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The Commonwealth of Massachusetts (English pronunciation: /ˌmæ.səˈtʃu.sɪts/) is a stateWp globe tiny.gif in the New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif region of the northeasternWp globe tiny.gif United StatesWp globe tiny.gif. Most of its population of 6.4 million live in the Boston metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif. The eastern half of this relatively small state is mostly urbanWp globe tiny.gif and suburbanWp globe tiny.gif. The west is primarily rural; however, most of its population actually lives in urban enclaves. Massachusetts is the most populous of the six New England states and ranks third in overall population densityWp globe tiny.gif among the 50 states.

The first EuropeWp globe tiny.gifans to settle New England landed in present-day Massachusetts. These settlers were PilgrimsWp globe tiny.gif and PuritansWp globe tiny.gif from EnglandWp globe tiny.gif seeking religious freedom. They founded PlymouthWp globe tiny.gif, SalemWp globe tiny.gif, and BostonWp globe tiny.gif, which soon became the hub of the region, then the Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif along the Connecticut RiverWp globe tiny.gif where the state's best agriculturalWp globe tiny.gif land was concentrated. A century and a half later, Massachusetts became known as the 'Cradle of Liberty' for the revolutionaryWp globe tiny.gif ferment in Boston that helped spawn the war of the Thirteen ColoniesWp globe tiny.gif for independence.

During the 19th century, Massachusetts transformed itself from a mainly agriculturalWp globe tiny.gif economy to a manufacturing one, making use of its many rivers for power to operate factories for shoeWp globe tiny.gifs, furnitureWp globe tiny.gif, and clothingWp globe tiny.gif that drew labor from YankeeWp globe tiny.gifs on unproductive subsistence farms at first, then turned to immigrantWp globe tiny.gif labor from Europe. The industrial economy declined in the early twentieth centuryWp globe tiny.gif when industry moved south in search of cheaper labor. A revitalization came in the 1970s when, nourished by the graduates of the area's many elite institutions of higher education, the Boston suburbs (particularly those near Route 128Wp globe tiny.gif) became home to dozens of high-technologyWp globe tiny.gif companies. Massachusetts's colleges and universities, as well as its technology sectors, continue to thrive.

Massachusetts has been one of the most influential states in America. The first battlesWp globe tiny.gif of the American RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif were fought in the Massachusetts towns of ConcordWp globe tiny.gif and LexingtonWp globe tiny.gif. The Boston Tea PartyWp globe tiny.gif is a well-known example of the revolutionary spirit of those times. In the 19th century, the state became a bastion of social progressivismWp globe tiny.gif and a birthplace of the abolitionistWp globe tiny.gif movement that emancipated southern blacks from slavery. The Kennedy familyWp globe tiny.gif dominated Massachusetts politics in the 20th century. In the 21st century, the state continues to lead the country in social and cultural change, and in 2003Wp globe tiny.gif became the first state in the union to allow same-sex couples to marryWp globe tiny.gif.

Name

The Massachusetts Bay ColonyWp globe tiny.gif was named after the indigenous population, the MassachusettWp globe tiny.gif, whose name can be segmented as mass-adchu-s-et, where mass- is "large", -adchu- is "hill", -s- is a diminutiveWp globe tiny.gif suffix meaning "small", and -et is a locativeWp globe tiny.gif suffix, identifying a place. It has been translated as "at the great hill," "at the little big hill," or "at the range of hills," referring to the Blue HillsWp globe tiny.gif, or in particular, Great Blue HillWp globe tiny.gif, located on the boundary of MiltonWp globe tiny.gif and CantonWp globe tiny.gif, to the southwest of Boston.[1][2][3] (c.f. the NarragansettWp globe tiny.gif name Massachusêuck;[2] OjibweWp globe tiny.gif misajiwensed, "of the little big hill").[4]

Massachusetts is officially a "commonwealthWp globe tiny.gif." Colloquially, it is often referred to simply as "the Commonwealth," although "state" is used interchangeably. While this designation is part of the state's official name, it has no practical implications. Massachusetts has the same position and powers within the United States as other states and a similar form of internal government.

