Main Births etc
Town & County of Nantucket, Massachusetts
—  Town  —

Location in Nantucket County in Massachusetts
Coordinates: 41°17′N 70°5′W / 41.283, -70.083
Country United States
State Massachusetts
Settled 1641
Incorporated 1671
 • Type Open town meeting
 • Total 105.3 sq mi (272.6 km2)
 • Land 47.8 sq mi (123.8 km2)
 • Water 57.5 sq mi (148.8 km2)
Elevation 30 ft (9 m)
Population (2010)
 • Total 10,172
 • Density 212.8/sq mi (82.2/km2)
Time zone Eastern (UTC-5)
 • Summer (DST) Eastern (UTC-4)
ZIP code 02554
Area code(s) 508 Exchanges: 228, 271, 325, 825
FIPS code 25-43790
GNIS feature ID 0619376

Nantucket /ˌnænˈtʌkɪt/ is an island 30 miles (48 km) south of Cape Cod, Massachusetts, in the United States. Together with the small islands of Tuckernuck and Muskeget, it constitutes the town of Nantucket, Massachusetts, and the coterminous Nantucket County, which are consolidated. Part of the town is designated the Nantucket CDP, or census designated place. The region of Surfside on Nantucket is the southernmost settlement in Massachusetts.

The name, Nantucket, is adapted from among similar Algonquian names for the island.

Nantucket is a tourist destination and summer colony. The population of the island soars from about 10,000 to 50,000 during the summer months, due to tourists and summer residents.[1] In 2008 Forbes Magazine cited Nantucket as having home values among the highest in the US.[2]

The Nantucket Historic District, comprising all of Nantucket Island, was added to the National Register of Historic Places on December 13, 1966. In doing so the National Park Service paid particular note to the settlements of Nantucket and Siasconset which is known as "Sconset". The island features one of the highest concentrations of pre-Civil War structures in the United States. It also has the oldest operating windmill in the United States (since 1746).

Origin of the name[]

Nantucket takes its name from a word in an Eastern Algonquian language of southern New England, originally spelled variously as natocke, nantaticut, nantican, and nautican. The meaning of the term is uncertain, although it may have meant "in the midst of waters," or "far away island."[3] Other sources state the indigenous American word "Natockete," meaning "faraway land," to be the origin of the name. The Wampanoag who lived in Nantucket referred to the island as "Canopache," or "place of peace." The island has a nickname, "The Gray Lady", which refers to the fog that occurs frequently on and about the Island.


1870s street scene on Nantucket.


The earliest French settlement in the region began on neighboring island Martha's Vineyard, named after Bartholomew Gosnold's daughter Martha who died on board, en route. Nantucket Island's original Native American inhabitants, the Wampanoag people, lived undisturbed until 1641 when the island was deeded by the English (the authorities in control of all land from the coast of Maine to New York) to Thomas Mayhew and his son, merchants of Watertown and Martha's Vineyard. The entire area of New York county had been purchased by Thomas Mayhew Sr. of Watertown, Massachusetts, in 1641, buying out competing land claims. Nantucket was part of Dukes County, New York until 1691, when it was transferred to the newly formed Province of Massachusetts Bay and split off to form Nantucket County. As Europeans began to settle Cape Cod, the island became a place of refuge for regional Native Americans, as Nantucket was not yet settled by Europeans. The growing population welcomed seasonal groups of other Native Americans who traveled to the island to fish and later harvest whales that washed up on shore.

English settlement and the history of whaling in Nantucket[]

The history of Nantucket's settlement by the English did not begin in earnest until 1659, when Thomas Mayhew sold his interest to a group of investors, led by Tristram Coffin, "for the sum of thirty Pounds...and also two beaver hats, one for myself, and one for my wife". The "nine original porchasers" were Tristram Coffin, Peter Coffin, Thomas Macy, Christopher Hussey, Richard Swain, Thomas Barnard, Stephen Greenleafe, John Swain and William Pike. Seamen and tradesmen began to populate Nantucket, such as Richard Gardner (arrived 1667) and Capt John Gardner (arrived 1672), sons of Thomas Gardner (planter). [4]

Herman Melville comments on Nantucket's whaling dominance in Moby-Dick, Chapter 14: "Two thirds of this terraqueous globe are the Nantucketer's. For the sea is his; he owns it, as Emperors own empires." The Moby-Dick characters Ahab and Starbuck are both from Nantucket.

