Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria
Королівство Галичини та Володимирії (ua) Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii (pl)
Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien (de)
Kronland of Austriaa
Chorągiew królewska króla Zygmunta III Wazy
Flag of Poland (1807–1815)
Flag of Krakow
1772–1918 Flag of Poland
Flag of Ukraine
Flag of Bukowina
Flag of Galicia-Lodomeria 1890-1918 Wappen Königreich Galizien & Lodomerien
Flag Coat of arms
Galizien Donaumonarchie
Galicia and Lodomeria in Austria-Hungary in 1914
Capital Lemberg
Languages Official language:
Language of government (since 1867):
Minority language:
By census 1910:
Polish 58.6%
Ruthenian 40.2%[1]
Religion Roman Catholic, Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church, Judaism, Armenian-Catholic
Government Monarchy
 -  1772–1780 Maria Theresa (first)
 -  1916–1918 Charles I (last)
 -  1772–1774 Johann von Persen (first)
 -  1917–1918 Karl Georg Huyn (last)
Legislature Diet
 -  Partition August 5, 1772
 -  West Ukraine October 19, 1918
 -  Republic of Poland November 14, 1918
 -  Treaty September 10, 1919
Today part of Flag of Poland Poland
Flag of Ukraine Ukraine
a: Kronland of the Austrian Empire 1804–67, and of Austria-Hungary until 1918.

The Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria was a crownland of the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire, and Austria–Hungary from 1772 to 1918 (see Cisleithania).

This historical region in Eastern Europe is divided today between Poland and Ukraine. The nucleus of historic Galicia consists of the modern Lviv, Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk regions of western Ukraine.

  • English: Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria and the Grand Duchy of Kraków with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator;
  • German: Königreich Galizien und Lodomerien mit dem Großherzogtum Krakau und den Herzogtümern Auschwitz und Zator;
  • Polish: Królestwo Galicji i Lodomerii wraz z Wielkim Księstwem Krakowskim i Księstwem Oświęcimia i Zatoru;
  • Ukrainian: Королівство Галичини та Володимирії з великим князіством Краківським і князівствами Освенцима і Затору|, transliterated: Korolivstvo Halychyny i Lodomeriï z velykym knyazivstvom Krakivskym i knyazivstvamy Osventsyma i Zatoru
  • Hungarian: Galícia és Lodoméria királysága Krakkó nagyhercegségével és Auschwitz és Zator hercegséggel


In 1772, Galicia was the largest part of the area annexed by the Austrian Empire in the First Partition of Poland. As such, the Austrian region of Poland and what was later to become Ukraine was known as the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria to underline the Hungarian claims to the country. However, after the Third Partition of Poland, a large portion of ethnically Polish lands to the west (New or West Galicia) was also added to the province, which changed the geographical reference of the term, Galicia. Lviv (Lemberg) served as capital of Austrian Galicia, which was dominated by the Polish aristocracy, despite the fact that the population of the eastern half of the province was mostly Ukrainian, or "Ruthenian", as they were known at the time. In addition to the Polish aristocracy and gentry who inhabited almost all parts of Galicia, and the Ruthenians in the east, there existed a large Jewish population, also more heavily concentrated in the eastern parts of the province.

During the first decades of Austrian rule, Galicia was firmly governed from Vienna, and many significant reforms were carried out by a bureaucracy staffed largely by Germans and Germanized Czechs. The aristocracy was guaranteed its rights, but these rights were considerably circumscribed. The former serfs were no longer mere chattel, but became subjects of law and were granted certain personal freedoms, such as the right to marry without the lord's permission. Their labour obligations were defined and limited, and they could bypass the lords and appeal to the imperial courts for justice. The Eastern Rite "Uniate" Church, which primarily served the Ruthenians, was renamed the Greek Catholic Church to bring it onto a par with the Roman Catholic Church; it was given seminaries, and eventually, a Metropolitan.