Geography

Prominent roads and cities in Massachusetts

Massachusetts is bordered on the north by New HampshireWp globe tiny.gif and VermontWp globe tiny.gif; on the west by New YorkWp globe tiny.gif; on the south by ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif and Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif; and on the east by the Atlantic OceanWp globe tiny.gif. Most of the state is uplands of resistant metamorphic rock that were scraped by PleistoceneWp globe tiny.gif glaciers that deposited moraines and outwash on large, sandy, arm-shaped peninsula called Cape CodWp globe tiny.gif and the islands Martha's VineyardWp globe tiny.gif and NantucketWp globe tiny.gif to the south of Cape Cod. Upland elevations increase to the north and west and the highest point in the state is Mount GreylockWp globe tiny.gif at 3491 feet near the state's northwest corner.

A portion of the north-central Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif near South DeerfieldWp globe tiny.gif, much more rural than SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, in the southern part of the valley, or BostonWp globe tiny.gif, which is on the coast.

The uplands are interrupted by the downfaulted Pioneer Valley along the Connecticut River and further west by the HousatonicWp globe tiny.gif Valley separating the Berkshire HillsWp globe tiny.gif from the Taconic RangeWp globe tiny.gif along the western border with New YorkWp globe tiny.gif.

BostonWp globe tiny.gif is located at the innermost point of Massachusetts BayWp globe tiny.gif, at the mouth of the Charles RiverWp globe tiny.gif, the longest river entirely within Massachusetts. Most of the population of the Boston metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif (approximately 4.4 million) does not live in the city proper; eastern Massachusetts on the whole is fairly densely populated and largely suburbWp globe tiny.gifan as far west as WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif.

Central Massachusetts between Worcester and the Pioneer Valley is an upland region of small towns, forests, and small farms. It includes Quabbin ReservoirWp globe tiny.gif, the main water supply for the eastern part of the state, and its protected watershed. The entire region has recently acquired a strong identity. It includes many small towns and cities: Athol, Erving, Holden, Princeton, Gardner, Hardwick, New Salem, Orange, Petersham, Phillipston, Royalston, Warwick and Wendell. Every inch of land in Massachusetts is part of a town or city; there is no unincorporated county land. The North Quabbin Woods (www.northquabbinwoods.org) maintains a web site featuring one of these regions.Massachusetts Cities and TownsPDF (390 KiBWp globe tiny.gif) (map; see text on map). Secretary of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Retrieved January 14, 2007.</ref>

The "Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif" along the Connecticut RiverWp globe tiny.gif in Western MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif is also urbanized from the ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif border (where it adjoins greater HartfordWp globe tiny.gif north as far as NorthamptonWp globe tiny.gif, including SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, West SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, WestfieldWp globe tiny.gif, and HolyokeWp globe tiny.gif. Pioneer Valley urbanization was driven by productive agriculture in the 17th and 18th century, water power for the Industrial RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif in the 19th century and expansion of higher education in the 20th century.

The remainder of the state west of Pioneer Valley is mainly uplands, a range of small mountains known as the Berkshires, summer home to the Boston Symphony Orchestra (Lenox), Jacob's Pillow Dance Festival, the Norman Rockwell Museum (Stockbridge), Monument Mountain, where Nathaniel Hawthorne and Herman Melville had a fateful meeting, and Mount Greylock, the hightest point in Massachusetts. It largely remained in aboriginal hands until the 18th century when Scotch-Irish settlers arrived and found the more productive lands already settled. Availability of better land in western New York and then the Northwest TerritoriesWp globe tiny.gif soon put the upland agricultural population into decline, but the Industrial Revolution made growing use of water power, leading to 19th century settlement along upland rivers. PittsfieldWp globe tiny.gif and North AdamsWp globe tiny.gif grew into small cities and there are a number of smaller mill towns along the Westfield RiverWp globe tiny.gif.

The geographic center of the state is in the town of RutlandWp globe tiny.gif, in Worcester county. The National Park ServiceWp globe tiny.gif administers a number of natural and historical sites in MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif

The fourteen counties, moving roughly from west to east, are BerkshireWp globe tiny.gif, FranklinWp globe tiny.gif, HampshireWp globe tiny.gif, HampdenWp globe tiny.gif, WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif, MiddlesexWp globe tiny.gif, EssexWp globe tiny.gif, SuffolkWp globe tiny.gif, NorfolkWp globe tiny.gif, BristolWp globe tiny.gif, PlymouthWp globe tiny.gif, BarnstableWp globe tiny.gif, DukesWp globe tiny.gif, and NantucketWp globe tiny.gif. Because of the state's historical ties to England, all but two of the Commonwealth's fourteen counties are named for British counties, cities, or nobles.