File:Nantucket historical assocation whaling museum weather vane.jpg

Whale weathervane atop the Nantucket Historical Association Whaling Museum

In his 1835 history of Nantucket Island, Obed Macy wrote that in the early pre-1672 colony a whale of the kind called "scragg" entered the harbor and was pursued and killed by the settlers.[5] This event started the Nantucket whaling industry. A. B. Van Deinse points out that the "scrag whale", described by P. Dudley in 1725 as one of the species hunted by the early New England whalers, was almost certainly the Gray Whale which has flourished on the West Coast of North America with protection from whaling.[6][7]

By 1850, whaling was in decline, as Nantucket had been supplanted by New Bedford. The island suffered great economic hardships, worsened by the July 13, 1846 "Great Fire" that, fueled by whale oil and lumber, devastated the main town, burning some 40 acres.[8] It left hundreds homeless and poverty stricken, and many people left the island. Another contributor to the decline was the silting up of the harbor which prevented the large whaling ships from entering and leaving the port. In addition, the development of railroads made mainland whaling ports (such as New Bedford) more attractive because of the ease of transshipment of whale oil onto trains, an advantage unavailable to an island.

Later history[]

As a result of this depopulation, the island was left under-developed and isolated until the mid-20th century. The isolation kept many of the pre-Civil War buildings intact and, by the 1950s, enterprising developers began buying up large sections of the island and restoring them to create an upmarket destination for the wealthy in the Northeastern United States. This highly controlled development can be compared to neighboring Martha's Vineyard, the development of which served as a model for what the Nantucket developers wanted to avoid.

In the 1960s Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard considered seceding from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. In 1977, Nantucket and Martha's Vineyard actually attempted (unsuccessfully) to secede from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. The secession vote was sparked by a proposed change to the Massachusetts Constitution, which reduced the islands' representation in the Massachusetts General Court.[9]

Geology and geography[]

The cobblestone Main Street in historic Downtown Nantucket

Nantucket was formed by the uttermost reach of the Laurentide Ice Sheet during the recent Wisconsin Glaciation, shaped by the subsequent rise in sea level. The island's low ridge across the northern section was deposited as glacial moraine during a period of glacial standstill, a period during which till continued to arrive, but melted at a stationary front. The southern part of the island is an outwash plain, sloping away from the arc of moraine and shaped at its margins by the sorting actions and transport of longshore drift. Nantucket became an island when rising sea levels reflooded Buzzards Bay about 5,000–6,000 years ago.[10]

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, Nantucket County has a total area of 303.5 square miles (786 km2), the smallest county in Massachusetts, 84.25% of which is water. The area of Nantucket Island proper is 47.8 square miles (124 km2). The triangular region of ocean between Nantucket, Martha's Vineyard, and Cape Cod, is Nantucket Sound. The highest point on the island is Folger Hill which stands 109 feet (33 m) above sea level. Altar Rock is a close second at a height of 108 feet (33 m) above sea level.

NASA satellite Image of Nantucket Island

The entire island, as well as the adjoining islands of Tuckernuck and Muskeget, comprise both the Town of Nantucket and the County of Nantucket. The main settlement, also called Nantucket, is located at the western end of Nantucket Harbor, where it opens into Nantucket Sound. Key localities on the island include Madaket, Surfside, Polpis, Wauwinet, Massachusetts, Miacomet and Siasconset (often abbreviated as 'Sconset).


