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History of Poland
Coat of Arms of Poland
Chronology
List of Polish monarchs
Prehistory and protohistory
Stone Age
Bronze and Iron Age
Antiquity
Middle Ages
Early Middle Ages
Kingdom of the Piasts (966–1385)
Kingdom of the Jagiellons (1385–1569)
Early Modern
Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795)
Modern
Partitions - Duchies - Kingdoms (1795–1915)
World War 1 (1915-1918)
Second Republic (1918–1939)
World War 2 (1939–1945)
People's Republic (1945–1989)
Contemporary
Third Republic (1989–present)
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Poland, or at least its nucleus, was ruled at various times either by dukes (the 10th-14th century) or by kings (the 11th-18th century). The longest-reigning dynasties were the Piasts (ca. 960 – 1370) and Jagiellons (1386–1572). Intervening and subsequent monarchs were often rulers of foreign countries or princes recruited from foreign dynasties.

During the latter period a tradition of free election of monarchs made it a uniquely electable position in Europe (16th-18th centuries). Polish independence ended with the Third Partition of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1795) and was restored at the end of World War I (1918) on a republican basis.

Legendary rulers[]

Ruler Tribe Reign Notes
Lech Lech 111.PNG Lechites 6th century a legendary founder of the Polish nation
Krakus Krak Lechites 8th century a legendary founder of Cracow
Wanda Chronica Polonorum Vanda.jpg Lechites 8th century a legendary daughter of Krakus and unknown Vandal woman
Abraham Prochownik Khazars 9th century a legendary Jew, nominated prince of Polans, after the death of prince Popiel in 842

Semi-legendary rulers of western Polans (Greater Poland)[]

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Popiel PopielBis1581.jpg Popielids Duke the 9th century a semi-legendary ruler of the West Slavic ("proto-Polish") tribe of Goplans and Polans
Siemowit Siemowit.PNG Piast Duke the 9th century semi-legendary
son of Piast the Wheelwright
Lestek Lestek.PNG Piast Duke the 9th-10th century semi-legendary
son of Siemowit
Siemomysł Siemomysł.PNG Piast Duke the 10th century semi-legendary
son of Lestko

Monarchs of Poland[]

