|— State —|
|Established||1 November 1956|
|• Type||Unicameral Legislature (230 seats)|
|• Body||Government of Madhya Pradesh|
|• Governor||Ram Naresh Yadav|
|• Chief Minister||Shivraj Singh Chauhan|
|• High Court||Madhya Pradesh High Court Jabalpur|
|• State||308,252 km2 (119,017 sq mi)|
|• Density||236/km2 (610/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-MP|
|HDI rank||26th (2005)|
|Sex Ratio||930 (2011)|
सुख का दाता सब का साथी शुभ का यह संदेश है,माँ की गोद, पिता का आश्रय मेरा मध्यप्रदेश है... (Adopted on 1st November 2010)
Nicknamed the "heart of India" due to its geographical location in India, Madhya Pradesh is the second largest state in the country by area. With over 75 million inhabitants, it is the sixth largest state in India by population. It borders the states of Uttar Pradesh to the northeast, Chhattisgarh to the southeast, Maharashtra to the south, Gujarat to the west, and Rajasthan to the northwest.
The area covered by the present-day Madhya Pradesh includes the area of the ancient Avanti mahajanapada, whose capital Ujjain (also known as Avanti) arose as a major city during the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BCE. Subsequently, the region was ruled by the major dynasties of India, including the Mauryans, the Mughals and the Marathas. By the early 18th century, the region was divided into several small kingdoms which were captured by the British and incorporated into Central Provinces and Berar and the Central India Agency. After India's independence, Madhya Pradesh state was created with Nagpur as its capital: this state included the southern parts of the present-day Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. In 1956, this state was reorganized and its parts were combined with the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh and Bhopal to form the new Madhya Pradesh state with Bhopal as its capital. This state was the largest state of India by area until 2000. In 2000, the Chhattisgarh region was split to create a new state, and Rajasthan became the largest state of India.
Madhya Pradesh is home to a large tribal population, which has been largely cut-off from the mainstream development. This makes Madhya Pradesh one of the least developed states in India, with an HDI (Human Development Index) value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average. The state's per-capita gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) is the fourth lowest in the country (2010–11). MP is also the lowest-ranked state on the India State Hunger Index.
In the recent years, the state's GDP growth has been above the national average. The state is rich in mineral resources, and has the largest reserves of diamond and copper in India. More than 30% of its area is under the forest cover. Its tourism industry has seen considerable growth, with the state topping the National Tourism Awards in 2010-11.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Economy
- 5 Infrastructure
- 6 Government and politics
- 7 Administration
- 8 Education
- 9 Sports
- 10 See also
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
Isolated remains of Homo erectus found in Hathnora in the Narmada Valley indicate that Madhya Pradesh might have been inhabited since the Middle Pleistocene era, around 500,000 years ago. Painted pottery dated to the later mesolithic period has been found in the Bhimbetka rock shelters. Chalcolithic sites belonging to Kayatha culture (2100-1800 BCE) and Malwa culture (1700-1500 BCE) have been discovered in the Western part of the state.
The city of Ujjain arose as a major center in the region, during the second wave of Indian urbanization in the sixth century BCE. It served as the capital of the Avanti Kingdom and mahajanapada. The area covered by several other ancient kingdoms such as Chedi, Malava, Karusha, Dasarna and Nishada has also been identified with parts of Madhya Pradesh.
Chandragupta Maurya united northern India around 320 BCE, establishing the Maurya empire, which included all of modern-day Madhya Pradesh. After the decline of the Maurya empire, the region was contested among the Sakas, the Kushanas, the Satavahanas, and several local dynasties during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE. Ujjain emerged as the predominant commercial center of western India from the first century BCE, located on the trade routes between the Ganges plain and India's Arabian Sea ports. The Satavahana dynasty of the northern Deccan and the Saka dynasty of the Western Satraps fought for the control of Madhya Pradesh during the 1st to 3rd centuries CE.
Subsequently, the region came under the control of the Gupta empire in the 4th and 5th centuries, and their southern neighbours, the Vakatakas. The attacks of the Hephthalites or White Huns brought about the collapse of the Gupta empire, which broke up into smaller states. The king Yasodharman of Malwa defeated the Huns in 528, ending their expansion. Later, Harsha (c. 590—647) ruled the northern parts of the state.
