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Maury County, Tennessee
Maury County Tennessee Courthouse.jpg
Maury County Courthouse in Columbia
Seal of Maury County, Tennessee
Seal
Map of Tennessee highlighting Maury County
Location in the state of Tennessee
Map of the U.S. highlighting Tennessee
Tennessee's location in the U.S.
Founded 1807
Named for Abram Poindexter Maury, Sr.[1]
Seat Columbia
Largest city Spring Hill
Area
 - Total
 - Land
 - Water

616 sq mi (1,595 km²)
613 sq mi (1,588 km²)
2.4 sq mi (6 km²), 0.4%
Population
 - (2020)
 - Density

100,974
164.72/sq mi (64/km²)
Congressional districts 4th, 7th
Time zone Central: UTC-6/-5
Website www.maurycounty-tn.gov
Footnotes: Estimate

Maury County ( /ˈmʌri/ MURR-ee) is a county located in the U.S. state of Tennessee, in the Middle Tennessee region. As of the 2020 census, the population was 100,974.[2] Its county seat is Columbia.[3]

Maury County is part of the Nashville-DavidsonMurfreesboroFranklin, TN Metropolitan Statistical Area.

History[]

The county was formed in 1807 from Williamson County and Indian lands. Maury County was named in honor of Abram Maury, Sr. (1766-1825), a member of the Tennessee state senate from Williamson County (who was the father of Major Abram Poindexter Maury of Williamson County, later a Congressman; and an uncle of Commodore Matthew Fontaine Maury).[1][4]

The rich soil of Maury County led to a thriving agricultural sector, starting in the 19th century. The county was part of a 41-county region that became known and legally defined as Middle Tennessee. In the antebellum era, planters in Maury County relied on the labor of enslaved African Americans to raise and process cotton, tobacco, and livestock (especially dairy cattle). Racial violence was less than in some areas, but the county had five documented lynchings in the period from 1877 to 1950, of which three took place in the early 20th century.

With the mechanization of agriculture, particularly from the 1930s, the need for farm labor in the county was reduced. Also, many African Americans moved to northern and midwestern industrial cities in the 20th century to escape Jim Crow conditions and for employment opportunities, particularly during the Great Migration. This movement out of the county continued after World War II. Other changes have led to increased population since the late 20th century, and the county has led the state in beef cattle production.[1]

Columbia Race Riot of 1946[]

On the night of February 26–27, 1946, a disturbance known as the "Columbia Race Riot" took place in Columbia, the county seat. The national press called it the first "major racial confrontation" after the Second World War.[5] It marked a new spirit of resistance by African-American veterans and others following their participation in World War II, which they believed had earned them their full rights as citizens, despite Jim Crow laws.[6]

James Stephenson, an African-American Navy veteran, was with his mother at a store, where she learned that a radio she had left for repair had been sold. When she complained, the white repair apprentice, Billy Fleming, struck her. Stephenson had been a welterweight on the Navy boxing team and retaliated by hitting Fleming, who broke a window. Both Stephenson and his mother were arrested, and Fleming's father convinced the sheriff to charge them with attempted murder. When whites learned that Fleming had gone to a hospital for treatment, a mob gathered. There was risk that the Stephensons would be lynched.[7]

Julius Blair, a 76-year-old black store owner, arranged to have the Stephensons released to his custody. He drove them out of town for their protection. When the mob did not disperse, about one hundred African-American men began to patrol their neighborhood, located south of the courthouse square, determined to resist. Four police officers were shot and wounded when they entered "Mink Slide", the name given to the African-American business district, also known as "The Bottom". Following the attack on the police, the city government requested state troopers, who were sent and soon outnumbered the black patrollers. The state troopers began ransacking black businesses and rounding up African Americans. They cut phone service to Mink Slide, but the owner of a funeral home managed to call Nashville and ask for help from the NAACP. The county jail was soon overcrowded with black "suspects." Police questioned them for days without counsel. Two black men were killed and one wounded, allegedly while "trying to escape" during a transfer.[8] About 25 black men were eventually charged with rioting and attempted murder.