Climate

Massachusetts has a humid continental climateWp globe tiny.gif, with warm summers and cold, snowy winters. With its proximity to the Atlantic Ocean, Massachusetts receives a generous amount of precipitation throughout the year, but is slightly wetter during the winter. Summers are warm with average high temperatures in July above 80 °F and overnight lows above 60 ° common throughout the state. Winters are cold, but generally less extreme on the coast with high temperatures in the winter averaging above freezing even in January, although areas further inland are much colder.

Flora and fauna

The primary biomeWp globe tiny.gif of inland Massachusetts is temperate deciduous forestWp globe tiny.gif. However, much of the state has been logged, leaving only traces of old growth forestWp globe tiny.gif in isolated pockets. Secondary growth has regenerated in many woodlotWp globe tiny.gifs and forestWp globe tiny.gifs, particularly in the western half of Massachusetts. UrbanizationWp globe tiny.gif, particularly in the eastern half of the state, has affected much of Massachusetts. No longer are there vast expanses of wilderness. Gray WolfWp globe tiny.gif, ElkWp globe tiny.gif, WolverineWp globe tiny.gif and Mountain LionWp globe tiny.gif once occurred here but have long since disappeared.

Massachusetts has an extensive coastlineWp globe tiny.gif and enjoys a strong commercial fishery out to the continental shelfWp globe tiny.gif. Atlantic codWp globe tiny.gif, haddockWp globe tiny.gif and American lobsterWp globe tiny.gif are species harvested here.

History

Mayflower in Plymouth Harbor by William Halsall (1882)

Massachusetts was originally inhabited by several Algonquian tribes: the Wampanoag, Nauset, Nipmuc, Pocomtuc, Pennacook, Mahican, and some Narragansett and Pequot. These indigenous people were decimated by waves of smallpoxWp globe tiny.gif inadvertently brought to the New World by Sir Herbert Popham and his ship to the Saco Maine area in 1616.

The first European settlers in Massachusetts, the PilgrimsWp globe tiny.gif, established their settlement at PlymouthWp globe tiny.gif in 1620Wp globe tiny.gif, and developed friendly relations with the native WampanoagWp globe tiny.gif. Most early settlers came from within 60 miles of Haverhill, EnglandWp globe tiny.gif. The Pilgrims were soon followed by PuritansWp globe tiny.gif who established the Massachusetts Bay ColonyWp globe tiny.gif at present-day BostonWp globe tiny.gif. The Puritans, whose beliefs included exclusive understanding of the literal truth of the Bible, came to Massachusetts for religious freedom. Dissenters such as Anne HutchinsonWp globe tiny.gif, Roger WilliamsWp globe tiny.gif, and Thomas HookerWp globe tiny.gif left Massachusetts because of the Puritan society's lack of religious tolerance. Williams founded the colony of Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif, and Hooker founded ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif.

Native American-European racial tensions led to King Philip's WarWp globe tiny.gif 1675Wp globe tiny.gif-76Wp globe tiny.gif. There were major campaigns in the Pioneer ValleyWp globe tiny.gif and Plymouth ColonyWp globe tiny.gif, as well as an unsuccessful expedition against QuebecWp globe tiny.gif under William PhipsWp globe tiny.gif in 1690Wp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts became a single colony in 1692Wp globe tiny.gif, the largest in New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif, and one where many American institutions and traditions were formed. The colony fought alongside British regulars in a series of French and Indian WarsWp globe tiny.gif that were characterized by brutal border raids and successful attacks on British forces in New FranceWp globe tiny.gif (present-day CanadaWp globe tiny.gif).

Percy's Rescue at Lexington by Ralph EarlWp globe tiny.gif and Amos Doolittle from 1775.