The Medieval period saw the rise of the Rajput clans, including the Paramaras of Malwa and the Chandelas of Bundelkhand. The Paramara king Bhoja (c. 1010–1060) was a renowned polymath. The small Gond kingdoms emerged in the Gondwana and Mahakoshal regions of the state. Northern Madhya Pradesh was conquered by the Muslim Delhi Sultanate in the 13th century. After the collapse of the Delhi Sultanate at the end of the 14th century, independent regional kingdoms reemerged, including the Tomara Rajput kingdom of Gwalior and the Muslim Sultanate of Malwa, with its capital at Mandu.
The Malwa Sultanate was conquered by the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1531. In the 1540s, most parts of the state fell to Sher Shah Suri, and subsequently to Hemu. Hemu, who had earlier served as the General of the Suri dynasty, operated from the Gwalior Fort during 1553-56. After his defeat in the Second Battle of Panipat in 1556 to Akbar, most of Madhya Pradesh came under the Mughal rule. Gondwana and Mahakoshal remained under the control of Gond kings, who acknowledged Mughal supremacy but enjoyed virtual autonomy.
The Mughal control weakend considerably after the death of Emperor Aurangzeb in 1707. Between 1720 and 1760, the Marathas took control of most of Madhya Pradesh, resulting in the establishment of semi-autonomous states under the nominal control of the Peshwa of Pune: the Holkars of Indore ruled much of Malwa, the Bhonsles of Nagpur dominated Mahakoshal-Gondwana area, while the Scindias of Gwalior controlled the northern parts of the state. Besides these, there were several other small states, including Bhopal, Orchha, and Rewa. The Bhopal state, which paid tribute to both the Marathas and the Nizam of Hyderabad, was founded by Dost Mohammed Khan, a former General in the Mughal army.
After the Third Anglo-Maratha War, the British took control of the entire region. All the sovereign states in the region became princely states of British India, governed by the Central India Agency. The Mahakoshal region became a British province: the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories. In 1861, the British merged the Nagpur Province with the Saugor and Nerbudda Territories to form the Central Provinces.
During the 1857 uprising, rebellions happened in the northern parts of the state, led by leaders like Tatya Tope. However, these were crushed by the British and the princes loyal to them. The state witnessed a number of anti-British activities and protests during the Indian independence movement. Several notable leaders such as Chandra Shekhar Azad, B. R. Ambedkar, Shankar Dayal Sharma and Atal Bihari Vajpayee were born in what is now Madhya Pradesh.
After the independence of India, Madhya Pradesh was created in 1950 from the former British Central Provinces and Berar and the princely states of Makrai and Chhattisgarh, with Nagpur as the capital of the state. The new states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were formed out of the Central India Agency. In 1956, the states of Madhya Bharat, Vindhya Pradesh, and Bhopal were merged into Madhya Pradesh, and the Marathi-speaking southern region Vidarbha, which included Nagpur, was ceded to Bombay state. Bhopal became the new capital of the state. In November 2000, as part of the Madhya Pradesh Reorganization Act, the southeastern portion of the state split off to form the new state of Chhattisgarh.
Location in India
Madhya Pradesh literally means "Central Province", and is located in the geographic heart of India, between latitude 21°04'N-26.87°N and longitude 74°02'-82°49' E. The state straddles the Narmada River, which runs east and west between the Vindhya and Satpura ranges; these ranges and the Narmada are the traditional boundary between the north and south of India. The state is bordered on the west by Gujarat, on the northwest by Rajasthan, on the northeast by Uttar Pradesh, on the east by Chhattisgarh, and on the south by Maharashtra.
Madhya Pradesh has a subtropical climate. Like most of north India, it has a hot dry summer (April–June), followed by monsoon rains (July–September) and a cool and relatively dry winter. The average rainfall is about 1,370 mm (53.9 in). It decreases from east to west because monsoon wind moves from east to west and drained clouds in eastern part takes less quantity of water vapours with them to western part. The south-eastern districts have the heaviest rainfall, some places receiving as much as 2,150 mm (84.6 in), while the western and north-western districts receive 1,000 mm (39.4 in) or less.