Ruler Dynasty Reign Notes
Mieszko I MieszkoDagome.jpg Piast Duke 960?-992 son of Siemomysł
first Christian monarch
Misico, dux Wandalorum
Bolesław I the Brave (Bolesław I Chrobry)
(Boleslas I)
Jan Bogumił Jacobi - Bolesław Chrobry.jpg Piast Duke 992-1025
King 1025
son of Mieszko I and Dobrawa of Bohemia
first to be crowned King
Regnum Sclavorum, Gothorum sive Polonorum
Mieszko II Lambert Matylda wrecza mieszkowi II ksiege liturgiczna.jpg Piast King 1025-1031 son of Boleslas I and Emnilda of Lusatia
Bezprym Bezprym.jpeg Piast Duke 1031-1032 son of Boleslas I and Judith of Hungary (disputed)
Otto Bolesławowic Piast Duke 1032 son of Boleslas I and Emnilda
Dytryk
(Thiedric)
Piast Duke 1032 grandson of Mieszko I and Oda of Haldensleben
Mieszko II Lambert Matylda wrecza mieszkowi II ksiege liturgiczna.jpg Piast Duke 1032-1034 restored
Kazimierz I the Restorer
(Casimir I)
Odnowiciel.jpg Piast Duke 1039-1058 son of Mieszko II and Richeza of Lotharingia
Bolesław II the Bold
(Boleslas II)
Bolesław II Śmiały 1234.PNG Piast Duke 1058-1076
King 1076-1079
son of Casimir I and Maria Dobroniega of Kiev
Władysław I Herman
(Ladislas I)
Jan Matejko, Władysław I Herman.jpg Piast Duke 1079-1102 son of Casimir I and Maria Dobroniega
Wratysław II Czeski
(Vratislaus II of Bohemia) (disputed)
Vratislav II.PNG Přemyslid King of Bohemia and Poland 1085-1092 the royal title was a grant from Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor
Zbigniew Zbigniew.JPG Piast Duke 1102-1107 son of Ladislas I and Przecława, Prawdzic coat of arms (disputed)
first jointly with Boleslas III
Bolesław III Wrymouth
(Boleslas III)
Jacobi 1828 Boleslaw III Krzywousty.jpg Piast Duke 1102-1138 son of Ladislas I and Judith of Bohemia
first jointly with Zbigniew
introduced senioral principle
Władysław II the Exile
(Ladislas II)
Wladyslaw Wygnaniec (Chronica Polanarum).jpg Piast High Duke 1138-1146 son of Boleslas III and Zbyslava of Kiev
also Duke of Silesia
exiled by his brothers
Bolesław IV the Curly
(Boleslas IV)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław IV Kędzierzawy.jpg Piast High Duke 1146-1173 son of Boleslas III and Salomea of Berg
also Duke of Masovia
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1173-1177 son of Boleslas III and Salomea
also Duke of Greater Poland
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1177-1190 son of Boleslas III and Salomea
also Duke of Wiślica and Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1190 restored
Kazimierz II the Just
(Casimir II)
Kazimierz 2 Sprawiedliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1190-1194 restored
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White.jpg Piast High Duke 1194-1198 son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Sandomierz
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1198-1199 restored
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White.jpg Piast High Duke 1199-1202 restored
Mieszko III the Old Mieszko stary.jpg Piast High Duke 1202 restored
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Wielkopolscy.gif Piast High Duke 1202-1206 son of Mieszko III and Eudoxia of Kiev
also Duke of Greater Poland
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White.jpg Piast High Duke 1206-1210 restored
Mieszko IV Tanglefoot Mieszko IV.JPG Piast High Duke 1210-1211 son of Ladislas II and Agnes of Babenberg
also Duke of Silesia
Leszek I the White Leszek I the White.jpg Piast High Duke 1211-1227 restored
assassinated
Władysław III Spindleshanks
(Ladislas III)
Wielkopolscy.gif Piast High Duke 1227-1229 restored
Konrad I of Masovia Koradofmasovia.jpg Piast High Duke 1229-1232 son of Casimir II and Helen of Znojmo
also Duke of Masovia
Henryk I the Bearded
(Henry I)
HedwigAltarIV.jpg Piast High Duke 1232-1238 grandson of Ladislas II, son of Bolesław I the Tall and Krystyna
also Duke of Silesia
Henryk II the Pious
(Henry II)
Henryk II Pobożny tomb effigy.PNG Piast High Duke 1238-1241 son of Henry I and Saint Hedwig of Andechs (Saint Hedwig of Silesia)
also Duke of Wroclaw and Greater Poland
fell at Battle of Legnica
Konrad I of Masovia Koradofmasovia.jpg Piast High Duke 1241-1243 restored
Bolesław V the Chaste
(Boleslas V)
Jan Matejko, Bolesław Wstydliwy.jpg Piast High Duke 1243-1279 son of Leszek the White and Grzymislawa of Luck
Leszek II the Black Pieczęć Leszka II Czarnego.jpg Piast High Duke 1279-1288 paternal grandson of Konrad I
maternal grandson of Henry II
son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Constance of Wrocław
Henryk IV Probus
(Henry IV)
Henryk probus.jpg Piast High Duke 1288-1290 paternal grandson of Henry II
maternal grandson of Konrad I
son of Henry III the White and Judyta of Masovia
Duke of Lower Silesia
Przemysł II
(Premyslas II)
Seal of Przemysł II King of Poland from 1296.PNG Piast High Duke 1290-1291
King 1295-1296
grandson of Henry II
son of Przemysł I and Elisabeth of Wrocław
also Duke of Poznań, Greater Poland and Pomerania
Wacław II Czeski
(Wenceslas II of Bohemia)
Codex Manesse Wenzel II. von Böhmen.jpg Přemyslid High Duke 1291-1300
King 1300-1305
son of Ottokar II of Bohemia and Kunigunda of Slavonia
married Premyslas II's daughter Elisabeth Richeza of Poland
also King of Bohemia
Wacław III Czeski
(Wenceslas III of Bohemia)
Wenzel3.jpg Přemyslid King 1305-1306 son of Wenceslaus II and Judith of Habsburg
uncrowned
assassinated
Rudolf Austriacki
(Rudolph I of Bohemia)
Rudolph III Habsburg.jpg Habsburg Titular King of Poland
1306-1307
Duke of Austria and Styria (as Rudolph III)
Henryk Karyncki
(Henry of Bohemia)
JindrichKorutansky pecet1303.jpg Meinhardin Titular King of Poland
1307-1310
Count of Tyrol and Duke of Carinthia and Carniola (as Henry VI)
Jan Luksemburski
(John of Bohemia)
John of Luxemburg.PNG Luxembourg Titular King of Poland
1310-1335
Count of Luxembourg (as John the Blind)
Władysław I the Elbow-high
(Ladislas IV/I)
Władysław Łokietek by Bacciarelli.png Piast High Duke 1306-1320
King 1320-1333
grandson of Konrad I of Masovia
son of Casimir I of Kuyavia and Euphrosyne of Opole
re-united the Kingdom of Poland
Kazimierz III The Great
(Casimir III)
Kazimierz III sarcophagus figure.jpg Piast King 1333-1370 son of Ladislas IV/I and Hedwig of Kalisz
regarded as one of the greatest Polish monarchs
Ludwik Węgierski
(Louis I of Hungary)
Budapest Heroes square Nágy Lájos.jpg Anjou King 1370-1382 son of Charles I of Hungary and Elisabeth of Poland
nephew of Casimir III
elected King and crowned on 17 November
also King of Hungary
Jadwiga of Poland
(Hedwig d'Anjou)
Jadwiga Andegaweńska.jpg Anjou King 1384-1399 daughter of Louis I and Elisabeth of Bosnia
crowned at 1384
reigned jointly with her husband
Ladislas II since 1386

