Commonwealth of Massachusetts
Flag of Massachusetts State seal of Massachusetts
Flag of MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif Seal
Nickname(s): Bay State

State BirdWp globe tiny.gif = Black-capped ChickadeeWp globe tiny.gif

Motto(s): Ense petit placidam sub libertate quietemWp globe tiny.gif

(Latin: By the sword she seeks peace under liberty)

Map of the United States with Massachusetts highlighted
Official language(s) EnglishWp globe tiny.gif
Capital BostonWp globe tiny.gif
Largest city BostonWp globe tiny.gif
Largest metro area Greater BostonWp globe tiny.gif
Area  Ranked 44th in the U.S.
 - Total 10,555 sq mi
(27,336 km2)
 - Width 183 miles (295 km)
 - Length 113 miles (182 km)
 - % water 25.7
 - Latitude 41° 14′ N to 42° 53′ N
 - Longitude 69° 56′ W to 73° 30′ W
Population  Ranked 13th in the U.S.
 - Total 6,349,097
 - Density 809.8/sq mi  (312.7/km2)
Ranked 3rd in the U.S.
 - Median household income  $52,354 (9th)
 - Highest point Mount GreylockWp globe tiny.gif[1]
3,491 ft (1,064 m)
 - Mean 500 ft  (150 m)
 - Lowest point Atlantic OceanWp globe tiny.gif[1]
sea level
Admission to Union  February 6Wp globe tiny.gif, 1788Wp globe tiny.gif (6th)
Governor Deval PatrickWp globe tiny.gif (D)
Lieutenant Governor {{{Lieutenant Governor}}}
Legislature {{{Legislature}}}
 - Upper house {{{Upperhouse}}}
 - Lower house {{{Lowerhouse}}}
U.S. Senators Edward KennedyWp globe tiny.gif (D)
John KerryWp globe tiny.gif (D)
U.S. House delegation List
Time zone EasternWp globe tiny.gif: UTCWp globe tiny.gif-5/-4Wp globe tiny.gif
Abbreviations MA Mass. US-MA

The Commonwealth of Massachusetts (English pronunciation: /ˌmæsəˈtʃuːsɨts/) is a stateWp globe tiny.gif in the New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif region of the northeasternWp globe tiny.gif United StatesWp globe tiny.gif. Most of its population of 6.4 million live in the Boston metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif. The eastern half of this relatively small state is mostly urbanWp globe tiny.gif and suburbanWp globe tiny.gif. The west is primarily rural, also with most of its population in urban enclaves. Massachusetts is the most populous of the six New England states and ranks third in overall population densityWp globe tiny.gif among the 50 states.

Massachusetts has been a significant state in American history. Plymouth, MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif, was the second permanent English settlement in North America. Colonists from England founded many towns and villages in the present-day territory of Massachusetts very early in the nation's history in the 1620s and 1630s. The Boston area became known as the "Cradle of Liberty" for the ferment there which led to the American RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif and the independenceWp globe tiny.gif of the United StatesWp globe tiny.gif from Great BritainWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts was the first U.S. state to abolish slaveryWp globe tiny.gif and was a center of the temperance movementWp globe tiny.gif and abolitionistWp globe tiny.gif activity in the years leading to the American Civil WarWp globe tiny.gif. The state has contributed many prominent politicians to national service, including the Kennedy familyWp globe tiny.gif.

Originally dependent on agriculture and trade with Europe, Massachusetts was transformed into a manufacturing center during the Industrial RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif. Migration of factories to the lower-wage Southern states caused economic stagnation during the first half of the 20th century. The Massachusetts economy was revived after World War IIWp globe tiny.gif, and today is prominent in higher educationWp globe tiny.gif, health careWp globe tiny.gif, and high technologyWp globe tiny.gif.


The Massachusetts Bay ColonyWp globe tiny.gif was named after the indigenous population, the MassachusettWp globe tiny.gif, whose name can be segmented as mass-adchu-s-et, where mass- is "large", -adchu- is "hill", -s- is a diminutiveWp globe tiny.gif suffix meaning "small", and -et is a locativeWp globe tiny.gif suffix, identifying a place. It has been translated as "at the great hill," "by the many small hills" "at the little big hill," or "at the range of hills," referring to the Blue HillsWp globe tiny.gif, or in particular, Great Blue HillWp globe tiny.gif, located on the boundary of MiltonWp globe tiny.gif and CantonWp globe tiny.gif, to the southwest of Boston.[2][3][4] (c.f. the NarragansettWp globe tiny.gif name Massachusêuck;[3] OjibweWp globe tiny.gif misajiwensed, "of the little big hill").[5]

Massachusetts is officially a "commonwealthWp globe tiny.gif." Colloquially, it is often referred to simply as "the Commonwealth," although "state" is used interchangeably. While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states and a similar form of internal government.


See also List of counties in MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif

Prominent roads and cities in Massachusetts

Massachusetts is bordered on the north by New HampshireWp globe tiny.gif and VermontWp globe tiny.gif; on the west by New YorkWp globe tiny.gif; on the south by ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif and Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif; and on the east by the Atlantic OceanWp globe tiny.gif. Most of the state is uplands of resistant metamorphic rock that were scraped by PleistoceneWp globe tiny.gif glaciers that deposited moraines and outwash on a large, sandy, arm-shaped peninsula called Cape CodWp globe tiny.gif and the islands Martha's VineyardWp globe tiny.gif and NantucketWp globe tiny.gif to the south of Cape Cod. Upland elevations increase to the north and west and the highest point in the state is Mount GreylockWp globe tiny.gif at 3,491 feet (1,064 m) near the state's northwest corner.

A portion of the north-central Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif near South DeerfieldWp globe tiny.gif, much more rural than SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, in the southern part of the valley, or BostonWp globe tiny.gif, which is on the coast.

The uplands are interrupted by the downfaulted Pioneer Valley along the Connecticut River and further west by the HousatonicWp globe tiny.gif Valley separating the Berkshire HillsWp globe tiny.gif from the Taconic RangeWp globe tiny.gif along the western border with New YorkWp globe tiny.gif.

BostonWp globe tiny.gif is located at the innermost point of Massachusetts BayWp globe tiny.gif, at the mouth of the Charles RiverWp globe tiny.gif, the longest river entirely within Massachusetts. Most of the population of the Boston metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif (approximately 4.4 million) does not live in the city proper; eastern Massachusetts on the whole is fairly densely populated and largely suburbWp globe tiny.gifan as far west as WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif.