According to the 2011 figures, the recorded forest area of the state is 94,689 km2 (36,560 sq mi) constituting 30.72% of the geographical area of the state. It constitutes 12.30% of the forest area of India. Legally this area has been classified into "Reserved Forest" (65.3%), "Protected Forest" (32.84%) and "Unclassified Forest" (0.18%). Per capita forest area is 2,400 m2 (0.59 acres) as against the national average of 700 m2 (0.17 acres). The forest cover is less dense in the northern and western parts of the state, which contain the major urban centers. Variability in climatic and edaphic conditions brings about significant difference in the forest types of the state. There are four important forest types: Tropical Moist, Tropical Dry, Tropical Thorn, Subtropical broadleaved Hill forests.
The major types of soils found in the state are:
- Black Soil, most predominantly in Malwa region
- Red and yellow soil, in Baghelkhand region
- Alluvial Soil, in Northern Madhya Pradesh
- Laterite Soil, in highland areas
- Mixed Soil, in parts of Gwalior and Chambal division
Flora and fauna
Madhya Pradesh is home to 9 National Parks, including Bandhavgarh National Park, Kanha National Park, Satpura National Park, Sanjay National Park, Madhav National Park, Van Vihar National Park, Mandla Plant Fossils National Park, Panna National Park, and Pench National Park. There are also a number of natural preserves, including Amarkantak, Bagh Caves, Balaghat, Bori Natural Reserve, Ken Gharial, Ghatigaon, Kuno Palpur, Narwar, Chambal, Kukdeshwar, Narsinghgarh, Nora Dehi, Pachmarhi, Panpatha, Shikarganj, Patalkot and Tamia. Pachmarhi Biosphere Reserve in Satpura Range, Amarkantak biosphere reserveand panna national park are three of the 18 biosphere reserves in India.
Kanha, Bandhavgarh, Pench, Panna, and Satpura National Park are managed as project tiger areas. Sardarpur sanctuary in Dhar and Sailana are managed for conservation of kharmor or Lesser Florican. Ghatigaon sanctuary is managed for Great Indian Bustard or Son Chiriya. The National Chambal Sanctuary is managed for conservation of gharial and mugger, River dolphin, smooth-coated otter and a number of turtle species. Ken-gharial and Son-gharial sanctuaries are managed for conservation of gharial and mugger. Barasingha is the state animal and Dudhraj is the state bird of Madhya Pradesh.
Based on composition, the teak and sal forests are the important forest formations in the state. Bamboo-bearing areas are widely distributed in the state.
The Narmada is the longest river in Madhya Pradesh. It flows westward through a rift valley, with the Vindhya ranges sprawling along its northern bank and the Satpura range of mountains along the southern. Its tributaries sinclude the Banjar, the Tawa, the Machna, the Denwa and the Sonbhardra rivers. The Tapti River runs parallel to Narmada, and also flows through a rift valley. The Narmada–Tapti systems carry and enormous volume of water and provide drainage for almost a quarter of the land area of Madhya Pradesh.
The Vindhyas form the southern boundary of the Ganges basin, with the western part of the Ganges basin draining into the Yamuna and the eastern part directly into the Ganges itself. All the rivers, which drain into the Ganges, flow from south to north, with the Chambal, Shipra, Kali Sindh, Parbati, Kuno, Sind, Betwa, Dhasan and Ken rivers being the main tributaries of the Yamuna. The land drained by these rivers is agriculturally rich, with the natural vegetation largely consisting of grass and dry deciduous forest types, largely thorny. The eastern part of the Ganges basin consists of the Son, the Tons and the Rihand Rivers. Son, which arises in the Maikal hills around Amarkantak, is the largest tributary that goes into the Ganges on the south bank and that does not arise from the Himalayas. Son and its tributaries contribute the bulk of the monsoon flow into the Ganges, because the north bank tributaries are all snow fed. The forests in their basins are much richer than the thorn forests of the northwestern part of Madhya Pradesh.
The Satpuras, in the Gawilgarh and Mahadeo Hills, also contain a watershed, which is south facing. The Wainganga, the Wardha, the Pench, the Kanhan and Penganga rivers, discharge an enormous volume of water into the Godavari river system. The Godavari basin consists of sub-tropical, semi-moist forests, mainly in the valley of the Indrawati. There are many important multi-state irrigation projects in development, including the Godavari River Basin Irrigation Projects.