The NAACP sent Thurgood Marshall as the lead attorney to defend Stephenson and the other defendants. He gained a change of venue, but only to another small town, where trials took place throughout the summer of 1946. Marshall was assisted by two local attorneys, Zephaniah Alexander Looby, originally from the British West Indies, and Maurice Weaver, a white activist from Nashville. Marshall was also preparing litigation for education and voting rights cases.

Marshall gained acquittals for 23 of the black defendants, even with an all-white jury.[5] At the last murder trials in November 1946, Marshall won also acquittal for Rooster Bill Pillow, and a reduction in the sentence of Papa Kennedy, allowing him to go free on bail.[9]

In 1954 Marshall litigated a case on segregated education at the United States Supreme Court, which ruled in Brown v. Board of Education that segregation of public schools was unconstitutional. He was later appointed as the first black United States Supreme Court justice. Zephania Looby was later elected to the Nashville City Council.[10]

Geography[]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 616 square miles (1,600 km2), of which 613 square miles (1,590 km2) is land and 2.4 square miles (6.2 km2) (0.4%) is water.[11]

Adjacent counties[]

National protected area[]

  • Natchez Trace Parkway (part)

State protected areas[]

  • Duck River Complex State Natural Area
  • James K. Polk Home (state historic site)
  • Stillhouse Hollow Falls State Natural Area
  • Williamsport Wildlife Management Area
  • Yanahli Wildlife Management Area

Demographics[]

Historical populations
Census Pop.
1810 10,359
1820 22,141 113.7%
1830 27,665 24.9%
1840 28,186 1.9%
1850 29,520 4.7%
1860 32,498 10.1%
1870 36,289 11.7%
1880 39,904 10.0%
1890 38,112 −4.5%
1900 42,703 12.0%
1910 40,456 −5.3%
1920 35,403 −12.5%
1930 34,016 −3.9%
1940 40,357 18.6%
1950 40,368 0%
1960 41,699 3.3%
1970 43,376 4.0%
1980 51,095 17.8%
1990 54,812 7.3%
2000 69,498 26.8%
2010 80,956 16.5%
U.S. Decennial Census[12]
1790-1960[13] 1900-1990[14]
1990-2000[15] 2010-2020[2]

2020 census[]

Maury County racial composition[16]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 76,182 75.45%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 11,241 11.13%
Native American 248 0.25%
Asian 934 0.92%
Pacific Islander 45 0.04%
Other/Mixed 4,664 4.62%
Hispanic or Latino 7,660 7.59%

As of the 2020 United States census, there were 100,974 people, 37,104 households, and 25,951 families residing in the county.

2010 census[]

As of the census[17] of 2010, there were 80,932 people and 33,332 households residing in the county. The population density was 132 people per square mile (51/km2).[18] There were 37,470 housing units at an average density of 61 per square mile (24/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 84.4% White, 11.9% Black or African American, 0.5% Native American, 1.0% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 1.44% from other races, and 2.1% from two or more races. 5.8% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.[19]

There were 26,444 households, out of which 34.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.90% were married couples living together, 12.90% had a female householder with no husband present, and 27.10% were non-families. 23.20% of all households were made up of individuals, and 8.80% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.03.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 26.20% under the age of 18, 8.70% from 18 to 24, 29.80% from 25 to 44, 23.20% from 45 to 64, and 12.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.60 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.30 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $41,591, and the median income for a family was $48,010. Males had a median income of $37,675 versus $23,334 for females. The per capita income for the county was $19,365. About 8.30% of families and 10.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.50% of those under age 18 and 12.10% of those age 65 or over.

