|Monroe County, New York|
Monroe County Office Building
Location in the state of New York (state)
New York's location in the U.S.
|Founded||February 23, 1821|
|Named for||James Monroe|
1,367 sq mi (3,541 km²)
657 sq mi (1,702 km²)
710 sq mi (1,839 km²), 52
1,155.9/sq mi (Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character ","./km²)
|Congressional districts||25th, 27th|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Monroe County is a county in the Finger Lakes region of New York State. The county is along Lake Ontario's southern shore. As of 2020, Monroe County's population was 759,443, an increase since the 2010 census. Its county seat and largest city is the city of Rochester. The county is named after James Monroe, the fifth president of the United States. Monroe County is part of the Rochester, NY Metropolitan Statistical Area. The current County Executive is Adam Bello.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Government and politics
- 4 County government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Education
- 8 Parks
- 9 Communities
- 10 See also
- 11 Notes
- 12 References
- 13 Further reading
- 14 External links
When counties were established in the Province of New York in 1683, the present Monroe County was part of Albany County. This was an enormous county, including the northern part of New York State as well as all of the present State of Vermont and, in theory, extending westward to the Pacific Ocean. This county was reduced in size on July 3, 1766 by the creation of Cumberland County, and further on March 16, 1770 by the creation of Gloucester County, both containing territory now in Vermont.
On March 12, 1772, what was left of Albany County was split into three parts, one remaining under the name Albany County. One of the other pieces, Tryon County, contained the western portion (and thus, since no western boundary was specified, theoretically still extended west to the Pacific). The eastern boundary of Tryon County was approximately five miles west of the present city of Schenectady, and the county included the western part of the Adirondack Mountains and the area west of the West Branch of the Delaware River. The area then designated as Tryon County now includes 37 counties of New York State. The county was named for William Tryon, colonial governor of New York.
In the years prior to 1776, most of the Loyalists in Tryon County fled to Canada. In 1784, following the peace treaty that ended the American Revolutionary War, the name of Tryon County was changed to Montgomery County in order to honor the general, Richard Montgomery, who had captured several places in Canada and died attempting to capture the city of Quebec, replacing the name of the hated British governor.
In 1789, Ontario County was split off from Montgomery. The actual area split off from Montgomery County was much larger than the present county, also including the present Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Genesee, Livingston, Monroe, Niagara, Orleans, Steuben, Wyoming, Yates, and part of Schuyler and Wayne counties.
Genesee County was created by a splitting of Ontario County in 1802. This was much larger than the present Genesee County, however. It contained the present Allegany, Cattaraugus, Chautauqua, Erie, Niagara, Orleans, Wyoming, and portions of Livingston and Monroe counties.
Finally, Monroe County was formed from parts of Genesee and Ontario counties in 1821.
Monroe County is in Western New York State's northern tier, northeast of Buffalo and northwest of Syracuse. The northern county line is also the state line and the border of the United States, marked by Lake Ontario. Monroe County is north of the Finger Lakes.
- Wayne County - east
- Ontario County - southeast
- Livingston County - south
- Orleans County - west
- Genesee County - southwest
- New York State Route 15
- New York State Route 15A
- New York State Route 18
- New York State Route 19
- New York State Route 31
- New York State Route 31F
- New York State Route 33
- New York State Route 33A
- New York State Route 36
- New York State Route 64
- New York State Route 65
- New York State Route 96
- New York State Route 104
- New York State Route 153
- New York State Route 250
- New York State Route 251
- New York State Route 252
- New York State Route 259
- New York State Route 286
- New York State Route 390
- New York State Route 404
- New York State Route 441
- New York State Route 531
- New York State Route 590
- Lake Ontario State Parkway
Government and politics
Monroe County is reliably Democratic in recent elections with George H.W. Bush in 1988 being the last Republican candidate to win the county.
The county's executive branch is headed by the County Executive, Adam Bello. The executive's office is on the first floor of the County Office Building on West Main Street in Rochester. The County Clerk is Jamie Romeo.