Madhya Pradesh is divided into the following agro-climatic zones:
- Kaimur Plateau and Satpura Hills
- Vindhyan Plateau (Hills)
- Narmada valley
- Wainganga valley
- Gird (Gwalior) Region
- Bundelkhand Region
- Satpura Plateau (Hills)
- Malwa Plateau
- Nimar Plateau
- Jhabua Hills
|Source:Census of India|
The population of Madhya Pradesh consists of a number of ethnic groups and tribes, castes and communities, including the indigenous tribals and relatively more recent migrants from other states. The scheduled castes and the scheduled tribes constitute a significant portion of the population of the State. The main tribal groups in Madhya Pradesh are Gond, Bhil, Baiga, Korku, Bhadia (or Bhariya), Halba, Kaul, Mariya, Malto and Sahariya. Dhar, Jhabua and Mandla districts have more than 50 percent tribal population. In Khargone, Chhindwara, Seoni, Sidhi and Shahdol districts 30-50 percent population is of tribes. According to the 2001 census, the population of the tribals in Madhya Pradesh was 122.33 lakh, constituting 20.27% of the total population. There were 46 recognized Scheduled Tribes and three of them have been identified as "Special Primitive Tribal Groups" in the State.
Due to the different linguistic, cultural and geographical environment, and its peculiar complications, the diverse tribal world of Madhya Pradesh has been largely cut-off from the mainstream of development. Madhya Pradesh ranks very low on the Human Development Index value of 0.375 (2011), which is below the national average. According to the India State Hunger Index (2008) compiled by the International Food Policy Research Institute, the malnutrition situation in Madhya Pradesh was "extremely alarming", receiving a severity rating between Ethiopia and Chad. The state ranks is also the worst performer in India, when it comes to female foeticides.
The predominant language of the region is Hindi. In addition to standard Hindi, several regional variants are spoken, which are considered by some to be dialects of Hindi, and by others to be distinct but related languages. Among these languages are Malvi in Malwa, Nimadi in Nimar, Bundeli in Bundelkhand, and Bagheli in Bagelkhand and the southeast. Each of these languages or dialects has dialects of its own. Other languages include Telugu, Bhilodi (Bhili), Gondi, Korku, Kalto (Nahali), and Nihali (Nahali), all spoken by tribal groups. Due to the historical rule of the Marathas, Marathi is spoken by a substantial number of people. Gujarati is spoken by a large number of people due to the state's proximity to Gujarat.
Three sites in Madhya Pradesh have been declared World Heritage Sites by UNESCO: the Khajuraho Group of Monuments (1986) including Devi Jagadambi temple, Rewa, Buddhist Monuments at Sanchi (1989) and the Rock Shelters of Bhimbetka (2003). Other architecturally significant or scenic sites include Ajaigarh, Amarkantak, Asirgarh, Bandhavgarh, Bawangaja, Bhopal, Chanderi, Chitrakuta, Dhar, Gwalior, Indore, Burhanpur, Maheshwar, Mandleshwar, Mandu, Omkareshwar, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Shivpuri, Sonagiri, Mandla and Ujjain. MP being very large geographically, and the history being spread over several millennia, developing a comprehensive picture of heritage and architecture is a monumental task.
Madhya Pradesh is noted for its classical and folk music. Some of the noted Hindustani classical music gharanas in Madhya Pradesh include the Maihar gharana, the Gwalior gharana and Senia gharana. Two of the medieval India's most noted singers, Tansen and Baiju Bawra, were born near Gwalior in present-day Madhya Pradesh. Noted Dhrupad exponents Aminuddin Dagar (Indore), Gundecha Brothers (Ujjain) and Uday Bhawalkar (Ujjain) were also born in present-day Madhya Pradesh. The birthplaces of noted playback singers Kishore Kumar (Khandwa) and Lata Mangeshkar (Indore) are also located in MP. The local styles of folk singing include Faga, Bhartahari, Sanja geet, Bhopa, Kalbelia, Bhat/Bhand/Charan, Vasdeva, Videsia, Kalgi Turra, Nirgunia, Alha, Pandwani Gayan and Garba Garbi Govalan.