There were declines in population and declines in population growth from 1900 to 1930, and from 1940 to 1970. These periods related to the migration of people from rural to urban areas for work, especially as mechanization reduced the need for agricultural laborers. In addition, these time periods related to the Great Migration of African Americans out of the Jim Crow South to northern and midwestern industrial cities for more opportunities. The African-American population became highly urbanized. Expansion of the railroads, auto and steel industries provided new work opportunities in the early 20th century.


Transportation[]

Interstate 65 runs along the eastern portion of Maury County for about 18 miles (29 km), bypassing Columbia and Spring Hill. State Route 396 is a short controlled-access highway that connects I-65 to Spring Hill. U.S. Route 31, which parallels I-65 its entire length through Tennessee, runs through Columbia and Spring Hill, and U.S. Route 431 runs for a short distance in the northeastern corner of the county. The northern terminus of U.S. Route 43 and the eastern terminus of U.S. Route 412 are both located in Columbia. Other major state routes include 6, 7, 20, 50, and 99. Secondary state routes include 166, 243, 245, 246, 247, and 373.[20]

The Maury County Airport is a county-owned public-use airport located 2 nautical miles (3.7 km; 2.3 mi) northeast of the central business district of Mount Pleasant[21] and 8 nautical miles (15 km; 9.2 mi) southwest of Columbia.[22]

Education[]

Maury County Public Schools operates public schools in the county.

Communities[]

Cities[]

Census-designated place[]

Unincorporated communities[]

  • Ashwood
  • Bigbyville
  • Campbells Station
  • Culleoka
  • Fly
  • Fountain Heights
  • Hampshire
  • Hopewell
  • Pleasant Grove
  • Santa Fe
  • Sawdust
  • Scotts Mill
  • Screamer
  • Silver Creek
  • Williamsport

Notable people[]

  • Cordie Cheek (1916–1933) – 19-year-old black youth lynched in 1933 by a mob including county officials, after being falsely accused of rape[23]
  • James P. Eagle (1837–1904) – 16th Governor of Arkansas[24]
  • Rufus Estes (b. 1857-d.1939), former slave, luxury railway car chef
  • George Rufus Kenamore (1846-1928), Missouri merchant, government official, and politician
  • Sam. R. Watkins (1839–1901) – author of Co. Aytch (1882)

Politics[]

United States presidential election results for Maury County, Tennessee[25]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 31,464 67.44% 14,418 30.90% 775 1.66%
2016 23,799 67.29% 10,038 28.38% 1,532 4.33%
2012 20,708 62.74% 11,825 35.83% 473 1.43%
2008 20,288 60.08% 13,058 38.67% 421 1.25%
2004 17,505 58.27% 12,379 41.20% 159 0.53%
2000 11,930 50.98% 11,127 47.55% 343 1.47%
1996 8,737 42.47% 10,367 50.39% 1,470 7.14%
1992 7,440 36.37% 9,997 48.86% 3,022 14.77%
1988 8,397 56.78% 6,280 42.47% 111 0.75%
1984 9,008 56.18% 6,950 43.35% 75 0.47%
1980 6,637 44.16% 7,957 52.94% 436 2.90%
1976 5,327 37.34% 8,747 61.32% 191 1.34%
1972 7,371 66.28% 3,262 29.33% 488 4.39%
1968 3,048 20.88% 3,401 23.30% 8,148 55.82%
1964 4,605 37.38% 7,716 62.62% 0 0.00%
1960 4,133 37.99% 6,615 60.81% 131 1.20%
1956 2,853 29.39% 6,662 68.64% 191 1.97%
1952 3,582 32.58% 7,377 67.09% 36 0.33%
1948 895 15.88% 2,906 51.57% 1,834 32.55%
1944 747 13.39% 4,814 86.29% 18 0.32%
1940 634 12.23% 4,529 87.33% 23 0.44%
1936 497 11.49% 3,809 88.07% 19 0.44%
1932 535 13.54% 3,392 85.83% 25 0.63%
1928 1,362 27.16% 3,652 72.84% 0 0.00%
1924 844 21.40% 3,000 76.06% 100 2.54%
1920 1,379 33.53% 2,693 65.48% 41 1.00%
1916 720 24.61% 2,169 74.13% 37 1.26%
1912 615 18.30% 2,309 68.70% 437 13.00%
1908 620 20.78% 2,324 77.91% 39 1.31%
1904 973 30.37% 2,142 66.85% 89 2.78%
1900 2,491 42.27% 3,325 56.42% 77 1.31%
1896 2,537 38.15% 4,021 60.47% 92 1.38%
1892 1,357 27.25% 3,191 64.08% 432 8.67%
1888 2,836 42.08% 3,658 54.27% 246 3.65%
1884 2,818 47.00% 3,148 52.50% 30 0.50%
1880 2,742 45.34% 3,306 54.66% 0 0.00%