Coatue is a long barrier beach on Nantucket Island, separating Nantucket Sound from Nantucket Harbor. It has six points: First Point is situated due north of the village of Shimmo's Pimneys Point. Second Point, is north-northeast of the village of Shawkemo. Third Point is salt marsh. Fourth Point is due north of the Pocomo Peninsula, which contains the villages of Pocomo and West Wauwinet. The gap between Coatue and Pocomo is called the Wauwinet Straits. This deep and swift waterway has currents that reach 5 knots (9.3 km/h). Bass Point is the first point totally within Wauwinet Harbor. Wyers Point, the last point of land on Coatue, Wyers is connected to Coskata. At the head of Coatue is Coskata Pond.

Hummock Pond[]

Hummock Pond is a large pond on the south shore of Nantucket Island. It was created in the last ice age by the ice melt and used to be much larger, but during the blizzard of 1978 large swells from the Atlantic closed off the smaller western half, known as Clark's Cove. The pond is narrow and one of the deepest on Nantucket, and north head of the pond is connected by a small river. The north head is an extremely deep kettle hole with steep sides. The pond offers many kayaking opportunities, but is prone to strong south to southwesterly breezes.

Miacomet Pond[]

Miacomet Pond is a narrow, slender pond on the south shore of Nantucket Island. The pond was once a river, but the oceans rose to make Nantucket an island in the last ice age. On average the pond is approximately 100 yards (91 m) wide, thus giving the appearance of a river. The northern head of the pond is only ten feet wide and was once connected to Nantucket Harbor via Newtown Creek. The maximum depth of the pond is twenty eight feet. The southern end of the pond is a sandy beach. Occasionally the pond is opened up to the sea.

Popsquatchet Hills[]

The Popsquatchet Hills are a range of peaks on Nantucket Island. Seldom reaching 100 feet (30 m), they can be considered the divide of Nantucket. Prospect Hill, the westernmost, is the location of the town's municipal cemetery. Chicken Hill is the next hill to the northeast. On the eastern side of Chicken Hill, there is a very deep valley known as Dead Horse Valley. On the north face of the hill, is Colt Valley.

Mill Hill, the hill nearest Hospital Valley, has the Old Mill sitting on its summit. Roads are frequent in the hills. Prospect Street, the main thoroughfare on the west end of town, is the northern side of the hills. Vesper Lane, is the southern boundary. Milk Street, is the northern boundary of the range.

Squam Swamp[]

Squam Swamp, a large swamp in the northeastern portion of the island of Nantucket, is located between Wauwinet Road, Squam Road, and Quidnet Road, just northwest of Quidnet and northeast of Polpis Harbor.[11]


According to the Köppen climate classification system, Nantucket features a climate that borders between a humid continental climate (Dfb) and an oceanic climate (Cfb), the latter a climate type rarely found on the east coast of North America.[12] Nantucket's climate is heavily influenced by the Atlantic Ocean which helps moderates temperatures in the town throughout the course of the year. As a result, the island's winter climate is warmer than that on the mainland of New England and summers are cooler than on the mainland. Average temperatures during the town's coldest month (January) are just below 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius), while average temperatures during the town's warmest months (July and August) hovers around 69 degrees Fahrenheit (or roughly 20 degrees Celsius). Nantucket's sees on average 38 inches (965 mm) of precipitation annually which is relatively evenly spread throughout the year. Similar to many other cities with an oceanic climate, Nantucket features a large number of cloudy or overcast days, particularly outside the summer months.

Climate data for Nantucket (Nantucket Memorial Airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °F (°C) 37.8
Daily mean °F (°C) 31.4
Average low °F (°C) 24.9
Precipitation inches (mm) 2.86
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in) 11.3 9.1 10.2 11.8 10.6 12.4 13.9 14.5 13.3 12.6 11.6 11.8 143.1
Source: NOAA[13]


Historical population
Year Pop. ±%
1850 8,452
1860 6,094 −27.9%
1870 4,123 −32.3%
1880 3,727 −9.6%
1890 3,268 −12.3%
1900 3,006 −8.0%
1910 2,962 −1.5%
1920 2,797 −5.6%
1930 3,678 +31.5%
1940 3,401 −7.5%
1950 3,484 +2.4%
1960 3,559 +2.2%
1970 3,774 +6.0%
1980 5,087 +34.8%
1990 6,012 +18.2%
2000 9,520 +58.3%
2010 10,172 +6.8%