Map of the Kingdom of Galicia, 1914

Physical map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria 1846-1918

From 1815 to 1860[]

In 1815, as a result of decisions of the Congress of Vienna, the Lublin area and surrounding regions (most of the New or West Galicia) were ceded by the Austrian Empire to Congress Poland (Kingdom of Poland), which was ruled by the Tsar, and the Ternopil Region, including the historical region of Southern Podolia, was returned to the Austrian Empire by Russia, which had held it since 1809.

The 1820s and 1830s were a period of bureaucratic rule overseen from Vienna. Most administrative positions were filled by German-speakers, including German-seaking Czechs, although some of their children were already becoming Polonized. After the failure of the November insurrection in Russian Poland in 1830-31, in which a few thousand Galician volunteers participated, many Polish refugees arrived in Galicia. The latter 1830s were rife with Polish conspiratorial organizations whose work culminated in the unsuccessful Galician insurrection of 1846, which was easily put down by the Austrians with the help of a Galician peasantry that remained loyal to the emperor. The insurrection occurred in the western, Polish-populated part of Galicia. Polish manorial gentry supported or were sympathetic to barely concealed plans for an uprising to establish an independent Polish state, but peasants on the manorial estates of western Galicia, reduced to misery by poor harvests, saw little advantage for themselves in a free Poland and seized the opportunity to rise against the institution of serfdom, killing many of the estate owners.

In 1848, revolutionary actions broke out in Vienna and other parts of the Austrian Empire. In Lemberg, a Polish National Council, and then later, a Ukrainian, or Ruthenian Supreme Council were formed. Even before Vienna had acted, the remnants of serfdom were abolished by the Governor, Franz Stadion, in an attempt to thwart the revolutionaries. Moreover, Polish demands for Galician automomy were countered by Ruthenian demands for national equality and for a partition of the province into an Eastern, Ruthenian part, and a Western, Polish part. Eventually, Lemberg was bombarded by imperial troops and the revolution put down completely.

Template:Ukrainian statehood

Galician autonomy[]

In 1866, following the Battle of Sadova and the Austrian defeat in the Austro-Prussian War, the Austro-Hungarian empire began to experience increased internal problems. In an effort to shore up support for the monarchy, Emperor Franz Joseph began negotiations for a compromise with the Magyar nobility to ensure their support. Some members of the government, such as the Austro-Hungarian prime minister Count Belcredi, advised the Emperor to make a more comprehensive constitutional deal with all of the nationalities that would have created a federal structure. Belcredi worried that an accommodation with the Magyar interests would alienate the other nationalities. However, Franz Joseph was unable to ignore the power of the Magyar nobility, and they would not accept anything less than dualism between themselves and the traditional Austrian élites.

Finally, after the so-called Ausgleich of February 1867, the Austrian Empire was reformed into a dualist Austria-Hungary. Although the Polish and Czech plans for their parts of the monarchy to be included in the federal structure failed, a slow yet steady process of liberalisation of Austrian rule in Galicia started. Representatives of the Polish aristocracy and intelligentsia addressed the Emperor asking for greater autonomy for Galicia. Their demands were not accepted outright, but over the course of the next several years a number of significant concessions were made toward the establishment of Galician autonomy.

Galicia 1897 1

Galicia in 1897

From 1873, Galicia was de facto an autonomous province of Austria-Hungary with Polish and, to a much lesser degree, Ukrainian or Ruthenian, as official languages. The Germanisation had been halted and the censorship lifted as well. Galicia was subject to the Austrian part of the Dual Monarchy, but the Galician Sejm and provincial administration had extensive privileges and prerogatives, especially in education, culture, and local affairs.affairs.

Template:Polish statehood

The Great Economic Emigration[]

Beginning in the 1880s, a mass emigration of the Galician peasantry occurred. The emigration started as a seasonal one to Germany (newly unified and economically dynamic) and then later became a Trans-Atlantic one with large-scale emigration to The United States, Brazil, and Canada.