The county was exclusively governed by a Board of Supervisors for the first 114 years of its history. In 1935, the position of County Manager, appointed by the Board, was approved by popular referendum. In 1983, the position was replaced by a County Executive, directly elected by popular vote, with expanded powers (e.g., veto). In 1993, the legislature enacted term limits for the executive office of 12 consecutive years to start in 1996.
|Clarence A. Smith||County Manager||Republican||January 1, 1936 – December 31, 1959|
|Gordon A. Howe||County Manager||Republican||January 1, 1960 – December 31, 1971|
|Lucien A. Morin||County Manager
|Republican||January 18, 1972 – December 31, 1982|
January 1, 1983 – December 31, 1986
|Thomas R. Frey||County Executive||Democrat||January 1, 1987 – December 31, 1991|
|Robert L. King||County Executive||Republican||January 1, 1992 – January 14, 1995|
|John D. "Jack" Doyle||County Executive||Republican||January 14, 1995 – December 31, 2003|
|Maggie Brooks||County Executive||Republican||January 1, 2004 – December 31, 2015|
|Cheryl L. Dinolfo||County Executive||Republican||January 1, 2016 – December 31, 2019|
|Adam J. Bello||County Executive||Democrat||January 1, 2020 –|
The county's legislative branch consists of a 29-member County Legislature which replaced the earlier 43-member Board of Supervisors on January 1, 1967. It meets in the Legislative Chambers on the fourth floor of the County Office Building. All 29 members of the Legislature are elected from districts. District Maps Currently, there are 15 Republicans, 10 members in the Democratic caucus, and 4 members in the independent Black & Asian Democratic Caucus. The President of the Legislature is Dr. Joe Carbone. In 1993, the Legislature enacted term limits of 10 consecutive years to start in 1996. Legislators can return to the office after not being in the Legislature for a term. Since the enacting of term limits, as of 2021 three Legislators (Karla Boyce, Calvin Lee, Jr., and Robert Colby) returned after previously being term limited; Boyce was re-elected again three times while Lee and Colby were appointed to fill vacancies.
- Monroe County Court
- Monroe County Family Court, for matters involving children
- Monroe County Surrogates Court, for matters involving the deceased
- Rochester City Court
Representation at the federal level
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between two congressional districts:
|District||Areas of Monroe County||Congressperson||Party||First took office||Residence|
|New York's 25th congressional district||All of Monroe County except those portions represented by the 27th district||Joseph D. Morelle||Democratic||2018||Irondequoit, Monroe County|
|New York's 27th congressional district||Hamlin, Mendon, Rush, Wheatland, and the southwest corner of Clarkson||Chris Jacobs||Republican||2020||Orchard Park, Erie County|
Representation at the state level
New York State Senate
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between six state senate districts:
|District||Areas of Monroe County||Senator||Party||First took office||Residence|
|54||Webster||Pam Helming||Republican||2017||Canandaigua, Ontario County|
|55||Northeastern||Samra Brouk||Democratic||2021||Rochester, Monroe County|
|56||Northwestern||Jeremy Cooney||Democratic||2021||Rochester, Monroe County|
|59||Henrietta, Wheatland||Patrick M. Gallivan||Republican||2011||Elma, Erie County|
|61||Chili, Riga, southern part of the City of Rochester||Edward A. Rath III||Republican||2021||Amherst, Erie County|
|62||Ogden, Sweden||Robert Ortt||Republican||2015||North Tonawanda, Niagara County|
New York State Assembly
After redistricting based on the 2010 United States Census, Monroe County was split between seven state assembly districts:
|District||Areas of Monroe County||Assemblyperson||Party||First took office||Residence|
|133||Mendon, Pittsford, Riga, Rush, Wheatland||Marjorie Byrnes||Republican||2019||Caledonia, Livingston County|
|134||Greece, Ogden, Parma||Josh Jensen||Republican||2021||Greece, Monroe County|
|135||East Rochester, Penfield, Perinton, Webster||Jennifer Lunsford||Democratic||2021||Webster, Monroe County|
|136||Brighton, Irondequoit, northwest portion and easternmost tip of the City of Rochester||Sarah Clark||Democratic||2021||Rochester, Monroe County|
|137||Gates, center of the City of Rochester||Demond Meeks||Democratic||2021||Rochester, Monroe County|
|138||Chili, Henrietta, parts of the City of Rochester||Harry B. Bronson||Democratic||2011||Rochester, Monroe County|
|139||Clarkson, Hamlin, Sweden||Stephen M. Hawley||Republican||2006||Batavia, Genesee County|
Monroe County is part of
- The 7th Judicial District of the New York Supreme Court.