Kings of Poland and Grand Dukes of Lithuania[]

Jagiellon Dynasty[]

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Władysław II Jagiełło
(Ladislas II, Jogaila)
Jogaila (Władysław II).jpg Jagiellon 4 March 1386 1 June 1434 son of Algirdas of Lithuania and Uliana of Tver
Grand Duke of Lithuania 1377-1434
reigned jointly with his wife Jadwiga until 1399
the longest reigning king of Poland
Władysław III
(Ladislas III, Vladislovas III)
Warnenczyk grob CP.jpg Jagiellon 25 July 1434 10 November 1444 son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also king of Hungary (as Ulászló I)
fell at Varna, therefore surnamed "of Varna"
Kazimierz IV
(Casimir IV, Kazimieras Jogailaitis)
Giovanni da Capistrano and Polish King Casimir IV Jagiellon.PNG Jagiellon 25 June 1447 7 June 1492 son of Ladislas II and Sophia of Halshany
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1440-1492
Jan I Olbracht
(John I Albert, Jonas Albrechtas)
Jan I Olbracht by Bacciarelli.jpg Jagiellon 23 September 1492 16 June 1501 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
Aleksander
(Alexander, Aleksandras)
Aleksa.jpg Jagiellon 12 December 1501 19 August 1506 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania 1492-1506
Zygmunt I the Old
(Sigismund I, Žygimantas Senasis)
Jungholz Sigismund I the Old.jpg Jagiellon 8 December 1506 1 April 1548 son of Casimir IV and Elisabeth of Austria
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
forced Prussian Homage in 1525
annexed Duchy of Masovia in 1526
entered alliance with Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor
Zygmunt II August I
(Sigismund II August I, Žygimantas Augustas)
Sigismund II Augustus.PNG Jagiellon 1 April 1548 7 July 1572 son of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
also Grand Duke of Lithuania
replaced the personal union of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania with a real union and an elective monarchy (Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth) in 1569

Kings of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth[]