Caused by the backward economic condition of Galicia where rural poverty was widespread, the emigration began in the western, Polish populated part of Galicia and quickly shifted east to the Ukrainian inhabited parts. Poles, Ukrainians, Jews, and Germans all participated in this mass movement of countryfolk and villagers. Poles migrated principally to New England and the midwestern states of the United States, but also to Brazil and elsewhere; Ruthenians/Ukrainians migrated to Brazil, Canada, and the United States, with a very intense emigration from Southern Podolia to Western Canada; and Jews emigrated both directly to the New World and also indirectly via other parts of Austria-Hungary.

A total of several hundred thousand people were involved in this Great Economic Emigration which grew steadily more intense until the outbreak of the First World War in 1914. The war put a temporary halt to the emigration which never again reached the same proportions.

The Great Economic Emigration, especially the emigration to Brazil, the "Brazilian Fever" as it was called at the time, was described in contemporary literary works by the Polish poetess, Maria Konopnicka, the Ukrainian writer, Ivan Franko, and many others. Some states in south of Brazil have a large percentage of their population formed by direct descendants of these Ruthenians/Ukrainians immigrants.

First World War and Polish-Ukrainian conflict[]

During the First World War Galicia saw heavy fighting between the forces of Russia and the Central Powers. The Russian forces overran most of the region in 1914 after defeating the Austro-Hungarian army in a chaotic frontier battle in the opening months of the war. They were in turn pushed out in the spring and summer of 1915 by a combined German and Austro-Hungarian offensive.

In 1918, Western Galicia became a part of the restored Republic of Poland, which absorbed the Lemko-Rusyn Republic. The local Ukrainian population briefly declared the independence of Eastern Galicia as the "West Ukrainian People's Republic". During the Polish-Soviet War the Soviets tried to establish the puppet-state of the Galician SSR in East Galicia, the government of which after couple of months was liquidated.

The fate of Galicia was settled by the Peace of Riga on March 18, 1921, attributing Galicia to the Second Polish Republic. Although never accepted as legitimate by some Ukrainians, it was internationally recognized on May 15, 1923.[2]

The Ukrainians of the former eastern Galicia and the neighbouring province of Volhynia, made up about 12% of the Second Polish Republic population, and were its largest minority. As Polish government policies were unfriendly towards minorities, tensions between the Polish government and the Ukrainian population grew, eventually giving the rise to the militant underground Organization of Ukrainian Nationalists.

Major cities and towns[]

The Kingdom was split into numerous counties (powiat) which in 1914 were about 75.[3] Besides Lwów being the capital of the Kingdom, Kraków was considered as the unofficial capital of the western part of Galicia and the second most important city in the region.

  • Belz (Polish: Bełz, Yiddish: Beltz)
  • Berezhany (Polish: Brzeżany)
  • Biecz (German: Beitsch, Ukrainian: Беч, Bech|)
  • Bochnia (German: Salzberg)
  • Boryslav (Polish: Borysław)
  • Brody (Yiddish: Brod)
  • Busk
  • Buchach (Polish: Buczacz)
  • Chortkiv (Polish: Czortkow)
  • Chrzanów
  • Dukla (Ukrainian: Дукля, Duklia)
  • Drohobych (Polish: Drohobycz)
  • Gorlice (Ukrainian: Горлиці, Horlytsi, German: Gorlitz)
  • Halych (Polish: Halicz, German: Halitsch, Yiddish: Galits)
  • Husiatyn
  • Jarosław (German: Jaroslau, Ukrainian: Ярослав, Yaroslav)
  • Jasło (German: Jassel)
  • Kalush (Polish: Kałusz)
  • Kolomyia (German: Kolomea, Polish: Kołomyja, Romanian: Colomeea, Yiddish: Kolomay)
  • Kozova (Polish: Kozowa)
  • Kraków (German: Krakau, Yiddish: Kruke)
  • Krosno (German: Krossen, Ukrainian: Коросно, Korosno)
  • Lesko (Ukrainian: Лісько, Lisko, Yiddish: Linsk)
  • Leżajsk (German: Lyschansk, Yiddish: Lizhensk)
  • Limanowa (German: Ilmenau)
  • Lviv (German: Lemberg, Polish: Lwów, Yiddish: Lemberik)
  • Łańcut (German: Landshut)
  • Machliniec
  • Myślenice (German: Mischlenitz)