The major folk dances of MP are Badhai, Rai, Saira, Jawara, Sher, Akhara, Shaitan, baredi, karma, kathi, Sua, Saila, Mauni, Dhimrai, kanara, Bhagoria, Dashera, dadariya, Duldul Ghodi, Lehgi ghodi, Fefriya, Mandlya, danda, Ada-khada, dadel, Matki, birha, Ahirai, pardhauni, Vilma, Dadar and Kalsa.
According to census of 2001, 92% of the MP residents followed Hinduism, while others are Muslim (6%), Jain (0.9%), Christians (0.3%), Buddhists (0.3%), and Sikhs (0.2%). The modern-day gurus Maharishi Mahesh Yogi (of Transcendental Meditation fame) and Bhagwan Shree Rajneesh (Osho) were born in the present-day Madhya Pradesh.
Madhya Pradesh's gross state domestic product (nominal GDP) for 2010–11 was 259,903 crore (approximately US$ 47,120,000,000). The per-capita figure was US$ 583: the fourth lowest in the country. Between 1999 and 2008, the annualized growth rate of the state was very low: 3.5%. Subsequently, the state's GDP growth rate has improved significantly, rising to 8% during 2010-11 and 12% during 2011-12.
The state has an agrarian economy. The major crops of Madhya Pradesh are wheat, soybean, gram, sugarcane, rice, maize, cotton, rapeseed, mustard and arhar. Minor Forest Produce (MFP), such as tendu leaves used to roll beedi, sal seed, teak seed, and lak also contribute to state's rural economy.
Madhya Pradesh has 5 Special Economic Zones (SEZs): 3 IT/ITeS (Indore, Gwalior), 1 mineral-based (Jabalpur) and 1 agro-based (Jabalpur). In October 2011, approval was given to 14 proposed SEZs, out of which 10 were IT/ITeS-based. Indore is the major commercial center of the state. Because of the state's central location, a number of consumer goods companies have established manufacturing bases in MP.
Madhya Pradesh has 6 Ordnance Factories, 4 of which are located at Jabalpur (Vehicle Factory, Grey Iron Foundry, Gun Carriage Factory, Ordnance Factory Khamaria) and one each at Katni and Itarsi. The factories are run by the Ordnance Factories Board, and manufacture a variety of products for the Indian Armed Forces.
The state's tourism industry is growing, fueled by wildlife tourism and a number of places of historical and religious significance. Sanchi and Khajuraho are frequented by external tourists. Besides the major cities, Bhedaghat, Bhimbetka, Bhojpur, Maheshwar, Mandu, Orchha, Pachmarhi, Kanha and Ujjain are the other popular tourist destinations.
|Power type||Capacity (MW)|
The state has a total installed power generation capacity of 8,381.3 MW (March 2011), most of which is under the control of the state and the central governments.
|Road type||Length (in km)|
|Major District Roads|
Bus and train services cover most of Madhya Pradesh. The 99,043 km long road network of the state includes 18 national highways. A 4,948 km long rail network criss-crosses the state, with Jabalpur serving as headquarters for the West Central Railway Zone of the Indian Railways. The Central Railway and the Western Railway also cover parts of the state. The state has a total of 20 major railway junctions. The major inter-state bus terminals are located in Bhopal, Indore, Gwalior and Jabalpur. More than 2000 buses are conducted daily from these four cities. The intra-city transit systems mostly consist of buses, private autos and taxis.
The state does not have a coastline. Most of the sea trade happens through the Kandla and Jawaharlal Nehru Port (Nhava Sheva) in the neighboring states, which are well-connected to MP by road and rail networks.
There are five airports in the state: Devi Ahilyabai Holkar International Airport in Indore (the busiest), Raja Bhoj International Airport in Bhopal, Jabalpur Airport, Gwalior Airport and Khajuraho Airport. Besides, minor air strips are located at Ujjain, Khandwa, Satna and Rewa.
The state has 50 district hospitals, 333 community health centres, 1,157 primary health centres and 8,867 sub-centres.
The urban infrastructure has improved considerably in the past decade. 22 projects costing above $500 million have been sanctioned under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission for the development of Bhopal, Indore, Jabalpur and Ujjain.