Central Massachusetts encompasses Worcester county, and includes the cities of WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif, FitchburgWp globe tiny.gif, LeominsterWp globe tiny.gif and small upland towns, forests, and small farms. The Quabbin ReservoirWp globe tiny.gif borders the western side of the county, and is the main water supply for the eastern part of the state.[6][7]

The Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif along the Connecticut RiverWp globe tiny.gif in Western MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif is urbanized from the ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif border (and greater HartfordWp globe tiny.gif) to north as far as NorthamptonWp globe tiny.gif, and includes SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, West SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, WestfieldWp globe tiny.gif, and HolyokeWp globe tiny.gif. Pioneer Valley economy and population was influenced by agriculturally productive Connecticut River Valley land in the 17th and 18th century, water power for the Industrial RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif in the 19th century and expansion of higher education in the 20th century.

Massachusetts TerrainWp globe tiny.gif

The remainder of the state west of Pioneer Valley is mainly uplands, a range of small mountains known as the Berkshires, summer home to the Boston Symphony Orchestra (Lenox), Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival, the Norman Rockwell Museum (Stockbridge), Monument Mountain and Mount Greylock, the highest point in Massachusetts. It largely remained in aboriginal hands until the 18th century when Scotch-Irish settlers arrived and found the more productive lands already settled. Availability of better land in western New York and then the Northwest TerritoriesWp globe tiny.gif soon put the upland agricultural population into decline. Available water power lead to 19th century settlement along upland rivers. PittsfieldWp globe tiny.gif and North AdamsWp globe tiny.gif grew into small cities and there are a number of smaller mill towns along the Westfield RiverWp globe tiny.gif.

The geographic center of the state is in the town of RutlandWp globe tiny.gif, in Worcester county. The National Park ServiceWp globe tiny.gif administers a number of natural and historical sites in MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif.

The fourteen counties, moving roughly from west to east, are BerkshireWp globe tiny.gif, FranklinWp globe tiny.gif, HampshireWp globe tiny.gif, HampdenWp globe tiny.gif, WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif, MiddlesexWp globe tiny.gif, EssexWp globe tiny.gif, SuffolkWp globe tiny.gif, NorfolkWp globe tiny.gif, BristolWp globe tiny.gif, PlymouthWp globe tiny.gif, BarnstableWp globe tiny.gif, DukesWp globe tiny.gif, and NantucketWp globe tiny.gif. All but two of the Commonwealth's fourteen counties are named for British counties, cities, or nobles. }}; and a Google Earth .kmz file(Avalon_Nashoba.kmz) showing the field stops and associated geological map overlays can be downloaded from Google Earth.</ref> -->


Massachusetts has a humid continental climateWp globe tiny.gif, with warm summers and cold, snowy winters. Massachusetts receives about 40 inches (1016 mm) of rain annually, fairly evenly distributed throughout the year, slightly wetter during the winter. Summers are warm with average high temperatures in July above 80 °F (26.7 °C) and overnight lows above 60 °F (15.5 °C) common throughout the state. Winters are cold, but generally less extreme on the coast with high temperatures in the winter averaging above freezing even in January, although areas further inland are much colder. The state does have extreme temperatures from time to time with 90 °F (32.2 °C) in the summer and temperatures below 0 °F (-17.8 °C) in the winter not being unusual.

The state has its share of extreme weather, prone to Nor'easterWp globe tiny.gifs and to severe winter storms. Summers can bring thunderstormsWp globe tiny.gif, averaging around 30 days of thunderstorm activity per year. Massachusetts has had its share of destructive tornadoes, with the western part of the state slightly more vulnerable than coastal areas in the east. Massachusetts, like the entire United States eastern seaboard, is vulnerable to hurricaneWp globe tiny.gifs. Although its location is farther east in the Atlantic Ocean than states farther south, Massachusetts has suffered a direct hit from a major hurricane three times since 1851, the same number of direct hits suffered by the southern Atlantic state of GeorgiaWp globe tiny.gif.[8] More often hurricanes weakened to tropical stormWp globe tiny.gif strength pass near Massachusetts.

Monthly Normal High and Low Temperatures For Various Massachusetts Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Boston 36/22 39/24 46/32 56/40 67/50 77/59 82/66 80/64 72/57 62/46 52/38 42/28
Worcester 31/16 34/18 43/26 54/36 66/46 74/55 79/61 77/60 69/51 58/41 47/32 36/22

Flora and fauna

The primary biomeWp globe tiny.gif of inland Massachusetts is temperate deciduous forestWp globe tiny.gif. However, much of the state has been logged, leaving only traces of old growth forestWp globe tiny.gif in isolated pockets. Secondary growth has regenerated in many woodlotWp globe tiny.gifs and forestWp globe tiny.gifs, particularly in the western half of Massachusetts. UrbanizationWp globe tiny.gif, particularly in the eastern half of the state, has affected much of Massachusetts. No longer are there vast expanses of wilderness. Gray WolfWp globe tiny.gif, ElkWp globe tiny.gif, WolverineWp globe tiny.gif and Mountain LionWp globe tiny.gif once occurred here but have long since disappeared.


Piping Plover frequent Massachusetts dunes and beaches

Wildlife species that are doing well are adapting to a changing setting. CoyoteWp globe tiny.gif, White-tailed DeerWp globe tiny.gif, RaccoonWp globe tiny.gif, and Wild TurkeyWp globe tiny.gif are now found in suburbs of major cities and are increasing in population. Black BearWp globe tiny.gif and mooseWp globe tiny.gif have made comebacks in western and central Massachusetts, and are slowly expanding their range. Peregrine FalconWp globe tiny.gif can be found nesting on artificial platforms on many of the state's tallest buildings in larger cities such as BostonWp globe tiny.gif, WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif and SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif.

The Atlantic FlywayWp globe tiny.gif is the primary migration route for North American bird species. Common LoonWp globe tiny.gif are a relatively recent addition to the breeding bird list, their nests at the Wachusett ReservoirWp globe tiny.gif are considered the most southerly in the world population of this species. A significant portion of the eastern population of Long-tailed DuckWp globe tiny.gif winter off NantucketWp globe tiny.gif. Small offshore islands are home to a significant population of breeding Roseate TernWp globe tiny.gifs, and some beaches are important breeding areas to the endangered Piping PloverWp globe tiny.gif.

File:Northatlrightwhale MMC.jpg

North Atlantic Right Whale

Massachusetts has an extensive coastlineWp globe tiny.gif and has a declining commercial fishery out to the continental shelfWp globe tiny.gif. Atlantic codWp globe tiny.gif, haddockWp globe tiny.gif and American lobsterWp globe tiny.gif are species harvested here. Gray SealWp globe tiny.gif have a large nursery near Monomoy IslandWp globe tiny.gif and other islands in Nantucket SoundWp globe tiny.gif. Harbor sealsWp globe tiny.gif are a commonly seen feeding and playing just offshore year round. Finally, a significant number of the endangered North Atlantic Right WhaleWp globe tiny.gifs summer on feeding grounds in Cape Cod BayWp globe tiny.gif. Whale watchingWp globe tiny.gif is a popular summer activity off the coast of Massachusetts. Boats regularly sail to Stellwagen BankWp globe tiny.gif to view species such as Humpback WhaleWp globe tiny.gif, Fin WhaleWp globe tiny.gif, Minke WhaleWp globe tiny.gif and Atlantic White-sided DolphinWp globe tiny.gif.


Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)

Massachusetts was originally inhabited by several Algonquian tribes: the Wampanoag, Nauset, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Pennacook, Mahican, and some Narragansett and Pequot. These indigenous people were decimated by waves of smallpoxWp globe tiny.gif inadvertently brought to the New World by Sir Herbert PophamWp globe tiny.gif and his ship to the Saco, MaineWp globe tiny.gif area in 1616.

The first European settlers in Massachusetts, the PilgrimsWp globe tiny.gif, established their settlement at PlymouthWp globe tiny.gif in 1620, and developed friendly relations with the native WampanoagWp globe tiny.gif. This was the second successful permanent English colony in North America, after the Jamestown ColonyWp globe tiny.gif; both were preceded by temporary camps, the unsuccessful Popham ColonyWp globe tiny.gif, and Spanish settlements in Florida in the 1500s. Most early settlers came from within 60 miles (100 km) of Haverhill, EnglandWp globe tiny.gif. The Pilgrims were soon followed by PuritanWp globe tiny.gifs who established the Massachusetts Bay ColonyWp globe tiny.gif at present-day BostonWp globe tiny.gif in 1630. The Puritans, whose beliefs included exclusive understanding of the literal truth of the Bible, came to Massachusetts for religious freedom. Dissenters such as Anne HutchinsonWp globe tiny.gif, Roger WilliamsWp globe tiny.gif, and Thomas HookerWp globe tiny.gif left Massachusetts because of the Puritan society's lack of religious tolerance. Williams founded the colony of Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif, and Hooker founded ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif.

By 1636, the colonists had begun to settle the inland Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif along the Connecticut RiverWp globe tiny.gif, where the state's best agriculturalWp globe tiny.gif land is concentrated.

Native American-European racial tensions led to King Philip's WarWp globe tiny.gif 1675-76. There were major campaigns in the Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif and Plymouth ColonyWp globe tiny.gif, as well as an unsuccessful expedition against QuebecWp globe tiny.gif under William PhipsWp globe tiny.gif in 1690. Massachusetts became a single colony in 1692, the largest in New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif, and one where many American institutions and traditions were formed. The colony fought alongside British regulars in a series of French and Indian WarsWp globe tiny.gif that were characterized by brutal border raids and successful attacks on British forces in New FranceWp globe tiny.gif (present-day CanadaWp globe tiny.gif).

Percy's Rescue at Lexington by Ralph EarlWp globe tiny.gif and Amos Doolittle from 1775.

Massachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from Great BritainWp globe tiny.gif, earning it the nickname, the "Cradle of Liberty". Colonists here had long had uneasy relations with the English monarchy, including open rebellion under the Dominion of New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif in the 1680s.

The Boston Tea PartyWp globe tiny.gif is an example of the protest spirit of the later pre-revolutionary period in the 1770s, and the Boston MassacreWp globe tiny.gif is a famous incident which escalated the conflict. With actions by patriots such as Sam AdamsWp globe tiny.gif and John HancockWp globe tiny.gif followed by counter-actions by the Crown were a main reason for the unity of the Thirteen ColoniesWp globe tiny.gif and the outbreak of the American RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif. The Battles of Lexington and ConcordWp globe tiny.gif initiated the American Revolutionary WarWp globe tiny.gif and were fought in the Massachusetts towns of ConcordWp globe tiny.gif and LexingtonWp globe tiny.gif.

After independence and during the formative years of independent American government, Shays' RebellionWp globe tiny.gif was an armed uprisingWp globe tiny.gif in the western half of the state from 1786 to 1787. The rebels were mostly small farmers angered by crushing war debt and taxes which resulted from their lack of representation in Congress.

On March 15Wp globe tiny.gif, 1820Wp globe tiny.gif, MaineWp globe tiny.gif separated from Massachusetts, of which it had been a non-contiguous part, and entered the Union as the 23rd State as a result of the ratification of the Missouri CompromiseWp globe tiny.gif.

During the 19th century, Massachusetts became a national and world leader in the Industrial RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif, with its mastery of machine tools and textiles. The economy transformed from primarily agriculturalWp globe tiny.gif to manufacturing, making use of its many rivers to power factories for shoeWp globe tiny.gifs, furnitureWp globe tiny.gif, and clothingWp globe tiny.gif that drew labor from YankeeWp globe tiny.gifs on subsistence farms at first, and later drew upon immigrantWp globe tiny.gif labor from Europe.

Horace MannWp globe tiny.gif made the state system of schools the national model. Henry David ThoreauWp globe tiny.gif and Ralph Waldo EmersonWp globe tiny.gif made major contributions to American thought. Members of the TrancendentalismWp globe tiny.gif movement, they emphasized the importance of the natural world to humanity.

In the years leading up to the Civil WarWp globe tiny.gif, Massachusetts was a center of social progressivismWp globe tiny.gif, the temperance movementWp globe tiny.gif, and abolitionistWp globe tiny.gif activity within the United States. Antagonism to their views resulted in anti-abolitionist riots in Massachusetts between 1835 and 1837. The works of abolitionists contributed to subsequent actions of the state during the Civil War. Massachusetts was the first U.S. state to abolish slavery, in a 1783 judicial interpretation of its 1780 constitution, and was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a BlackWp globe tiny.gif regiment with WhiteWp globe tiny.gif officers, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer InfantryWp globe tiny.gif.

The industrial economy declined in the early twentieth century with the exodus of many manufacturing companies. By the 1920s low-wage competition from the South, followed by the Great DepressionWp globe tiny.gif, led to the collapse of Massachusetts' two main industries, shoes and textiles. In the years following World War IIWp globe tiny.gif, Massachusetts was transformed from a factory system to a largely service and high-tech based economy.

Government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. SuburbanizationWp globe tiny.gif flourished, and by the 1970s, the Route 128Wp globe tiny.gif corridor was dotted with high-technologyWp globe tiny.gif companies who recruited graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education.

The Kennedy familyWp globe tiny.gif was prominent in Massachusetts politics in the 20th century, especially with President John F. KennedyWp globe tiny.gif in the 1960s.

In 1987, the state received federal funding for the $14.6 billion Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Known colloquially as the "the Big DigWp globe tiny.gif," it was at the time the biggest federal highway project ever approved. As of 2007, the highway is open but landscaping is still underway.

In 2004, Massachusetts became the first state in the country to allow same-sex couples to marryWp globe tiny.gif.



Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 378,787
1800 422,845 11.6%
1810 472,040 11.6%
1820 523,287 10.9%
1830 610,408 16.6%
1840 737,699 20.9%
1850 994,514 34.8%
1860 1,231,066 23.8%
1870 1,457,351 18.4%
1880 1,783,085 22.4%
1890 2,238,947 25.6%
1900 2,805,346 25.3%
1910 3,366,416 20.0%
1920 3,852,356 14.4%
1930 4,249,614 10.3%
1940 4,316,721 1.6%
1950 4,690,514 8.7%
1960 5,148,578 9.8%
1970 5,689,170 10.5%
1980 5,737,037 0.8%
1990 6,016,425 4.9%
2000 6,349,097 5.5%

Massachusetts had an estimated 2006 population of 6,437,193. An estimated increase of 3,826, or 0.1%, from the prior year and an increase of 88,088, or 1.4%, since the year 2000. This includes an increase since the last census of 149,992 people (499,440 births minus 349,448 deaths) and a decrease from net migration of 89,812 people out of the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 200,155 people, and net migration within the country resulted in a loss of 289,967 people. As of 2000, Massachusetts is the third most densely populated U.S. stateWp globe tiny.gif, with 809.8 per square mile (312.68 per square kilometer), after New JerseyWp globe tiny.gif and Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif, and ahead of ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif and MarylandWp globe tiny.gif

Massachusetts has seen both population increases and decreases in recent years. For example, while some Bay Staters are leaving, others including Asian, Hispanic and African immigrants, arrive to replace them. Massachusetts in 2004 included 881,400 foreign-born residents.

Most Bay Staters live within a sixty-mile radius of the State House on Beacon Hill, often called Greater BostonWp globe tiny.gif: the City of Boston, neighboring cities and towns, the North ShoreWp globe tiny.gif, South ShoreWp globe tiny.gif, the northern, western, and southern suburbs, and most of southeastern and central Massachusetts. Eastern Massachusetts is more urban than Western MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif, which is primarily rural, save for the cities of SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif and NorthamptonWp globe tiny.gif, which serve as centers of population density in the Pioneer Valley of the Connecticut River. The center of populationWp globe tiny.gif of Massachusetts is located in Middlesex CountyWp globe tiny.gif, in the town of NatickWp globe tiny.gif.[11]

Massachusetts Population Density Map

Race, ancestry, and language

Demographics of Massachusetts (csv)
By race White Black AIAN Asian NHPI
AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native   -   NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander
2000 (total population) 89.23% 6.97% 0.62% 4.22% 0.15%
2000 (Hispanic only) 5.64% 1.09% 0.12% 0.06% 0.05%
2005 (total population) 87.89% 7.58% 0.65% 5.13% 0.17%
2005 (Hispanic only) 6.63% 1.29% 0.14% 0.07% 0.05%
Growth 2000-2005 (total population) -0.73% 9.65% 4.39% 22.61% 13.10%
Growth 2000-2005 (non-Hispanic only) -2.03% 7.84% 2.72% 22.74% 14.37%
Growth 2000-2005 (Hispanic only) 18.51% 19.43% 11.24% 13.47% 10.30%

The five largest reported ancestries in Massachusetts are: IrishWp globe tiny.gif (23.5%), ItalianWp globe tiny.gif (13.5%), French/French CanadianWp globe tiny.gif (or Franco-AmericanWp globe tiny.gif) (12.9%), EnglishWp globe tiny.gif (11.4%), GermanWp globe tiny.gif (5.9%).

Massachusetts also has large communities of people of Finnish (Fitchburg/Gardner) and Swedish descent; Armenian, Lebanese (Worcester) descent; and Italian descent. Other influential ethnicities are Greek AmericansWp globe tiny.gif, Lithuanian AmericansWp globe tiny.gif and Polish AmericansWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts "YankeeWp globe tiny.gifs," of colonial English ancestry, still have a strong presence. Franco-Bay Staters (French AmericansWp globe tiny.gif) are the largest group in parts of western and central Massachusetts. Boston has a large African-American population, and its largest immigrant group is HaitiansWp globe tiny.gif. Fall RiverWp globe tiny.gif and New BedfordWp globe tiny.gif on the south coast have large populations of people with PortugueseWp globe tiny.gif, BrazilianWp globe tiny.gif, and Cape VerdeanWp globe tiny.gif heritage, which is also very prevalent in the BrocktonWp globe tiny.gif area. There is a growing Brazilian population in the Boston area (especially in FraminghamWp globe tiny.gif) and also an abundant population of Brazilians thrive in Cape CodWp globe tiny.gif especially in BarnstableWp globe tiny.gif, FalmouthWp globe tiny.gif, and YarmouthWp globe tiny.gif. LowellWp globe tiny.gif, in the northeast of the state, is home to the second largest Cambodian (Khmer)Wp globe tiny.gif community in the country, outside of Long Beach, CaliforniaWp globe tiny.gif. Although most of the Native Americans intermarried or died in King Philip's War (1675), the WampanoagWp globe tiny.gif tribe maintains reservations at AquinnahWp globe tiny.gif, Grafton, on Martha's Vineyard, and MashpeeWp globe tiny.gif.[12][13] The NipmuckWp globe tiny.gif maintain two state-recognized reservations in the central part of the state. Other Wampanoags and other Native people live scattered around the state outside of reservations.

According to the 2000 U.S. CensusWp globe tiny.gif, 6.21% of the population aged 5 and over speak SpanishWp globe tiny.gif at home, while 2.68% speak PortugueseWp globe tiny.gif, 1.44% FrenchWp globe tiny.gif, and 1.00% ItalianWp globe tiny.gif.[14]


Massachusetts was founded and settled by staunch PuritanWp globe tiny.gifs in the 17th century. The descendants of the Puritans belong to many different churches; in the direct line of inheritance are the CongregationalWp globe tiny.gif/United Church of ChristWp globe tiny.gif and Unitarian UniversalistWp globe tiny.gif churches. Both of these denominations are noted for their strong support of social justice, civil rights, and moral issues, including strong and early advocacy of abolition of slavery, women's rights, and (after 2000) legal recognition of gay marriage. The world headquarters of the Unitarian-Universalist Church is located on Beacon Hill in Boston. Today Protestants make up less than 1/3 of the state's population. Roman CatholicWp globe tiny.gifs now predominate because of massive immigration from IrelandWp globe tiny.gif, QuebecWp globe tiny.gif, ItalyWp globe tiny.gif, PolandWp globe tiny.gif, PortugalWp globe tiny.gif, Puerto RicoWp globe tiny.gif, and the Dominican RepublicWp globe tiny.gif. A large JewishWp globe tiny.gif population came to the Boston area 1880-1920. Mary Baker EddyWp globe tiny.gif made the Boston Mother Church of Christian ScienceWp globe tiny.gif the world headquarters. Buddhists, pagans, Hindus, Seventh-Day Adventists, Muslims, and Mormons also can be found. Kripalu and the Insight Meditation Center (Barre) are examples of non-western religious centers in Massachusetts.

