cave climbing on the hill.
Chakratirtha: It is a beautiful picnic spot. The spot is surrounded with green forest,beautiful waterfall and also a Shiva temple. The waterfall is perennial. There is a Baba (Monk) who looks after the temple. There is a beautiful garden where varieties of fruits like,lemon,Guava,Papeya,Banana and Strawberry are developed by the help of Baba. It is 97 km from Keonjhar. No accommodation facilities available there. Tourists will have to stay at Anandapur.
- Bhimkund : It is a beautiful natural water reservoir on the River Baitarani. It is located exactly on the boundary line between the districts Kendujhar and Mayurbhanj, at a distance of about 100 km from Keonjhar. This reservoir is two storeyed which resulted into the formation of two waterfalls one above another. It is being told that, Bhima, the second Pandava had taken bath in this reservoir and hence it was named after him.
Flora and fauna
The division wise classification of forest area by legal status in Keonjhar district as on 01.04.96 are as follows.
|Classification||Area in km2.|
|Demarked protected Forest||6,48.41|
|Undemarked protected Forest||43.41|
The above forest area is 30% of the total geographical area of the district. The reserved forests of the district consist mostly of steep hills and narrow winding valleys. It is indeed a pity that most of the wide valleys which offer optimum conditions for the growth of fine Sal forest are not a part of the reserved forest area.
- Dry wood Forest
It occurs in parts of Boula, Atei, Kalapat, Santoshpur and Barabank.
- Open Grassy dry Sal Forest
This is found on exposed hill slopes where the soil is shallow and not fertile, mostly in Karo blocks.
- High Level Plateau Sal
This type comprises the forests growing on flat-topped hills which are a characteristic feature of Keonjhar.
- Moist Hill Sal
It is widely distributed in Keonjhar especially in the Sidhamath and Karo blocks.
- Valley Sal
It occurs in Sidhamatha and Karo blocks.
- Santal Sal
Typical coastal sal is called Santal Sal. it is mostly found in the Boula and Santoshpur blocks. The sal is mixed with Asan and Kurum.
Tigers (Bagha) are found in Rebana and Kalapat blocks. There is no information about their exact number. There are reports of cattle lifting.
Kalarapatra Bagha are quite common in Santoshpur, Atei, Kalapat, Rebana and Barabanka reserved forests. Most of the villages are in close vicinity of the forest and so blocks often complain of interference and lifting of small domestic animals in their area by the leopard.
Elephants are frequently seen in small herds in the forests like Boula, Kalapat, Rebana, Atei and occasionally in Sidhamatha and Karo reserved forests. Though the herds move from place to place it seems they have a permanent habitat in Boula, Atei, Rebana and Kalapat. The elephants usually damage agricultural crops and create occasional havoc in the mining huts and in small villages in the periphery of the forest blocks.
- Bison (Gayala)
Gayal herds are occasionally seen in Kalapat and Rebana reserved forests. Tease bisons are occasionally seen visiting neighbouring villages of Dhenkanal district.
Sambaras are quite common in the hilly forest area and are more often seen in the Kalapat Rebana reserved forests. Spotted deer ( Harina ), Barking Deer (Kutra) and wild boar (Barha) are found throughout the district.
- Monkeys (Hanu and Pati)
Monkeys are quite common and are seen in the valleys in the periphery of the reserved forest. There are no reports of wild dogs (Balia Kukura) but bears ( Bhalu ) are quite common in the area. The bears have created lots of problems and reports of bear-bite and fatal accidents caused by the bear are very common particularly during their breeding season and in the hot summer when mahula and mango are ripe. http://kendujhar.nic.in
- ^ "83 districts under the Security Related Expenditure Scheme". IntelliBriefs. 11 December 2009. http://intellibriefs.blogspot.com/2009/12/naxal-menace-83-districts-under.html. Retrieved 17 September 2011.
- ^ a b Ministry of Panchayati Raj (8 September 2009). "A Note on the Backward Regions Grant Fund Programme". National Institute of Rural Development. http://www.nird.org.in/brgf/doc/brgf_BackgroundNote.pdf. Retrieved 27 September 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f "District Census 2011". Census2011.co.in. 2011. http://www.census2011.co.in/district.php. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- ^ http://www.censusindia.gov.in/2011-prov-results/data_files/orissa/Data%20Sheet-%20Orissa-Provisional.pdf
- ^ M. Paul Lewis, ed (2009). "Bhunjia: A language of India". Ethnologue: Languages of the World (16th edition ed.). Dallas, Texas: SIL International. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_language.asp?code=bhu. Retrieved 30 September 2011.
- Official website
|Sundargarh district||West Singhbhum district, Jharkhand|
|Anugul district||Mayurbhanj district|
|Dhenkanal district||Jajapur district||Baleshwar district |
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