Nava Bharat, Nai Duniya, Rajasthan Patrika, Dainik Bhaskar and Dainik Jagran are the leading Hindi newspapers. Other local newspapers are published in the cities. In English, Times of India, Hindustan Times, Central Chronicle and Free Press have editions from Bhopal. Urdu journals are common in Bhopal. Nadeem, the oldest Urdu newspaper of the state, is published from Bhopal. Urdu Action and Haq-o-Insaf are also published. Farz, a Sindhi daily, is published from Bhopal is the only Sindhi newspaper in state.
Government and politics
Madhya Pradesh has a 230-seat state Legislative Assembly. The state also sends 40 members to the Parliament of India: 29 are elected to the Lok Sabha (Lower House) and 11 to the Rajya Sabha (Upper House). The constitutional head of the state is the Governor, appointed by the President of India. The executionary powers lie with the Chief Minister, who is the elected leader of the state legislature. As of 2012, the current governor is Ram Naresh Yadav, and the chief minister is Shivraj Singh Chouhan of the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP).
The dominant political parties in the state are the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) and the Indian National Congress. Unlike in many of the neighbouring states, the small or regional parties have not had much success in the state elections. In the November 2008 state elections, the BJP won an absolute majority of 143 seats, defeating Congress which won 71 seats. Bahujan Samaj Party is the third major party in the state legislature, with 7 seats.
Madhya Pradesh state is made up of 50 districts, which are grouped into 10 divisions.
As of 2011, the state has 50 jila (district) panchayats, 313 janpad panchayats/blocks, and 23043 gram (village) panchayats. The municipalities in the state include 14 Nagar Nigams, 86 Nagar Palikas and 238 Nagar Panchayats.
According to the 2011 census, Madhya Pradesh had a literacy rate of 70.60%. According to the 2009-10 figures, the state had 105,592 primary schools, 6,352 high schools and 5,161 higher secondary schools. The state has 208 engineering & architecture colleges, 208 management institutes and 12 medical colleges.
The state is home to some of the premier educational and research institutions of India including IIM Indore, IIT Indore, IIITDM Jabalpur and IIITM Gwalior, SPA Bhopal, IIFM (Bhopal), National Law Institute University (Bhopal), Indian Institute of Science Education and Research (Bhopal),Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology(Bhopal), All India Institute of Medical Sciences (Bhopal).
There are 500 degree colleges, which are affiliated with one of the universities in the state. These universities include Jawaharlal Nehru Agriculture University, Madhya Pradesh Veterinary Sciences University, Madhya Pradesh Medical University, Rajiv Gandhi Technical University, Awadhesh Pratap Singh University Rewa, Barkatullah University Bhopal, Devi Ahilya Vishwavidyalaya Indore, Rani Durgavati University Jabalpur, Vikram University Ujjain, Jiwaji University Gwalior and Dr HariSingh Gaur University (Sagar University).
Cricket, football, basketball, volleyball, cycling, swimming, trekking, badminton and table tennis are the popular outdoor activities in the state. Traditional games like Kho kho, Gulli Danda, Pittu Garam/Sitoliya and Langdi are popular in the rural areas.
Aishbagh Stadium, Bhopal is the home ground for World Series Hockey team Bhopal Badshahs. The state has a football team that participates in the Santosh Trophy.
There are three International cricket stadiums in state – Nehru Stadium, Indore, Roop Singh Stadium (Gwalior) and Maharani Usharaje Trust Cricket Ground (Indore). Madhya Pradesh's best performances in Ranji Trophy was in 1998–99, when the Chandrakant Pandit-led team ended as the runner-up. Its predecessor, the Indore-based Holkar cricket team, won the Ranji Trophy four times. madhya pradesh game policy 1994.
- List of people from Madhya Pradesh
- Maratha Empire
- ^ a b 2011 Census of India
- ^ List of Indian states by sex ratio)
- ^ a b Madhya Pradesh: Economic and Human Development Indicators, UNDP (2011)
- ^ a b Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) at Current Prices (as on 15-03-2012), Planning Commission of India.
- ^ Madhya Pradesh topped the National Tourism Awards 2010-11
- ^ "The Hathnora Skull Fossil from Madhya Pradesh, India". Geological Survey of India. 2005-09-20. http://www.portal.gsi.gov.in/gsiDoc/pub/cs_hathnora.pdf. Retrieved 2012-09-08.