  • Nadvirna (Polish: Nadwórna)
  • Nowy Sącz (German: Neu Sandez, Yiddish: Zanz)
  • Oświęcim (German: Auschwitz, Yiddish: Oshpetsin)
  • Peremyshliany (Polish: Przemyślany)
  • Przemyśl (Ukrainian: Перемишль, Peremyshl|
  • Pidhaytsi (Polish: Podhajce)
  • Rava-Ruska (Polish: Rawa Ruska, Yiddish: Rave)
  • Rohatyn
  • Rymanów (German: Reimannshau)
  • Rzeszów (Yiddish: Rejsza, Ukrainian: Riashiv, German: Reichshof)
  • Sambir (Polish: Sambor)
  • Sanok (Ukrainian: Сянік, Sianik, Yiddish: Sonik, Hungarian: Sánók)
  • Stanyslaviv (Polish: Stanisławów, German: Stanislau, Yiddish: Stanislev, now: Ivano-Frankivsk)
  • Terebovlia (Polish: Trembowla)
  • Ternopil' (Polish: Tarnopol)
  • Tarnów (Ukrainian: Тарнів, Tarniv, German: Tarnau)
  • Tomaszów Lubelski (Ukrainian: Tomashiv Liublinskyi|)
  • Truskavets (Polish: Truskawiec)
  • Wieliczka (German: Groß Salze)
  • Zalishchyky (Polish: Zaleszczyki)
  • Zator (German: Neuenstadt an der Schaue)
  • Zolochiv (Polish: Złoczów, Yiddish: Zlotshev)
  • Zhovkva (Polish: Żółkiew)
  • Żywiec (Ukrainian: Живець, Zhyvets, German: Saybusch)

Galicia administrative1914

Kingdom of Galicia, administrative, 1914


  • )
  • the Ukrainian Radical Party and in 1924 partially merged with Communist Party of Western Ukraine (1919–1938)DemographicsIn 1773, Galicia had about 2.6 million inhabitants in 280 cities and markets and approx. 5,500 villages. There were nearly 19,000 noble families with 95,000 members (about 3% of the population). The "non-free" accounted for 1.86 million, more than 70% of the population. A small number were full farmers, but by far the overwhelming number (84%) had only smallholdings or no possessions.No country of the Austrian monarchy had such a varied ethnic mix as Galicia: Poles, Ruthenians, Germans,[4] Armenians, Jews, Hungarians, Romani people, Lipowaner, etc. The Poles were mainly in the west, with the Ruthenians predominant in the eastern region ("Ruthenia").

The Jews of Galicia had immigrated in the Middle Ages from Germany and mostly spoke Yiddish as their first language. German-speaking people were more commonly referred to by the region of Germany where they originated (e.g. Saxons or Swabians). With inhabitants who had a clear difference in language such as with the Saxons or the Roma identification was less problematic, but widespread multilingualness blurred the borders again.

It is however possible to make a clear distinction in religious denominations: the majority of the Poles were Latin Catholics, while the Ruthenians were mostly Greek Catholics. The Jews, who represented the third largest religious group, were mostly Orthodox in their religious observance.

The average life expectancy was 27 years for men and 28.5 years for women, as compared to 33 and 37 in Bohemia, 39 and 41 in France and 40 and 42 in England. Also the quality of life was much lower. The yearly consumption of meat did not exceed 10 kg (22 lb) per capita, as compared to 24 kg (53 lb) in Hungary and 33 in Germany. This was mostly due to much lower average income.