The religious affiliations of the people of Massachusetts, according to a 2001 survey, are shown in the table below:[15]

Emigration and Immigration

The latest estimated 2006 population Census figures show that Massachusetts has grown by slightly over 1 percent, to 6,437,193, since 2000. This growth is attributable to the fact that Massachusetts continues to attract top scholars and researchers as well as immigrantWp globe tiny.gifs.

High housing costs, taxesWp globe tiny.gif, weather, and traffic in Massachusetts have contributed to emigration to the Boston exburbs, to neighboring New HampshireWp globe tiny.gif and Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif, and to Southern and Western regions of the United States.

Recent censusWp globe tiny.gif data shows that the number of immigrants living in Massachusetts has increased over 15% from 2000-2005. The biggest influxes are Latin Americans. According to the census, the population of Central Americans rose by 67.7 percent between 2000 and 2005, and the number of South Americans rose by 107.5 percent. And among South Americans, the largest group to increase appeared to be Brazilians, whose numbers rose by 131.4 percent, to 84,836. This surge of immigrants tends to offset emigrationWp globe tiny.gif, and, of course, given the 350,000 increase in population in the Commonwealth between 1990 and 2000, many immigrants to Massachusetts come from elsewhere in the USA.

Following the shift to a high-tech economy and the numerous factory closures, few jobs remain for low skilled male workers, who are dropping out of the workforce in large numbers. The percentage of men in the labor force fell from 77.7% in 1989 to 72.8% in 2005. This national trend is most pronounced in Massachusetts. In the case of men without high school diplomas, 10% have left the labor force between 1990 and 2000.[16]


Massachusetts quarter, reverse side, 2000.jpg

Crane Paper CompanyWp globe tiny.gif in DaltonWp globe tiny.gif produces the paper material used for printing U. S. Federal Reserve noteWp globe tiny.gifs

The Bureau of Economic Analysis estimates that Massachusetts's gross state product in 2004 was US $318 billion. Per capita personal income in 2004 was US$42,102, making it the 2nd highest, just behind that of Connecticut. Gross state product increased 2.6% from 2004 to 2005, below the national average of 3.5%.[17]

Sectors vital to the Massachusetts economyWp globe tiny.gif include higher educationWp globe tiny.gif, biotechnology, finance, health careWp globe tiny.gif, financial servicesWp globe tiny.gif and tourism. Route 128 was a main center for the development of minicomputersWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts was the home of many of the largest computer companies such as Digital Equipment CorporationWp globe tiny.gif, Data GeneralWp globe tiny.gif, and Wang LaboratoriesWp globe tiny.gif situated around Route 128 and Route 495 (another beltway approximately 25 miles (40 km) farther away from Boston). Most of the larger companies fell into decline after the rise of the personal computer, which was based in large part on software such as VisicalcWp globe tiny.gif and Lotus 1-2-3Wp globe tiny.gif and hardware technology such as memory and operating systems developed by many of these companies. High technology remains an important sector, though few of the largest technology companies are based here.

Its agricultural outputs are seafood, nursery stock, dairy products, cranberries, tobacco and vegetables. Its industrial outputs are machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, scientific instruments, printing, and publishing. Thanks largely to the Ocean SprayWp globe tiny.gif cooperative, Massachusetts is the second largest cranberry producing state in the union (after WisconsinWp globe tiny.gif).

As of 2005, there were 6,100 farms in Massachusetts encompassing a total of 520,000 acres (2,100 km2), averaging 85 acres apiece. Particular agricultural products of note include tobaccoWp globe tiny.gif, animals and animal products, and fruits, tree nuts, and berries, for which the state is nationally ranked 11th, 16th, and 17th, respectively. [2]PDF (34.5 KiBWp globe tiny.gif)

Massachusetts has a flat-rate personal income taxWp globe tiny.gif of 5.3%, with an exemption for income below a threshold that varies from year to year. The state imposes a 5% sales taxWp globe tiny.gif on retail sales of tangible personal property—except for groceries, clothing, and periodicals—in Massachusetts by any vendor. The 5% sales tax is charged on clothing that costs more than $150.00. Only the amount over $150.00 is taxed. All real and tangible personal propertyWp globe tiny.gif located within the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is taxable unless specifically exempted by statute. The administration of the assessment and collection of all real and tangible personal property taxWp globe tiny.gifes in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts is handled by the city and town assessor and collected in the jurisdiction where the property is located. Massachusetts imposes a tax on any gains from the sale or exchange of capital assets held for more than one year. The state also collects a 12% tax on the sale or exchange of capital assets held for one year or less (short-term capital gains). Interest from non-Massachusetts banks is no longer taxed at 12%, but the first $100 of interest from Massachusetts banks is tax exempt from even the 5.3% tax. There is no inheritance taxWp globe tiny.gif and limited Massachusetts estate taxWp globe tiny.gif related to federal estate tax collection.


The major airport in the state is Logan International AirportWp globe tiny.gif. The airport is a hub for major airlines such as American AirlinesWp globe tiny.gif.

Interstate highways crossing the state include: I-91Wp globe tiny.gif, I-291Wp globe tiny.gif, I-84Wp globe tiny.gif, I-93Wp globe tiny.gif, I-95Wp globe tiny.gif, I-495Wp globe tiny.gif, I-195Wp globe tiny.gif, I-395Wp globe tiny.gif, I-90Wp globe tiny.gif (the Massachusetts TurnpikeWp globe tiny.gif), I-290Wp globe tiny.gif, and I-190Wp globe tiny.gif . Other major thoroughfares are U.S. Route 1Wp globe tiny.gif, Route 2Wp globe tiny.gif, Route 3Wp globe tiny.gif, U.S. Route 3Wp globe tiny.gif, U.S. Route 6Wp globe tiny.gif, U.S. Route 20Wp globe tiny.gif, Route 24Wp globe tiny.gif, and Route 128Wp globe tiny.gif. A massive undertaking to depress I-93Wp globe tiny.gif in the BostonWp globe tiny.gif downtownWp globe tiny.gif area called the Big DigWp globe tiny.gif has brought the city's highway system under public scrutiny over the last decade.