Ruler Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Henryk Walezy
(Henry III)
Anjou 1570louvre.jpg Valois 21 February 1574 12 May 1575 son of Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici
abandoned the Polish-Lithuanian throne three months after his coronation in order to become King of France
Maksymilian II
(Maximilian I)
Nicolas Neufchâtel 002.jpg Habsburg 1575 1575 King of Bohemia, Germany, Hungary and Croatia, Archduke of Austria, Holy Roman Emperor
election contested after four days
Anna Martin Kober 002.jpg Jagiellon King 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 daughter of Sigismund I and Bona Sforza
reigned together with her husband Stephen Báthory
Stefan I Batory
(Stephen I Báthory)
King Stefan Batory.jpg Báthory 15 December 1575 12 December 1586 son of Stephen VIII Báthory and Catherine Telegdi
Prince of Transylvania
reigned together with his wife Anna
regarded as one of the greatest kings of Poland
Maksymilian III
(Maximilian II)
Justus Sustermans 012.jpg Habsburg 1587 1587 son of Maximilian II and Maria of Spain
Archduke of Austria
defeated by Zygmunt Vasa
Zygmunt III
(Sigismund III )
Sigismund III of Poland-Lithuania and Sweden (Martin Kober).jpg Vasa 18 September 1587 19 April 1632 grandson of Sigismund I
son of John III of Sweden and Catherine Jagellon
also King of Sweden 1592-1599, titular King 1599-1632
Władysław IV
(Ladislas IV)
Frans Luycx 006.jpg Vasa 8 November 1632 20 May 1648 son of Sigismund III and Anne of Austria
Titular Tsar of Russia 1610-1634, titular King of Sweden 1632-1648
Jan II Kazimierz
(John II Casimir)
Schultz John II Casimir.jpg Vasa 20 November 1648 16 September 1668 son of Sigismund III and Constance of Austria
Titular King of Sweden 1648-1660
abdicated
Michał Korybut
(Michael I)
Michał Korybut Wiśniowiecki.PNG Wiśniowiecki 19 June 1669 10 November 1673 son of a successful but controversial military commander, Jeremi Wiśniowiecki, and Gryzelda Konstancja Zamoyska
Jan III
(John III)
Schultz John III Sobieski.jpg Sobieski 21 May 1674 17 June 1696 son of Jakub Sobieski and Zofia Teofillia Daniłowicz
most famous for his brilliant victory over the Turks at the Battle of Vienna in 1683
Franciszek Ludwik Burbon-Conti
(François Louis, Prince of Conti)
Undated oil on canvas portrait of François Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Conti by a member of the École Française.jpg Bourbon 27 June 1697 ca. 20 July 1697 (withdrew) son of Armand de Bourbon-Conti and Anne Marie Martinozzi
elected king, obliged to return to France from Gdansk without the crown
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von Polen.jpg Wettin 15 September 1697 16 February 1704 (deposed)
24 September 1706 (abdicates)
son of John George III and Anna Sophie of Denmark
Elector of Saxony as Frederick Augustus I, 1694–1733
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1.jpg Leszczyński 4 October 1705 8 August 1709 son of Rafał Leszczyński and Anna Jabłonowska
yielded to Augustus II
August II Mocny
(Augustus II the Strong)
Friedrich August der Starke von Polen.jpg Wettin 8 August 1709 1 February 1733 restored
Stanisław I
(Stanislas I)
Stanislaw Leszczynski1.jpg Leszczyński 12 September 1733 30 June 1734 (deposed)
27 January 1736 (abdicates)
restored
defeated in War of the Polish Succession
became Duke of Lorraine until his death
August III Sas
(Augustus III)
King Augustus III of Poland.jpg Wettin 17 January 1734 (in opposition)
30 June 1734 (effectively)
5 October 1763 son of Augustus II and Christiane Eberhardine of Brandenburg-Bayreuth
Stanisław II August
(Stanislas II August)
Stanislaus II Augustus of Poland.PNG Poniatowski 25 November 1764 7 January 1795 son of Stanisław Poniatowski and Konstancja Czartoryska
forced to abdicate when the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (the Polish Republic since May 3, 1791) ceased to exist

Claim made by foreign states after Partitions of Poland[]

Kings and Queens of Galicia and Lodomeria (Galicja)[]