In 1888 Galicia had 78,550 square kilometres (30,328 sq mi) of area and was populated by ca. 6.4 million people, including 4.8 million peasants (75% of the whole population). The population density was 81 people per square kilometre and was higher than in France (71 inhabitants/km²) or Germany.

Religions, Census of December 1910
Roman Catholic 3,731,569 46.5%
Greek Catholic 3,379,613 42.1%
Jewish 871,895 10.9%
Protestant 37,144 0.5%
Other 5,454 0.0%
Total 8,025,675


Galicia was economically the least developed part of Austria and received considerable transfer payments from the Vienna government. Its level of development was comparable to or higher than that of Russia and the Balkans, but well behind Western Europe.

The first detailed description of the economic situation of the region was prepared by Stanislaw Szczepanowski (1846–1900), a Polish lawyer, economist and chemist who in 1873 published the first version of his report titled Nędza galicyjska w cyfrach (The Galician Poverty in Numbers). Based on his own experience as a worker in the India Office, as well as his work on development of the oil industry in the region of Borysław and the official census data published by the Austro-Hungarian government, he described Galicia as one of the poorest regions in Europe.

Statistics indicate the Galicia and Lodomeria was poorer than areas west of it. The average income per capita did not exceed 53 Rhine guilders (RG), as compared to 91 RG in the Kingdom of Poland, 100 in Hungary and more than 450 RG in England at that time. Also the taxes were relatively high and equalled to 9 Rhine guilders a year (ca. 17% of yearly income), as compared to 5% in Prussia and 10% in England. Also the percentage of people with higher income was much lower than in other parts of the Monarchy and Europe: the luxury tax, paid by people whose yearly income exceeded 600 RG, was paid by 8 people in every 1,000 inhabitants, as compared to 28 in Bohemia and 99 in Lower Austria. Despite high taxation, the national debt of the Galician government exceeded 300 million RG at all times, that is approximately 60 RG per capita.

All in all, the region was used by the Austro-Hungarian government mostly as a reservoir of cheap workforce and recruits for the army, as well as a buffer zone against Russia. It was not until early in the 20th century that heavy industry started to be developed, which would be comparable to much of Russia and the Balkans. Even then it was mostly connected to war production. The biggest state investments in the region were the railways and the fortresses in Przemyśl, Kraków and other cities. Industrial development was mostly connected to the private oil industry started by Ignacy Łukasiewicz and to the Wieliczka salt mines, operational since at least the Middle Ages.


  • Newspapers: Gazette de Leopol (1776),[5] Slovo (closed in 1876 due to Ems Ukaze)[6]
  • Weekly: Zoria Halytska (first issue on May 15, 1848)[7]

Flag of Galicia and Lodomeria[]

Until 1849 Galicia and Lodomeria constituted a single province with Bukovina and used the blue-red flag (consisting of two horizontal stripes: the upper one was blue, the lower one was red).

In 1849 when Bukovina was given an independent status from that of Galicia-Lodomeria, it kept the blue-red flag, while Galicia was given a new flag consisting of three horizontal stripes: blue, red and yellow.

This flag had remained in use until 1890, when Galicia-Lodomeria received a new flag consisting of two horizontal stripes: red and white. This flag remained in use until the dissolution of the Kingdom of Galicia-Lodomeria in 1918 and is displayed in Ströhl's Oesterreichisch-ungarische Wappenrolle (1898).

  • Jan Miller: Chorągwie i flagi polskie, Instytut Wydawniczy "Nasza Księgarnia", Warsaw 1962,
  • Hugo Ströhl: Oesterreichisch-ungarische Wappenrolle, Vienna 1898



The Kingdom was divided into three major military districts centered in Kraków, Lwow, and Przemyśl. Local military used a specialized language for communication known as Army Slav. One of the major army units was the 1st Army consisting of 1st (Kraków), 5th (Pressburg), and 10th (Przemyśl) Corps.