Public transportation in the form of a subwayWp globe tiny.gif system and longer distance Commuter RailWp globe tiny.gif in the Boston metro area is operated by the Massachusetts Bay Transportation AuthorityWp globe tiny.gif but mostly runs through the Greater BostonWp globe tiny.gif area, including service to WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif and Providence, Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif. Fifteen other regional transit authorities provide public transportation, mostly outside the MBTA service area. [3] The Greater Springfield area is serviced by the Pioneer Valley Transportation Authority (PVTA).In addition, the Springfield area will finally receive its own commuter rail service around 2010, with service south to HartfordWp globe tiny.gif and New HavenWp globe tiny.gif in ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif, and perhaps commuter service to Boston at a later date.

Law, government, and politics

State House (Boston)


The Massachusetts Constitution was ratified in 1780 while the Revolutionary WarWp globe tiny.gif was in progress, four years after the Articles of ConfederationWp globe tiny.gif was drafted, and seven years before the present United States ConstitutionWp globe tiny.gif was ratified in 1787. Massachusetts has the oldest written Constitution now in use by any government in the world. It specifies three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial.

Following a November 2003 decision of the state's Supreme Court, Massachusetts became the first (and so far only) state to issue same-sex marriageWp globe tiny.gif licenses, on May 17Wp globe tiny.gif, 2004Wp globe tiny.gif. (See the articles on same-sex marriage in the United StatesWp globe tiny.gif and same-sex marriage in MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif.) Massachusetts is the first state in the union to mandate health insuranceWp globe tiny.gif for all its citizens. (See Massachusetts 2006 Health Reform StatuteWp globe tiny.gif for more details.)


The governor is head of the executive branchWp globe tiny.gif and serves as chief administrative officer of the state and as commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts National GuardWp globe tiny.gif. The current governor is Deval PatrickWp globe tiny.gif. All governors of Massachusetts are given the style His/Her ExcellencyWp globe tiny.gif, a carry-over from the Commonwealth's BritishWp globe tiny.gif past, despite such styles being uncommon in American political traditions. Responsibilities of the governor include preparation of the annual budget, nomination of all judicial officers, the granting of pardonWp globe tiny.gifs (with the approval of the governor's Council), appointments of the heads of most major state departments, and the acceptance or vetoWp globe tiny.gif of each bill passed by the Legislature. Several executive offices have also been established, each headed by a secretary appointed by the governor, much like the president's cabinet.

The Governor's Council (also called the Executive Council) is composed of the Lieutenant GovernorWp globe tiny.gif and eight councilors elected from councilor districts for a two-year term. It has the constitutional power to approve judicial appointments and pardons, to authorize expenditures from the Treasury, to approve the appointment of constitutional officers if a vacancy occurs when the legislature is not in session, and to compile and certify the results of statewide electionWp globe tiny.gifs. It also approves the appointments of notaries public and justices of the peace.

The Massachusetts state legislature is formally styled the "General Court." (See Massachusetts General CourtWp globe tiny.gif) Elected every two years, the General Court is made up of a Senate of 40 members and a House of Representatives of 160 members. The Massachusetts Senate is said to be the second oldest democratic deliberative bodyWp globe tiny.gif in the world.[18] Each branch elects its own leader from its membership. The Senate elects its president; the House its speaker. These officers exercise power through their appointments of majority floor leaders and whips (the minority party elects its leaders in a party caucus), their selection of chairs and all members of joint committees, and in their rulings as presiding officers. Joint committees of the General Court are made up of 6 senators and 15 representatives, with a Senate and House chair for each committee. These committees must hold hearings on all bills filed. Their report usually determines whether or not a bill will pass. Each chamber has its own Rules Committee and Ways and Means Committee and these are among the most important committee assignments.

Judicial appointments are held to the age of seventy. The Supreme Judicial CourtWp globe tiny.gif, consisting of a chief justice and six associate justices, is the highest court in the Commonwealth; it is empowered to give advisory opinionWp globe tiny.gifs to the governor and the legislature on questions of law. All trials are held in departments and divisions of a unified Trial Court, headed by a Chief Justice for Administrative and Management, assisted by an administrator of courts. It hears civil and criminal cases. Cases may be appealed to the Supreme Judicial Court or the Appeals CourtWp globe tiny.gif for review of law, but findings of fact made by the Trial Court are final. The Superior Court, consisting of a chief justice and sixty-six associate justices, is the highest department of the Trial Court. Other departments are the District, Housing, Juvenile, Land, and Probate Courts.

Massachusetts's U.S. senatorsWp globe tiny.gif are Edward KennedyWp globe tiny.gif (D) and John KerryWp globe tiny.gif (D). The 10 Members of the states delegation to the U.S. House of RepresentativesWp globe tiny.gif are John OlverWp globe tiny.gif (D), Richard NealWp globe tiny.gif (D), Jim McGovernWp globe tiny.gif (D), Barney FrankWp globe tiny.gif (D), Niki TsongasWp globe tiny.gif (D), John F. TierneyWp globe tiny.gif (D), Ed MarkeyWp globe tiny.gif (D), Mike CapuanoWp globe tiny.gif (D), Stephen LynchWp globe tiny.gif (D), and Bill DelahuntWp globe tiny.gif (D). Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif. Appeals are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First CircuitWp globe tiny.gif.


During the first half of the 1900s, Boston was socially conservative and strongly under the influence of Methodist minister J. Frank Chase and his New England Watch and Ward Society, founded in 1878. In 1903, the Old Corner Bookstore was raided and fined for selling BoccaccioWp globe tiny.gif's DecameronWp globe tiny.gif. Howard Johnson'sWp globe tiny.gif got its start when Eugene O'NeillWp globe tiny.gif's Strange InterludeWp globe tiny.gif was banned in Boston, and the production had to be moved to QuincyWp globe tiny.gif. In 1927, works by Sinclair LewisWp globe tiny.gif, Ernest HemingwayWp globe tiny.gif, John Dos PassosWp globe tiny.gif, and Sherwood AndersonWp globe tiny.gif were removed from bookstore shelves. "Banned in Boston" on a book's cover could actually boost sales. Burlesque artists such as Sally RandWp globe tiny.gif needed to modify their act when performing at Boston's Old Howard Casino. The clean version of a performance used to be known as the "Boston version." By 1929, the Watch and Ward society was perceived to be in decline when it failed in its attempt to ban Theodore DreiserWp globe tiny.gif's An American TragedyWp globe tiny.gif, but as late as 1935 it succeeded in banning Lillian HellmanWp globe tiny.gif's play The Children's HourWp globe tiny.gif. Censorship was enforced by city officials, notably the "city censor" within the Boston Licensing Division. That position was held by Richard J. Sinnott from 1959 until the office was abolished on March 2Wp globe tiny.gif, 1982Wp globe tiny.gif. In modern times, few such puritanical social mores persist. Massachusetts has since gained a reputation as being a politically liberalWp globe tiny.gif state and is often used as an archetype of liberalism, hence the usage of the phrase "Massachusetts liberalWp globe tiny.gif."