Massachusetts was a center of the movement for independence from Great BritainWp globe tiny.gif. With actions by patriots such as Sam AdamsWp globe tiny.gif and John HancockWp globe tiny.gif followed by counter-actions by the Crown were a main reason for the unity of the Thirteen Colonies and the outbreak of the American RevolutionWp globe tiny.gif, starting with battles in and around Boston in 1775Wp globe tiny.gif-76Wp globe tiny.gif. After independence and during the formative years of independent American government, Shays' RebellionWp globe tiny.gif was an armed uprisingWp globe tiny.gif in the western half of the state from 1786Wp globe tiny.gif to 1787Wp globe tiny.gif. The rebels were mostly small farmers angered by crushing war debt and taxes which resulted from their lack of representation in congress. Massachusetts was the first U.S. state to abolish slavery, in a 1783Wp globe tiny.gif judicial interpretation of its 1780Wp globe tiny.gif constitution.

On March 15Wp globe tiny.gif, 1820Wp globe tiny.gif, MaineWp globe tiny.gif separated from Massachusetts, of which it had been a non-contiguous part, and entered the Union as the 23rd State as a result of the ratification of the Missouri CompromiseWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts became a national and world leader in industrialization, with its mastery of machine tools and textiles. Horace MannWp globe tiny.gif made the state system of schools the national model. Henry David ThoreauWp globe tiny.gif and Ralph Waldo EmersonWp globe tiny.gif made major contributions to American thought. Members of the TrancendentalismWp globe tiny.gif movement, they emphasized the importance of the natural world to humanity.

In the years leading up to the Civil WarWp globe tiny.gif, Massachusetts was a center of temperanceWp globe tiny.gif and abolitionistWp globe tiny.gif activity within the United States. Antagonism to their views resulted in anti-abolitionist riots in Massachusetts between 1835 and 1837. The works of abolitionists contributed to subsequent actions of the state during the Civil War. Massachusetts was the first state to recruit, train, and arm a blackWp globe tiny.gif regiment with whiteWp globe tiny.gif officers, the 54th Massachusetts Volunteer InfantryWp globe tiny.gif.

Massachusetts entered the twentieth centuryWp globe tiny.gif with a strong industrial economy, but by the 1920s low-wage competition from the South, followed by the Great DepressionWp globe tiny.gif, led to the collapse of Massachusetts’ two main industries, shoes and textiles. In the years following World War IIWp globe tiny.gif, Massachusetts was transformed from a factory system to a largely service and high-tech based economy. In the ensuing years, government contracts, private investment, and research facilities led to a new and improved industrial climate, with reduced unemployment and increased per capita income. SuburbanizationWp globe tiny.gif flourished, as the Route 128Wp globe tiny.gif corridor became dotted with research developments. In 1987Wp globe tiny.gif the state received federal funding for the $14.6 billion Central Artery/Tunnel Project. Known colloquially as the "the Big DigWp globe tiny.gif," it was at the time the biggest federal highway project ever approved.

Demographics

Population

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1790 378,787
1800 422,845 11.6%
1810 472,040 11.6%
1820 523,287 10.9%
1830 610,408 16.6%
1840 737,699 20.9%
1850 994,514 34.8%
1860 1,231,066 23.8%
1870 1,457,351 18.4%
1880 1,783,085 22.4%
1890 2,238,947 25.6%
1900 2,805,346 25.3%
1910 3,366,416 20.0%
1920 3,852,356 14.4%
1930 4,249,614 10.3%
1940 4,316,721 1.6%
1950 4,690,514 8.7%
1960 5,148,578 9.8%
1970 5,689,170 10.5%
1980 5,737,037 0.8%
1990 6,016,425 4.9%
2000 6,349,097 5.5%
Sources:[5][6]

Most Bay Staters live within a sixty-mile radius of the State House on Beacon Hill, often called Greater BostonWp globe tiny.gif: the City of Boston, neighboring cities and towns, the North ShoreWp globe tiny.gif, South ShoreWp globe tiny.gif, the northern, western, and southern suburbs, and most of southeastern and central Massachusetts. The 40-mile corridor between Boston and Worcester is called "Massachusetts Main Street." Eastern Massachusetts is more urban than Western MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif, which is primarily rural, save for the cities of SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, and Northampton, which serve as centers of population density in the Pioneer Valley of the Connecticut River. The center of populationWp globe tiny.gif of Massachusetts is located in Middlesex CountyWp globe tiny.gif, in the town of NatickWp globe tiny.gif.[7]