Selected units (1914); command language German

Eight out of 11 Lancer regiments were located in Galicia (see Uhlan)

Ulanen 13

The 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment at Battle of Custoza (1866)

  • 1st Galicia Lancer Regiment of Ritter von Brudermann (85% Poles) (Regimental language Polish)
  • 2nd Galicia Lancer Regiment of Fürst zu Schwarzenberg (84% Poles) (Regimental language Polish)
  • 3rd Galicia Lancer Regiment of Archduke Carl (69% Poles, 26% Ukrainians) (Regimental language Polish)
  • 4th Galicia Lancer Regiment "Kaiser" (65% Ukrainians, 29% Poles) (Regimental language Polish and Ukrainian)
  • 6th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Kaiser Joseph II (52% Poles, 40% Ukrainians) (Regimental language Polish and Ukrainian)
  • 7th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Archduke Franz Fedinand (72% Ukrainians, 22% Poles) (Regimental language Ukrainian)
  • 8th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Count Auersperg (80% Poles) (Regimental language Polish)
  • 13th Galicia Lancer Regiment of Eduard von Böhm-Ermolli (55% Ukrainians, 42% Poles) (Regimental language Polish and Ukrainian)
  • 1st Army Lancer Regiment (65% Ukrainians, 30% Poles)
  • 3rd Army Lancer Regiment (69% Poles, 26% Ukrainians)
  • 4th Army Lancer Regiment (85% Poles)

One Dragoon regiment

  • 9th Galicia-Bukowina Dragoon Regiment of Archduke Albrecht (50% Romanians, 29% Ukrainians) (Regimental language Romanian and Ukrainian)
Shako of Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848

Shako of Polish National Guard in Lviv in 1848

Krakau Rudolf Kas

Rudolf Barracks in Kraków

10 Infantry regiments

  • 16th Army Infantry Regiment "Krakau" (82% Poles)
  • 17th Army Infantry Regiment "Rseszow" (97% Poles)
  • 18th Army Infantry Regiment "Przemyśl" (47% Ukrainians, 43% Poles)
  • 19th Army Infantry Regiment "Lemberg" (59% Ukrainians, 31% Poles)
  • 20th Army Infantry Regiment "Stanislau" (72% Ukrainians)
  • 32nd Army Infantry Regiment (91% Poles), Tarnów
  • 33rd Army Infantry Regiment (73% Ukrainians), Stryi
  • 34th Army Infantry Regiment (75% Poles), Jarosław
  • 35th Army Infantry Regiment (68% Ukrainians, 25% Poles), Zolochiv
  • 36th Army Infantry Regiment (70% Ukrainians, 21% Poles), Kolomea

Two Artillery divisions

  • 43rd Field Artillery Division (55% Ukrainians, 25% Poles), Lemberg
  • 45th Field Artillery Division (60% Ukrainians, 25% Poles), Przemyśl

Five Feldjäger battalions (Military Police)

  • 4th Galicia Feldjäger Battalion (77% Poles), Braunau am Inn (Rzeszow district)
  • 12th Bohemia Feldjäger Battalion (67% Czech, 32% German), Cavalese (Kraków district)
  • 14th Feldjäger Battalion (47% Ukrainians, 43% Poles), Mezzolombardo (Przemyśl district)
  • 18th Feldjäger Battalion (59% Ukrainians, 31% Poles), Trient (Lviv district)
  • 30th Galicia-Bukowina Feldjäger Battalion (70% Ukrainians), Steyr (Stanislav district)
  • 10th Engineer Battalion (50% Poles, 30% Ukrainians) (Przemyśl)
  • 1st Sapper Battalion (50% Poles, 23% Germans, 23% Czechs) (Krakau)
  • 10th Sapper Battalion (50% Poles, 30% Ukrainians) (Przemyśl)
  • 11th Sapper Battalion (48% Ukrainians, 32% Poles) (Lemberg)
  • Polish Legions
  • Ukrainian Legions, later as part of the battle group of Archduke Wilhelm
  • 1st Ukrainian Cossack Rifle Division (1918)