Massachusetts is the home of the Kennedy familyWp globe tiny.gif, and routinely votes for the Democratic PartyWp globe tiny.gif in federal elections: it is the most populous state to have an all-Democratic Congressional delegation (ten representatives and two senators); this also makes Massachusetts the largest state to have a solid delegation of either party. As of the 2006 election, the Republican party holds less than 13% of the seats in both legislative houses of the General CourtWp globe tiny.gif: in the House, the balance is 141 Democratic to 19 Republican, and in the Senate, 35-5.[19]

Although RepublicanWp globe tiny.gifs held the governor's office continuously from 1991 to 2007, they have mostly been among the most progressive Republican leaders in the nation, especially William WeldWp globe tiny.gif (the first of four recent Republican governors). Two of these governors, Paul CellucciWp globe tiny.gif and Jane SwiftWp globe tiny.gif, took office when their predecessors resigned to take other positions. In presidential elections, Massachusetts supported Republicans until 1912Wp globe tiny.gif, from 1916Wp globe tiny.gif through 1924Wp globe tiny.gif, in the 1950s, and in 1980Wp globe tiny.gif and 1984Wp globe tiny.gif. From 1988Wp globe tiny.gif through 2004Wp globe tiny.gif, Massachusetts has supported Democratic presidential candidates, most recently giving native son John KerryWp globe tiny.gif 61.9% of the vote and his largest margin of victory in any state. (It should be noted, however, John Kerry's margin of victory in the District of ColumbiaWp globe tiny.gif was much higher.)

During the 1972Wp globe tiny.gif election, Massachusetts was the only state to give its electoral votes to George McGovernWp globe tiny.gif, the Democratic nominee (The District of Columbia also voted for McGovern). Following the resignation of President Nixon in 1974, a famous bumper sticker was sold in Boston saying "Don't blame me, I'm from Massachusetts."

Cities and towns

There are 50 citiesWp globe tiny.gif and 301 townsWp globe tiny.gif in Massachusetts, grouped into 14 countiesWp globe tiny.gif.[20] Eleven communities which call themselves "towns" are, by law, cities since they have traded the town meetingWp globe tiny.gif form of government for a mayor-council or manager-council form.[21] Boston is the state capitalWp globe tiny.gif and largest city. It is the nation's 11th largest metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif. Cities over 100,000 in population (2004 estimates) include Boston, WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif, SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, LowellWp globe tiny.gif, and CambridgeWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts shares the governmental structure known as the New England townWp globe tiny.gif with the five other New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif states, as well as New YorkWp globe tiny.gif and New JerseyWp globe tiny.gif.


Massachusetts has historically had a strong commitment to education. It was the first state to require municipalities to appoint a teacher or establish a grammar school (albeit paid by the parents of the pupils) with the passage of the Massachusetts Education LawWp globe tiny.gif of 1647; this mandate was later made a part of the state constitution in 1789. The town of Rehoboth, MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif has been noted to be the birthplace of public education in North AmericaWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts is home to the country's oldest high school, Boston Latin SchoolWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1635), America's first publicly funded high school, Dedham, MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1643), oldest college, now called Harvard UniversityWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1636), first racially integrated school (Nantucket), and oldest municipally supported free library, Boston Public LibraryWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1848). In 1852, Massachusetts became the first state to pass compulsory school attendance laws.[22] The per-student public expenditure for elementary and secondary schools (kindergarten through grade 12) was 5th in the nation in 2004, at $11,681.[23] Massachusetts is home to many well-known preparatory schoolWp globe tiny.gifs, colleges, and universities. There are more than 40 colleges located in the greater Boston area alone. Ten colleges and universities are located in the greater Worcester area. The University of MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif (nicknamed UMass) is the five-campus public university system of the Commonwealth. The population of metropolitan Boston and Worcester, and of the Five CollegesWp globe tiny.gif area in Western Massachusetts, in particular, surges during the school year.


There are two major television media markets located in Massachusetts. The Boston/Worcester market is the 7th largest in the United States. All major networks are represented. The other market surrounds the Springfield area. Some communities in Berkshire county are serviced by the Albany, New YorkWp globe tiny.gif market, and some southeastern Massachusetts communities are serviced by the Providence, Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif market. The Boston GlobeWp globe tiny.gif, Boston HeraldWp globe tiny.gif, Worcester Telegram & GazetteWp globe tiny.gif and the Springfield RepublicanWp globe tiny.gif are the Commonwealths largest daily newspapers. In addition, there are many community dailies and weeklies found throughout the state. There are a number of major radio stations (AM 50,000 watts, FM over 20,000 watts) which service Massachusetts, along with many more regional and community based stations. Some colleges and universities also operate campus television and radio stations, and print their own newspaper.

Sports and recreation

Organized sport

The 100th running of the Boston Marathon, 1996

Massachusetts has a long history with amateur athletics and professional teams. Most of the major professional teams have won multiple championships in their respective leagues. Massachusetts teams have won 5 Stanley CupWp globe tiny.gifs (Boston BruinsWp globe tiny.gif), 16 NBA ChampionshipsWp globe tiny.gif (Boston CelticsWp globe tiny.gif), 3 Super BowlWp globe tiny.gifs (New England PatriotsWp globe tiny.gif), and 7 World SeriesWp globe tiny.gif (6 Boston Red SoxWp globe tiny.gif, 1 Boston BravesWp globe tiny.gif). Because these games were invented in Massachusetts, the state is also the home to the Basketball Hall of FameWp globe tiny.gif (SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif), the Volleyball Hall of FameWp globe tiny.gif (HolyokeWp globe tiny.gif), and the Cape Cod Baseball LeagueWp globe tiny.gif. It is also home to prestigious sports events such as the Boston MarathonWp globe tiny.gif, the Eastern Sprints on Lake Quinsigamond in Worcester, and the Head of the Charles RegattaWp globe tiny.gif. The Falmouth Road RaceWp globe tiny.gif in running and the Fitchburg Longsjo ClassicWp globe tiny.gif in bicycle racing are also very popular events with long histories.

The PGAWp globe tiny.gif Deutsche Bank ChampionshipWp globe tiny.gif and the Champions TourWp globe tiny.gif Bank of America ChampionshipWp globe tiny.gif are regular professional golfWp globe tiny.gif tour stops in the state. Massachusetts has played host to 9 US OpensWp globe tiny.gif, 4 US Womens OpensWp globe tiny.gif, 2 Ryder CupWp globe tiny.gifs, and 1 Senior OpenWp globe tiny.gif.