Massachusetts Population Density Map

Although most of the Native Americans intermarried or died in King Philip's War (1675), the WampanoagWp globe tiny.gif tribe maintains reservations at AquinnahWp globe tiny.gif, Grafton, on Martha's Vineyard, and MashpeeWp globe tiny.gif.[8][9] The NipmuckWp globe tiny.gif maintain two state-recognized reservations in the central part of the state. Other Wampanoags and other Native people live scattered around the state outside of reservations.

Religion

Massachusetts was founded and settled by staunch PuritanWp globe tiny.gifs in the 17th century. The descendants of the Puritans belong to many different churches; in the direct line of inheritance are the CongregationalWp globe tiny.gif/United Church of ChristWp globe tiny.gif and Unitarian UniversalistWp globe tiny.gif churches. Both of these denominations are noted for their strong support of social justice, civil rights, and moral issues, including strong and early advocacy of abolition of slavery, women's rights, and (after 2000) legal recognition of gay marriage. The world headquarters of the Unitarian-Universalist Church is located on Beacon Hill in Boston. Today Protestants make up less than 1/3 of the state's population. Roman CatholicWp globe tiny.gifs now predominate because of massive immigration from IrelandWp globe tiny.gif, QuebecWp globe tiny.gif, ItalyWp globe tiny.gif, PolandWp globe tiny.gif, PortugalWp globe tiny.gif, Puerto RicoWp globe tiny.gif, and the Dominican RepublicWp globe tiny.gif. A large JewishWp globe tiny.gif population came to the Boston area 1880-1920. Mary Baker EddyWp globe tiny.gif made the Boston Mother Church of Christian ScienceWp globe tiny.gif the world headquarters.

Emigration and Immigration

The latest estimated 2006 population Census figures show that Massachusetts has grown by slightly over 1 percent, to 6,437,193, since 2000. This growth is attributable to the fact that Massachusetts continues to attract top scholars and researchers as well as immigrantWp globe tiny.gifs.

High housing costs, taxesWp globe tiny.gif, weather, and traffic in Massachusetts have contributed to emigration to the Boston exburbs, to neighboring New HampshireWp globe tiny.gif and Rhode IslandWp globe tiny.gif, and to Southern and Western regions of the United States.


Law, government and politics

File:MassachusettsStateHouse.JPG

State House (Boston)

Law

The Massachusetts Constitution was ratified in 1780 while the Revolutionary WarWp globe tiny.gif was in progress, four years after the Articles of ConfederationWp globe tiny.gif was drafted, and seven years before the present United States ConstitutionWp globe tiny.gif was ratified in 1787. Massachusetts has the oldest written Constitution now in use by any government in the world. It specifies three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial.


Government

The governor is head of the executive branchWp globe tiny.gif and serves as chief administrative officer of the state and as commander-in-chief of the Massachusetts National GuardWp globe tiny.gif.

The Massachusetts state legislature is formally styled the "General Court." (See Massachusetts General CourtWp globe tiny.gif) Elected every two years, the General Court is made up of a Senate of 40 members and a House of Representatives of 160 members. The Massachusetts Senate is said to be the second oldest democratic deliberative bodyWp globe tiny.gif in the world.[10] Each branch elects its own leader from its membership. The Senate elects its president; the House its speaker. These officers exercise power through their appointments of majority floor leaders and whips (the minority party elects its leaders in a party caucus), their selection of chairs and all members of joint committees, and in their rulings as presiding officers. Joint committees of the General Court are made up of 6 senators and 15 representatives, with a Senate and House chair for each committee. These committees must hold hearings on all bills filed. Their report usually determines whether or not a bill will pass. Each chamber has its own Rules Committee and Ways and Means Committee and these are among the most important committee assignments.