See also[]


  1. ^ Anstalt G. Freytag & Berndt (1911). Geographischer Atlas zur Vaterlandskunde an der österreichischen Mittelschulen. Vienna: K. u. k. Hof-Kartographische. "Census December 31st 1910"
  2. ^ French: Les Alliés reconnaissent à la Pologne la possession de la Galicie, Chronologie des civilisations, Jean Delorme, Paris, 1956.
  3. ^ Map of the Kingdom with its county division (Lenius, Brian. "Genealogical Gazetteer of Galicia" 2nd ed. Anola, Canada. 1993)
  4. ^ Walddeutsche
  5. ^ Galicia: a historical survey and bibliographic guide (p.106) by Paul Magocsi in googlebooks
  6. ^ Ukraine: a history (p.283) by Orest Subtelny (English)
  7. ^ Ukraine: a history (p.248) by Orest Subtelny (English)


  • Paul Robert Magocsi, Galicia: A Historical Survey and Bibliographic Guide (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1983). Concentrates on the historical, or Eastern Galicia.
  • Norman Davies Vanished Kingdoms: The History of Half-Forgotten Europe. Allen Lane. ISBN 978-1-84614-338-0
  • Andrei S. Markovits and Frank E. Sysyn, eds., Nationbuilding and the Politics of Nationalism: Essays on Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1982). Contains an important article by Piotr Wandycz on the Poles, and an equally important article by Ivan L. Rudnytsky on the Ukrainians.
  • Christopher Hann and Paul Robert Magocsi, eds., Galicia: A Multicultured Land (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2005). A collection of articles by John Paul Himka, Yaroslav Hrytsak, Stanislaw Stepien, and others.
  • Taylor, A.J.P., The Habsburg Monarchy 1809–1918, 1941, discusses Habsburg policy toward ethnic minorities.
  • Alison Fleig Frank, Oil Empire: Visions of Prosperity in Austrian Galicia (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 2005). A new monograph on the history of the Galician oil industry in both the Austrian and European contexts.
  • Drdacki, Moritz knight by Ostrow, the glad patents Galziens a contribution to customer of the Unterthanswesens, printed with J.P. Sollinger, Vienna, 1838, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-024-4
  • Kratter, F., letters over itzigen condition of Galicia a contribution to the Staatistik and knowledge of human nature, publishing house G. Ph. of usurer, Leipzig 1786, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-001-5
  • Mueller, Sepp, from the settlement to the resettlement, Wiss. contribution to history and regional studies of east Central Europe, hrsg. v. Joh. Gottfr. Herder Joh.-Gottfr.-Herder-Institut Marburg, NR. 54 Rohrer, Josef, remarks on a journey of the Turkish Graenze over the Bukowina by east and west Galicia, Schlesien and Maehren to Vienna, publishing house Anton Pichler, Vienna 1804, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-010-4
  • statistic Central Commission (Hrsg.), local repertory of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomerien with the Herzogthume Krakau, publishing house Carl Gerolds son, Vienna 1874, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-015-5
  • Stupnicki, Hipolit, the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomerien sammt the Grossherzogthume Krakau and the Herzogthume Bukowina in geographical-historical-statistic relationship, printed with Peter Piller, Lemberg 1853, Reprint 1989, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-016-3
  • Traunpaur, Alfons Heinrich Chevalier d'Orphanie, Dreyssig of letters over Galicia or observations of a[n] unpartheyischen man, Vienna 1787, Reprint 1990, Scherer publishing house Berlin, ISBN 3-89433-013-9

External links[]

Template:Galicia and Lodomeria timeline Template:Provinces of the Austrian Empire

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.