- The 4th Division of the New York Supreme Court, Appellate Division
Monroe County is a home to a number of international businesses, including Eastman Kodak, Paychex, and Pictometry International, all of which make Monroe County their world headquarters. While no longer headquartered in Rochester, Xerox has its principal offices and manufacturing facilities in Monroe County (Xerox 2010 Annual Report), and Bausch and Lomb was headquartered in Rochester until it was acquired by Valeant Pharmaceuticals. Monroe County is also home to regional businesses such as Wegmans, Roberts Communications, Inc., Holding Corp., and major fashion label Hickey Freeman.
Tech Valley, the technologically recognized area of eastern New York State, has spawned a western offshoot into the Rochester, Monroe County, and Finger Lakes areas of New York State. Since the 2000s, as the more established companies in Rochester downsized, the economy of Rochester and Monroe County has been redirected toward high technology, with new, smaller companies providing the seed capital necessary for business foundation. The Rochester and Monroe County area is important in the field of photographic processing and imaging as well as incubating an increasingly diverse high technology sphere encompassing STEM fields, in part the result of private startup enterprises collaborating with major academic institutions, including the University of Rochester and Cornell University. Given the high prevalence of imaging and optical science among the industry and the universities, Rochester is known as the world capital of imaging. The Institute of Optics of the University of Rochester and the Rochester Institute of Technology in nearby Henrietta both have imaging programs.
Several industries occupy a major portion of the jobs located regionally, with healthcare comprising a significant portion of jobs in Monroe County. The U of R (including its numerous hospitals) is the largest employer regionally with over 27,000 workers; Rochester Regional Health (parent company of Rochester General and Unity Hospitals) is the second largest consisting of over 15,000. Wegmans is third with about 13,000 local employees.
|U.S. Decennial Census|
As of the census of 2000, there were 735,343 people, 286,512 households, and 184,513 families residing in the county. The population density was 1,115 people per square mile (431/km2). There were 304,388 housing units at an average density of 462 per square mile (178/km2). The county's racial makeup was 79.14% White, 13.75% African American, 0.27% Native American, 2.44% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 2.44% from other races, and 1.94% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.31% of the population. 18.6% were of Italian, 15.3% German, 11.3% Irish and 8.3% English ancestry according to Census 2000. 4.64% of the population reported speaking Spanish at home, while 1.43% speak Italian.
There were 286,512 households, out of which 31.80% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.40% were married couples living together, 13.40% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.60% were non-families. 28.60% of all households were made up of individuals, and 9.90% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.08.
In the county, the population was spread out, with 25.60% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 29.30% from 25 to 44, 22.60% from 45 to 64, and 13.00% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 93.00 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.20 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $44,891, and the median income for a family was $55,900. Males had a median income of $41,279 versus $29,553 for females. The per capita income for the county was $22,821. About 8.20% of families and 11.20% of the population were below the poverty line, including 15.50% of those under age 18 and 7.40% of those age 65 or over.
Primary and secondary education
The public school system educates the overwhelming majority of Monroe County's children. The schools operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester or Roman Catholic religious orders educate the next largest segment of children, although collectively, they are a distant second.
There are some 26 public school districts that serve Monroe County, including the Rochester City School District, 10 suburban school districts in Monroe #1 BOCES, seven in Monroe #2–Orleans BOCES, and several primarily serving other counties (Avon, Byron–Bergen, Caledonia–Mumford, Holley, Wayne, Williamson and Victor central school districts).