- ^ Kenneth A. R. Kennedy (8 September 2000). God-Apes and Fossil Men: Paleoanthropology of South Asia. University of Michigan Press. pp. 206–. ISBN 978-0-472-11013-1. http://books.google.com/books?id=W6zQHNavWlsC&pg=PA206. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- ^ Vinod Chandra Srivastava (2 January 2008). History of Agriculture in India, Up to C. 1200 A.D.. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 309–317. ISBN 978-81-8069-521-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=FvjZVwYVmNcC&pg=PA309. Retrieved 8 September 2012.
- ^ Dwarka Prasad Misha, ed (1956). The History of freedom movement in Madhya Pradesh. Govt. Print., Madhya Pradesh.
- ^ State of Forest Report. Forest Survey of India (Ministry of Environment & Forests). 2011. http://www.fsi.org.in/cover_2011/madhyapradesh.pdf. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- ^ Wild Life. Forest Department, Madhya Pradesh.
- ^ "Census Population" (PDF). Census of India. Ministry of Finance India. http://indiabudget.nic.in/es2006-07/chapt2007/tab97.pdf. Retrieved 18 December 2008.
- ^ Scheduled Castes & Scheduled Tribe Welfare Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh
- ^ "Hunger in India states 'alarming'". BBC. 14 October 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/7669152.stm. Retrieved 12 May 2010.
- ^ Yet again, Madhya Pradesh tops in cases of feticide
- ^ Simon Broughton; Mark Ellingham; Richard Trillo (2000). World Music: Latin and North America, Caribbean, India, Asia and Pacific. Rough Guides. pp. 91–. ISBN 978-1-85828-636-5. http://books.google.com/books?id=QzX8THIgRjUC&pg=PA91. Retrieved 13 September 2012.
- ^ 2001 Indian Census Data
- ^ A special report on India: Ruled by Lakshmi 11 Dec 2008 from The Economist print edition
- ^ a b Lemuel Lall (2012-06-29). "Madhya Pradesh's GDP goes up to 12 per cent". The Times of India. http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-06-29/india/32471751_1_growth-rate-agriculture-growth-negative-growth. Retrieved 2012-09-10.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Madhya Pradesh: India Brand Equity Foundation
- ^ MP State Biodiversity Board
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- Madhya Pradesh (India). The Madhya Pradesh Human Development Report 2002: Using the Power of Democracy for Development. [Bhopal: Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 2002].
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- Rag, Pankaj. Vintage, Madhya Pradesh: A Collection of Old Photographs. Bhopal: Madhya Pradesh Madhyam jointly with the Directorate of Archaeology, Archives, and Museums, 2005. ISBN 81-902702-7-3
- Parmar, Shyam. Folk Tales of Madhya Pradesh. Folk tales of India series, 12". New Delhi: Sterling Publishers, 1973.
- Rag, Pankaj, and O. P. Misra. Masterpieces of Madhya Pradesh. Bhopal: Directorate of Archaeology, Archives & Museums, Government of Madhya Pradesh, 2005.
- Sampath, M. D., H. V. Trivedi, and Mandan Trivedi. Epigraphs of Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Archaeological Survey of India, 2001.
- Sati, Vishwambhar Prasad. Madhya Pradesh, a Geo-Economic Appraisal. Delhi: Abhijeet, 2004. ISBN 81-88683-43-4
- Shah, Shampa, and Aashi Manohar. Tribal Arts and Crafts of Madhya Pradesh. Living traditions of India. Ahmedabad: Mapin Pub./in Association with Vanya Prakashan, Bhopal, 1996. ISBN 0-944142-71-0
- Shrivastava, Divya. The Development of Scheduled Tribes in Madhya Pradesh. New Delhi: Gyan Pub. House, 2000. ISBN 81-212-0698-7
- Singh, R. V. Dairy Co-Operatives and Development: A Study of Tribal Dairy Co-Operatives in Madhya Pradesh. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications, 2006. ISBN 81-7835-331-8
- MP Government Portal
- Madhya Pradesh State Tourism Development Corporation
- Provisional Population Totals - 2011 Census of India: Madhya Pradesh
- Madhya Pradesh travel guide from Wikivoyage
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