Judicial appointments are held to the age of seventy. The Supreme Judicial CourtWp globe tiny.gif, consisting of a chief justice and six associate justices, is the highest court in the Commonwealth; it is empowered to give advisory opinionWp globe tiny.gifs to the governor and the legislature on questions of law. All trials are held in departments and divisions of a unified Trial Court, headed by a Chief Justice for Administrative and Management, assisted by an administrator of courts. It hears civil and criminal cases. Cases may be appealed to the Supreme Judicial Court or the Appeals CourtWp globe tiny.gif for review of law, but findings of fact made by the Trial Court are final. The Superior Court, consisting of a chief justice and sixty-six associate justices, is the highest department of the Trial Court. Other departments are the District, Housing, Juvenile, Land, and Probate Courts.

Massachusetts's U.S. senatorsWp globe tiny.gif are Edward KennedyWp globe tiny.gif (D) and John KerryWp globe tiny.gif (D). The 10 Members of the states delegation to the U.S. House of RepresentativesWp globe tiny.gif are John OlverWp globe tiny.gif (D), Richard NealWp globe tiny.gif (D), Jim McGovernWp globe tiny.gif (D), Barney FrankWp globe tiny.gif (D), Marty MeehanWp globe tiny.gif (D), John F. TierneyWp globe tiny.gif (D), Ed MarkeyWp globe tiny.gif (D), Mike CapuanoWp globe tiny.gif (D), Stephen LynchWp globe tiny.gif (D), and Bill DelahuntWp globe tiny.gif (D). Federal court cases are heard in the United States District Court for the District of MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif. Appeals are heard by the United States Court of Appeals for the First CircuitWp globe tiny.gif.

Politics

During the first half of the 1900s, Boston was socially conservative and strongly under the influence of Methodist minister J. Frank ChaseWp globe tiny.gif and his New England Watch and Ward SocietyWp globe tiny.gif, founded in 1878. In 1903, the Old Corner Bookstore was raided and fined for selling BoccaccioWp globe tiny.gif's DecameronWp globe tiny.gif.

Cities and towns

There are 50 citiesWp globe tiny.gif and 301 townsWp globe tiny.gif in Massachusetts, grouped into 14 countiesWp globe tiny.gif.[11] Eleven communities which call themselves "towns" are, by law, cities since they have traded the town meetingWp globe tiny.gif form of government for a mayor-council or manager-council form.[12] Boston is the state capitalWp globe tiny.gif and largest city. It is the nation's 11th largest metropolitan areaWp globe tiny.gif. Cities over 100,000 in population (2004 estimates) include Boston, WorcesterWp globe tiny.gif, SpringfieldWp globe tiny.gif, LowellWp globe tiny.gif, and CambridgeWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts shares the governmental structure known as the New England townWp globe tiny.gif with the five other New EnglandWp globe tiny.gif states, as well as New YorkWp globe tiny.gif and New JerseyWp globe tiny.gif.

Education

Massachusetts has historically had a strong commitment to education. It was the first state to require municipalities to appoint a teacher or establish a grammar school (albeit paid by the parents of the pupils) with the passage of the Massachusetts Education LawWp globe tiny.gif of 1647; this mandate was later made a part of the state constitution in 1789. The town of Rehoboth, MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif has been noted to be the birthplace of public education in North AmericaWp globe tiny.gif. Massachusetts is home to the country's oldest high school, Boston Latin SchoolWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1635), America's first publicly funded high school, Dedham, MassachusettsWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1643), oldest college, now called Harvard UniversityWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1636), and oldest municipally supported free library, Boston Public LibraryWp globe tiny.gif (founded 1848). Massachusetts was the first state to pass compulsory school attendance laws (1852)[13]

Media

The Boston GlobeWp globe tiny.gif, Boston HeraldWp globe tiny.gif, Worcester Telegram & GazetteWp globe tiny.gif and the Springfield RepublicanWp globe tiny.gif are the Commonwealth's largest daily newspapers. In addition, there are many community dailies and weeklies found throughout the state. There are a number of major radio stations (AM 50,000 watts, FM over 20,000 watts) which service Massachusetts, along with many more regional and community based stations. Some colleges and universities also operate campus television and radio stations, and print their own newspaper.