|Name||BOCES||Established||District population||Professional staff||Support staff||Median teacher salary||Enrollment||Budget||Per pupil cost|
|Brighton Central School District||Monroe #1||1966||26450||372||293||$63580||3681||$74.0 million||$18444|
|Brockport Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1927||30000||356||362||$59971||3411||$78.9 million||$23128|
|Churchville-Chili Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1950||30000||350||322||$59752||3845||$82.6 million||$21523|
|East Irondequoit Central School District||Monroe #1||1956||27000||335||352||$56447||3145||$76.3 million||$24257|
|East Rochester Union Free School District||Monroe #1||1920||8200||125||91||$53829||1179||$27.4 million||$23282|
|Fairport Central School District||Monroe #1||1951||40000||645||516||$65630||5905||$123.3 million||$20874|
|Gates Chili Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1956||35000||451||402||$61423||4123||$100.8 million||$24459|
|Greece Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1928||96000||1127||1249||$72100||11094||$221.2 million||$19941|
|Hilton Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1949||25323||421||367||$60407||4452||$80.0 million||$17965|
|Holley Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1949||7774||125||87||$53366||1051||$24.4 million||$23216|
|Honeoye Falls-Lima Central School District||Monroe #1||1969||10500||219||205||$62074||2212||$48.5 million||$19542|
|Kendall Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1957||3000||86||76||$53551||704||$17.4 million||$22269|
|Penfield Central School District||Monroe #1||1948||31000||438||477||$61612||4564||$93.3 million||$20445|
|Pittsford Central School District||Monroe #1||1946||33000||575||656||$67848||5685||$125.5 million||$22280|
|Rochester City School District||None||1841||209000||5786 (total)||5786 (total)||$61617||30217||$864.7 million||$21546|
|Rush-Henrietta Central School District||Monroe #1||1947||46000||613||603||$63344||5247||$119.9 million||$22838|
|Spencerport Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1949||23000||408||351||$62348||3584||$77.1 million||$21521|
|Webster Central School District||Monroe #1||1948||54093||801||631||$66408||8549||$163.9 million||$19167|
|West Irondequoit Central School District||Monroe #1||1953||23754||344||258||$59855||3568||$71.2 million||$19916|
|Wheatland–Chili Central School District||Monroe #2–Orleans||1955||5100||80||63||$54967||691||$17.8 million||$23837|
There are three private schools that serve more than 200 students each:
- Allendale Columbia School, a college preparatory school in Pittsford
- The Harley School, a college preparatory school in Brighton
- Mary Cariola Children's Center serving children with multiple, complex disabilities in the city
There is one small, but historically significant school: Rochester School for the Deaf in the city
- There are three small Judaic schools and two small Islamic schools.
- There are about ten primary schools operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester.
- There are four senior high schools (or combined junior/senior high schools) operated by or in the tradition of a Roman Catholic religious order:
School Founding religious order Location Established Grades Aquinas Institute Basilian City of Rochester 1902 6–12 Bishop Kearney High School Christian Brothers, Sisters of Notre Dame Irondequoit 1962 6–12 McQuaid Jesuit High School Jesuits Brighton 1954 6–12 Our Lady of Mercy School for Young Women Sisters of Mercy Brighton 1928 6–12
- There are more than two dozen schools operated by various sects of Christianity, two of which serve more than 200 students:
School Religious affiliation Location Established Grades The Charles Finney School Non-denominational Christian Penfield 1992 K–12 Northstar Christian Academy Baptist Gates 1972 K–12
Colleges and universities
The county is home to nine colleges and universities:
- Bryant & Stratton College in Greece and Henrietta
- Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School in the city
- Monroe Community College in Brighton with a campus in the city
- Nazareth College in Pittsford
- Roberts Wesleyan College in Chili
- Rochester Institute of Technology in Henrietta
- St. Bernard's School of Theology and Ministry in Pittsford
- St. John Fisher College in Pittsford
- State University of New York at Brockport in Brockport with a campus in the city
- University of Rochester in the city
Additionally, four colleges maintain satellite campuses in Monroe County:
- The Cornell University School of Industrial and Labor Relations maintains an office in the city
- Empire State College maintains the Genesee Valley Learning Center in Irondequoit
- Ithaca College's Department of Physical Therapy leases part of the Colgate Rochester Crozer Divinity School facility for teaching and research
- Medaille College maintains its Rochester Campus in Brighton
The following is a list of parks owned and maintained by Monroe County:
- Abraham Lincoln Park
- Black Creek Park
- Churchville Park
- Devil's Cove Park
- Durand Eastman Park
- Ellison Park
- Genesee Valley Park
- Greece Canal Park
- Highland Park
- Irondequoit Bay Park West
- Lehigh Valley Trail Park
- Lucian Morin Park
- Mendon Ponds Park
- Northampton Park
- Oatka Creek Park
- Ontario Beach Park
- Powder Mills Park
- Seneca Park
- Seneca Park Zoo
- Tryon Park
- Webster Park
The following is a list of parks owned and maintained by New York State:
- Hamlin Beach State Park
- Irondequoit Bay State Marine Park
|5||North Gates||9,512||CDP||Inner Rochester|
|7||East Rochester||6,587||Town/Village||Inner Rochester|
In New York State the term "Hamlet", although not defined in law, is used to describe an unincorporated community and geographic location within a town. The town in which each Hamlet is located is in parenthesis.