Many colleges and universities in Massachusetts are active in college athletics. There are a number of NCAAWp globe tiny.gif Division I members in the state for multiple sports: Boston CollegeWp globe tiny.gif, Boston UniversityWp globe tiny.gif, Northeastern UniversityWp globe tiny.gif, Harvard UniversityWp globe tiny.gif, College of the Holy CrossWp globe tiny.gif in Worcester, and the University of Massachusetts AmherstWp globe tiny.gif.

Outdoor recreation

BoatingWp globe tiny.gif activities such as sailingWp globe tiny.gif and yachtingWp globe tiny.gif are popular all along the Massachusetts coast and its offshore islands. HikingWp globe tiny.gif and cross-country skiingWp globe tiny.gif are also popular activities in many of the states undeveloped lands. The Appalachian TrailWp globe tiny.gif, the Metacomet-Monadnock TrailWp globe tiny.gif, the Midstate TrailWp globe tiny.gif, and the Bay Circuit Trail are all long distance hiking trails that run the length of the state. The Tully Trail, an 18-mile (29 km) loop in the North Quabbin Region (through the towns of Athol, Orange, Warwick and Royalston) incorporates waterfalls and vistas. A handful of downhill skiingWp globe tiny.gif operators still maintain slopes here, although many skiers drive to major resorts in VermontWp globe tiny.gif, New HampshireWp globe tiny.gif and MaineWp globe tiny.gif for the weekend. Sport fishingWp globe tiny.gif still remains a strong outdoor activity. Spincasting during the warmer months and ice fishingWp globe tiny.gif during winter on inland lakes and ponds, FlyfishingWp globe tiny.gif inland rivers for troutWp globe tiny.gif, surf casting for striped bassWp globe tiny.gif and bluefishWp globe tiny.gif and deep sea fishing for codWp globe tiny.gif and haddockWp globe tiny.gif all remain popular. HuntingWp globe tiny.gif, primarily for whitetail deerWp globe tiny.gif and waterfowlWp globe tiny.gif continues to attract a number of residents.

See also


  1. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. 29 AprilWp globe tiny.gif 2005Wp globe tiny.gif. Retrieved November 6. 
  2. ^ This derivation is located in C. Lawrence Bond, Native Names of New England Towns and Villages, privately published, Topsfield, Massachusetts, 1991. This site is retarted and the information is incorrect. The pamphlet was never mass produced but it is probably obtainable through the library or bookstores in TopsfieldWp globe tiny.gif.
  3. ^ a b Salwen, Bert, 1978. Indians of Southern New England and Long Island: Early Period. In "Northeast", ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of "Handbook of North American Indians", ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 160-176. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Quoted in: Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pg. 401
  4. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 270
  5. ^ "Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary". 
  6. ^ The North Quabbin Woods:
  7. ^ Massachusetts Cities and TownsPDF (390 KiBWp globe tiny.gif) (map; see text on map). Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved January 14, 2007.
  8. ^ US Mainland Strikes per State 1851-2004. National Hurricane Center. Last accessed November 12, 2006.
  9. ^ Population: 1790 to 1990PDF (35.4 KiBWp globe tiny.gif)
  10. ^ Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000
  11. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2000. United States Census Bureau, United States Deparatment of Commerce. Retrieved January 14Wp globe tiny.gif, 2007Wp globe tiny.gif.
  12. ^ Associated Press. Wampanoag Tribe Receives Federal Recognition WBZ-TV, Boston Massachusetts. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  13. ^ Weber, David. Mashpee Wampanoag Indians receive federal recognition The Boston Globe February 15, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  14. ^ Most spoken languages in Massachusetts MLA Language Map Data Center. Modern Language Association. Retrieved February 23Wp globe tiny.gif, 2007Wp globe tiny.gif.
  15. ^ "American Religious Identification Survey". Exhibit 15. The Graduate Center, City University of New York. Retrieved 2007-09-21. 
  16. ^ Article Boston GlobeWp globe tiny.gif December 10Wp globe tiny.gif, 2006Wp globe tiny.gif, "Bay State's labor force diminishing"
  17. ^, accessed 18 Sep 2006
  18. ^ Massachusetts Facts, Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth
  19. ^ "State Vote 2006: Election Profile, Massachusetts" State Legislatures Magazine, National Conference of State Legislatures; retrieved November 17, 2007
  20. ^ Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth: A Listing of Counties and the Cities and Towns Within
  21. ^ See Administrative divisions of Massachusetts#The city/town distinctionWp globe tiny.gif.
  22. ^ Compulsory Education National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved December 28, 2006.
  23. ^ Table 5. Current Expenditures ($) per Student in Public K-12 Schools, 2004-05 Source footnote: "Rankings & Estimates 2005-2006, Rankings, Table H-11." ( NEA Research, Estimates Database (2006). K–12 = "Elementary and Secondary".) National Education Association Retrieved January 12, 2007.


Overviews and Surveys

  • Brown, Richard D. and Jack Tager. Massachusetts: A Concise History (2002)
  • Hall, Donald. ed. The Encyclopedia of New England (2005)
  • Works Progress AdministrationWp globe tiny.gif. Guide to Massachusetts (1939)

Secondary Sources

  • Abrams, Richard M. Conservatism in a Progressive Era: Massachusetts Politics, 1900-1912 (1964)
  • Adams, James Truslow. Revolutionary New England, 1691-1776 (1923)
  • Adams, James Truslow. New England in the Republic, 1776-1850 (1926)
  • Andrews, Charles M. The Fathers of New England: A Chronicle of the Puritan Commonwealths (1919), short survey
  • Conforti, Joseph A. Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century (2001)
  • Cumbler, John T. Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790-1930 (1930), environmental history
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride (1994), 1775 in depth
  • Green, James R., William F. Hartford, and Tom Juravich. Commonwealth of Toil: Chapters in the History of Massachusetts Workers and Their Unions (1996)
  • Huthmacher, J. Joseph. Massachusetts People and Politics, 1919-1933 (1958)
  • Labaree, Benjamin Woods. Colonial Massachusetts: A History (1979)
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860 (1921)
  • Peirce, Neal R. The New England States: People, Politics, and Power in the Six New England States (1976), 1960-75 era
  • Porter, Susan L. Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts (1996)
  • Sletcher, Michael. New England (2004).
  • Starkey, Marion L. The Devil in Massachusetts (1949), Salem witches
  • Tager, Jack, and John W. Ifkovic, eds. Massachusetts in the Gilded Age: Selected Essays (1985), ethnic groups
  • Zimmerman, Joseph F. The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action (1999)

External links

Definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity

Preceded by
ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif
List of U.S. states by date of statehoodWp globe tiny.gif
Ratified ConstitutionWp globe tiny.gif on February 6Wp globe tiny.gif, 1788Wp globe tiny.gif (6th)
Succeeded by
MarylandWp globe tiny.gif

42°18′N 71°48′W / 42.3, -71.8

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Massachusetts. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.