See also

References

  1. ^ This derivation is located in C. Lawrence Bond, Native Names of New England Towns and Villages, privately published, Topsfield, Massachusetts, 1991. The pamphlet was never mass produced but it is probably obtainable through the library or bookstores in TopsfieldWp globe tiny.gif.
  2. ^ a b Salwen, Bert, 1978. Indians of Southern New England and Long Island: Early Period. In "Northeast", ed. Bruce G. Trigger. Vol. 15 of "Handbook of North American Indians", ed. William C. Sturtevant, pp. 160-176. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution. Quoted in: Campbell, Lyle. 1997. American Indian Languages: The Historical Linguistics of Native America. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pg. 401
  3. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names of the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 270
  4. ^ "Freelang Ojibwe Dictionary". Freelang.net. http://www.freelang.net/dictionary/ojibwe.html. 
  5. ^ Population: 1790 to 1990PDF (35.4 KiBWp globe tiny.gif) census.gov
  6. ^ Resident Population of the 50 States, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico: Census 2000 census.gov
  7. ^ Population and Population Centers by State: 2000. United States Census Bureau, United States Deparatment of Commerce. Retrieved January 14, 2007.
  8. ^ Associated Press. Wampanoag Tribe Receives Federal Recognition WBZ-TV, Boston Massachusetts. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  9. ^ Weber, David. Mashpee Wampanoag Indians receive federal recognition The Boston Globe February 15, 2007. Retrieved February 20, 2007.
  10. ^ Massachusetts Facts, Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth
  11. ^ Massachusetts Secretary of the Commonwealth: A Listing of Counties and the Cities and Towns Within
  12. ^ See Administrative divisions of Massachusetts#The city/town distinctionWp globe tiny.gif.
  13. ^ Compulsory Education National Conference of State Legislatures. Retrieved December 28, 2006.

Bibliography

Overviews and Surveys

  • Brown, Richard D. and Jack Tager. Massachusetts: A Concise History (2002)
  • Hall, Donald. ed. The Encyclopedia of New England (2005)
  • Works Progress AdministrationWp globe tiny.gif. Guide to Massachusetts (1939)

Secondary Sources

  • Abrams, Richard M. Conservatism in a Progressive Era: Massachusetts Politics, 1900-1912 (1964)
  • Adams, James Truslow. Revolutionary New England, 1691-1776 (1923)
  • Adams, James Truslow. New England in the Republic, 1776-1850 (1926)
  • Andrews, Charles M. The Fathers of New England: A Chronicle of the Puritan Commonwealths (1919), short survey
  • Conforti, Joseph A. Imagining New England: Explorations of Regional Identity from the Pilgrims to the Mid-Twentieth Century (2001)
  • Cumbler, John T. Reasonable Use: The People, the Environment, and the State, New England, 1790-1930 (1930), environmental history
  • Fischer, David Hackett. Paul Revere's Ride (1994), 1775 in depth
  • Green, James R., William F. Hartford, and Tom Juravich. Commonwealth of Toil: Chapters in the History of Massachusetts Workers and Their Unions (1996)
  • Huthmacher, J. Joseph. Massachusetts People and Politics, 1919-1933 (1958)
  • Labaree, Benjamin Woods. Colonial Massachusetts: A History (1979)
  • Morison, Samuel Eliot. The Maritime History of Massachusetts, 1783-1860 (1921)
  • Peirce, Neal R. The New England States: People, Politics, and Power in the Six New England States (1976), 1960-75 era
  • Porter, Susan L. Women of the Commonwealth: Work, Family, and Social Change in Nineteenth-Century Massachusetts (1996)
  • Sletcher, Michael. New England (2004).
  • Starkey, Marion L. The Devil in Massachusetts (1949), Salem witches
  • Tager, Jack, and John W. Ifkovic, eds. Massachusetts in the Gilded Age: Selected Essays (1985), ethnic groups
  • Zimmerman, Joseph F. The New England Town Meeting: Democracy in Action (1999)

External links

Definitions from Wiktionary
Textbooks from Wikibooks
Quotations from Wikiquote
Source texts from Wikisource
Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity


Preceded by
ConnecticutWp globe tiny.gif
List of U.S. states by date of statehoodWp globe tiny.gif
Ratified ConstitutionWp globe tiny.gif on February 6Wp globe tiny.gif, 1788Wp globe tiny.gif (6th)
Succeeded by
MarylandWp globe tiny.gif


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