- Genesee Junction (Chili)
- Egypt (Perinton)
- Adams Basin (Ogden)
- Bushnell's Basin (Perinton)
- Gates Center (Gates)
- Garbutt (Scottsville)
- Mumford (Wheatland)
- Union Hill (Webster)
- Mendon Center (Mendon)
- Seabreeze (Irondequoit)
- Summerville (Irondequoit)
- Parma Center (Parma)
- Riga Center (Riga)
- Sweden Center (Sweden)
- West Webster (Webster)
- North Chili (Chili)
- Clarkson Corners (Clarkson)
- Clifton (Chili)
- Industry (Rush)
- Belcoda (Wheatland)
- Coldwater (Gates)
- Barnard (Greece)
- Beattie Beach (Greece)
- Braddock Bay (Greece)
- Braddock Heights (Greece)
- Elmgrove (Greece)
- Grandview Heights (Greece)
- Grand View Beach (Greece)
- North Greece (Greece)
- Ridgemont (Greece)
- West Greece (Greece)
- List of people from Rochester, New York
- Monroe County, New York Sheriff's Office
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Monroe County, New York
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- ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. https://www.census.gov/population/www/cen2000/briefs/phc-t4/tables/tab02.pdf.
- ^ "MLA Language Map Data Center: Monroe County, New York". Modern Language Association. 2007. http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=36&county_id=55&mode=geographic&zip=&place_id=&cty_id=&ll=all&a=&ea=&order=r.
- ^ Facts and Figures on Monroe County School Districts, Brighton, New York: Monroe County School Boards Association, 2017, pp. back flap, OCLC 4891330, http://www.monroe.edu/webpages/mcsba/publications.cfm?subpage=3337
- ^ Facts and Figures on Monroe County School Districts, Brighton, New York: Monroe County School Boards Association, 2017, pp. 18–55, OCLC 4891330, http://www.monroe.edu/webpages/mcsba/publications.cfm?subpage=3337
- ^ "Rochester Regional Office". Ithaca, New York: Cornell University. http://www.ilr.cornell.edu/regionaloffices/rochester/.
- ^ "Rochester Location". Saratoga, New York: Empire State College. http://www.esc.edu/learning-centers/genesee-valley/rochester/.
- ^ "Rochester Center". Ithaca, New York: Ithaca College. http://www.ithaca.edu/hshp/depts/pt/rochester/. "Ithaca College maintains a teaching and research facility in Rochester, NY on the campus of the Colgate Rochester Crozier Divinity School (CRCDS on South Goodman St. at Highland Ave.) and is affiliated with the University of Rochester and Strong Memorial Hospital."
- ^ "Rochester Campus". Buffalo, New York: Medaille College. http://www.medaille.edu/about-medaille/location/campus-tours/rochester-campus. "We are located at 1880 South Winton Road, situated near Rochester's Outer Loop"
- ^ "Parks Department Monroe County, NY". MonroeCounty.gov. https://www.monroecounty.gov/parks.
- ^ "State Park Search Results". New York State Parks, Recreation and Historic Preservation. https://parks.ny.gov/parks/park-results.aspx?r=0&c=Monroe&src=2.
- Sherwood, D.A. (2003). Water resources of Monroe County, New York, water years 1997-99, with emphasis on water quality in the Irondequoit Creek basin : atmospheric deposition, ground water, streamflow, trends in water quality, and chemical loads to Irondequoit Bay [Water-Resources Investigations Report 02-4221]. Ithaca, NY: U.S. Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey.
- Raines, Thomas (1895). Landmarks of Monroe County, New York. Boston: The Boston History Company. https://archive.org/details/landmarksofmonro00rain.
- Federal Writers' Project. New York (State) (1937). Rochester and Monroe County. Rochester, NY: Scrantom's. https://archive.org/details/rochesterandmonr00federich.
- Official webpage
- Monroe County at Curlie
- Monroe County Library System
- Rochester Wiki Monroe County Page
- Monroe County Parks Department
- The Roman Catholic Diocese of Rochester, New York
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Monroe County, New York
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