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Maria Teresa Maria Theresa Habsburg 22 September 1772 29 November 1780 the area annexed by the Habsburg Monarchy in the First Partition of Poland (the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth); Empress Maria Theresa of Austria (who was also Queen of Hungary, Queen of Bohemia, etc.) recalled the old Hungarian claims to the Regnum Galiciæ et Lodomeriæ, and Czech claims to the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Józef II Joseph II Habsburg-Lorraine 29 November 1780 20 February 1790
Leopold II Leopold II Habsburg-Lorraine 20 February 1790 1 March 1792
Franciszek II Francis II Habsburg-Lorraine 1 March 1792 2 March 1835
Ferdynand I Ferdinand I Habsburg-Lorraine 2 March 1835 2 December 1848 after the unsuccessful Cracow Uprising of 1846, the Free City of Cracow was annexed by Austria on 16 November 1846 as the Grand Duchy of Cracow; the full official name of the province was extended to Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the Grand Duchy of Cracow with the Duchies of Auschwitz and Zator
Franciszek Józef I Francis Joseph I Habsburg-Lorraine 2 December 1848 21 November 1916 after the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867, and the reorganization of the Empire as the Dual Monarchy, a broad autonomy was granted to Galicia and Lodomeria within Cisleithania, the Austrian part of Austria-Hungary
Karol I Charles I Habsburg-Lorraine 21 November 1916 11 November 1918 renounced all participation in affairs of state but did not abdicate

Dukes of Warsaw (Warszawa)[]

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Fryderyk August Frederick August I Wettin 9 July 1807 14 March 1813 grandson of Augustus III
King of Saxony 1805-1827
Duchy of Warsaw established by Napoleon I in 1807 as a protectorate of the French Empire, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and divided into the Kingdom of Poland, protectorate of the Russian Empire, and the Grand Duchy of Posen, protectorate of the Kingdom of Prussia

Dukes of Danzig (Gdańsk)[]

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Franciszek Józef Lefebvre François Joseph Lefebvre Marshal of France 9 September 1807 2 January 1814 Free City of Danzig, a semi-independent state established by Napoleon I in 1807, dissolved at the Congress of Vienna and reincorporated into Prussia

Kings of the Kingdom of Poland ("Congress Poland")[]

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Aleksander I Alexander I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 9 June 1815 1 December 1825 The Kingdom of Poland created at the Congress of Vienna and therefore dubbed "Congress Poland".
Konstanty I (disputed) Constantine I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 December 1825 26 December 1825 Grand Duke Constantine was de facto Viceroy (Namestnik) of the Kingdom of Poland.
Mikołaj I Nicholas I Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 26 December 1825 2 March 1855 deposed by the Polish Parliament (Sejm) on 25 January 1831 during November Uprising (1830–1831), autonomy abolished in 1832.
Aleksander II Alexander II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 2 March 1855 13 March 1881 "Congress Poland" annexed into the Russian Empire after January Uprising (1863–1864), and the name of the kingdom was changed to Privislinsky Krai (1867–1915)
Aleksander III Alexander III Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 13 March 1881 1 November 1894
Mikołaj II Nicholas II Holstein-Gottorp-Romanov 1 November 1894 15 March 1917 during World War I "Congress Poland" was looted and abandoned by the retreating Russian army in 1915; abdicated in 1917

Grand Dukes of Posen (Poznań)[]

Ruler English Dynasty Reign Began Reign Ended Notes
Fryderyk Wilhelm III Frederick William III Hohenzollern 9 June 1815 7 June 1840 The Grand Duchy of Posen created at the Congress of Vienna; represented by Duke-Governor Antoni Radziwiłł until 1831.
Fryderyk Wilhelm IV Frederick William IV Hohenzollern 7 June 1840 2 January 1861 autonomy abolished on June 28, 1848; the Grand Duchy was formally replaced by the Province of Posen in the Prussian constitution of 5 December 1848.
Wilhelm I William I Hohenzollern 2 January 1861 9 March 1888 The Province of Posen, within the Kingdom of Prussia, became a part of the German Empire (1871–1918)
Fryderyk III Frederick III Hohenzollern 9 March 1888 15 June 1888
Wilhelm II William II Hohenzollern 15 June 1888 9 November 1918 abdicated in 1918

See also[]

  • Royal coronations in Poland
  • Royal Coronations at Wawel Cathedral
  • Dukes of Greater Poland
  • Dukes of Masovia
  • Dukes of Pomerania
  • Dukes of Sieradz-Łęczyca
  • Dukes of Silesia
  • List of Galician rulers
  • List of Polish heads of state (1918-present) and list of Prime Ministers of Poland
  • Górczyk, Wojciech,"Półksiężyc, orzeł, lew i smok. Uwagi o godłach napieczętnych Piastów" [1]

External links[]


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at List of Polish monarchs. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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