See also[]

  • National Register of Historic Places listings in Maury County, Tennessee

References[]

  1. ^ a b c Marise P. Lightfoot, "Maury County," Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. Retrieved: 11 March 2013.
  2. ^ a b "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/47/47119.html. 
  3. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. http://www.naco.org/Counties/Pages/FindACounty.aspx. 
  4. ^ Hargett, Tre (Secretary of State). Tennessee Blue Book, 2019-2020. Nashville, Tennessee Secretary of State, 2020. p. 722.
  5. ^ a b King (2012), Devil in the Grove, p. 8
  6. ^ King, Gilbert; Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys, and the Dawn of a New America, HarperCollins, 2012, pp. 7-20
  7. ^ King (2012), Devil in the Grove, p. 11
  8. ^ King (2012), Devil in the Grove, p. 13
  9. ^ King (2012), Devil in the Grove, p. 14
  10. ^ Carroll Van West. "Columbia race riot, 1946". Tennessee Encyclopedia of History and Culture. http://tennesseeencyclopedia.net/entry.php?rec=296. Retrieved 2008-07-04. 
  11. ^ "2010 Census Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. August 22, 2012. http://www2.census.gov/geo/docs/maps-data/data/gazetteer/counties_list_47.txt. 
  12. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/prod/www/decennial.html. 
  13. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. http://mapserver.lib.virginia.edu. 
  14. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/cencounts/tn190090.txt. 
  15. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf. 
  16. ^ "Explore Census Data". https://data.census.gov/cedsci/table?g=0500000US47119&tid=DECENNIALPL2020.P2. 
  17. ^ "Census.gov/Quickfacts". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/maurycountytennessee. 
  18. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Maury County, Tennessee" (in en). 2017. https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/maurycountytennessee. 
  19. ^ "U.S. Census Bureau QuickFacts: Maury County, Tennessee" (in en). https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/maurycountytennessee. 
  20. ^ Tennessee Department of Transportation (2018). Maury County (Map). https://www.tn.gov/content/dam/tn/tdot/maps/county-maps-(us-shields)/h-m/Maury%20County.pdf. 
  21. ^ FAA Airport Master Record for MRC (Form 5010 PDF). Federal Aviation Administration. Effective August 25, 2011.
  22. ^ "Distance and heading from Columbia, TN (35°36'54"N 87°02'40"W) to Maury County Airport (35°33'16"N 87°10'45"W)". Great Circle Mapper. http://www.gcmap.com/dist?P=35%B036%2754%22N+87%B02%2740%22W-MRC%0D%0A&DU=nm&DM=&SG=&SU=mph. 
  23. ^ King, Gilbert (2012). Devil in the Grove: Thurgood Marshall, the Groveland Boys and the Dawn of a New America. pp. 12. 
  24. ^ "Arkansas Governor James Philip Eagle". National Governors Association. http://www.nga.org/cms/home/governors/past-governors-bios/page_arkansas/col2-content/main-content-list/title_eagle_james.html. 
  25. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS. 

External links[]

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Coordinates: 35°37′N 87°05′W / 35.62, -87.08


This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Maury County, Tennessee. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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