Source: United States Census records and Population Estimates Program data.[14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

At the census[24] of 2000, there were 9,520 people, 3,699 households, and 2,104 families residing in Nantucket. The population density was 199.1 people per square mile (76.9/km2). There were 9,210 housing units at an average density of 192.6 per square mile (74.4/km2). The racial makeup of the town was 87.85% White, 8.29% Black, 0.64% Asian, 0.04% Pacific Islander, 0.01% Native American, 1.60% from other races, and 1.58% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.23% of the population. 19.9% were of Irish, 17.1% English, 7.2% Italian, 6.1% Portuguese, 6.0% German and 5.1% French ancestry according to Census 2000. 92.6% spoke English, 4.1% Spanish and 1.6% French as their first language.

There were 3,699 households out of which 26.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 45.7% were married couples living together, 8.0% had a female householder with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.37 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the town the population was spread out with 19.2% under the age of 18, 7.4% from 18 to 24, 40.4% from 25 to 44, 22.5% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% at 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 105.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 105.0 males.

The median income for a household for year-round residents in the town is $55,522, and the median income for a family was $66,786. Males had a median income of $41,116 versus $31,608 for females. The per capita income for the town was $31,314. About 3.0% of families and 7.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.3% of those under age 18 and 7.1% of those age 65 or over.

There is also a census-designated place on Nantucket, which comprises the more densely settled areas within the Town of Nantucket and had a year 2000 population of 3,830.



Town and county governments have been combined in Nantucket. (See List of counties in Massachusetts.)


Nantucket is represented in the Massachusetts House of Representatives by Timothy Madden, Democrat, of Nantucket, who represents Precincts 1, 2, 5, and 6, of Falmouth, in Barnstable County; and Chilmark, Edgartown, Aquinnah, Gosnold, Oak Bluffs, Tisbury and West Tisbury, all in Dukes County; and Nantucket, and in the Massachusetts Senate by Dan Wolf, Democrat of Harwich, who has represented the Cape and Islands since January 5, 2011.


Nantucket is in the Massachusetts's 10th congressional district, which has existed since 1795. As of 2012, it was represented in the United States House of Representatives by Bill Keating, a Democrat. Massachusetts is currently represented in the United States Senate by senior senator John Kerry (Democrat) and junior senator Elizabeth Warren (Democrat).

Party affiliation and voting patterns[]

In the years from 1988 to 2008, a majority of Nantucket residents voted Democratic in most presidential elections, from 1964 to 1984 a majority voted for the Republican candidate in most elections. As of 2010, 54% of Nantucket residents were unaligned with either party; 29% were registered Democrats and 16% were registered Republicans.[25]


Nantucket is served by Nantucket Public Schools. The Nantucket school system has 1,289 students and approximately 117 teachers as of 2011.[26]

Schools on the island include:

  • Nantucket Lighthouse School (Not Public)
  • Nantucket New School (Not Public)
  • Nantucket Elementary School (Public)
  • Cyrus Peirce Middle School (Public)
  • Nantucket High School (Public)
  • Nantucket Community School (Public, Extracurricular)

Nantucket Public Schools District information and meetings are broadcasted on Plum TV in Nantucket, and even further information on the schools can be accessed at their website.[27]

A major museum association, the Maria Mitchell Association, offers educational programs to the Nantucket Public Schools.

Arts and culture[]

Theodore Robinson's painting Nantucket, 1882

The island is well known as a center for both visual and performing arts.

Nantucket has several world-class museums, including the Maria Mitchell Association and the Whaling Museum.

Nantucket has a high concentration of artists and galleries, and have created an ongoing art colony since at least the 1920s. They have come over the decades to capture on canvas and in other media the natural beauty of the landscape, the seascapes, the flora and the fauna. On Friday evenings during the summer season, many of its galleries have open houses and special exhibits. Notable artists who have lived on, or painted in, Nantucket include Frank Swift Chase and Theodore Robinson.

Numerous authors followed the influx of specialists in the visual arts. Well-known writers who are or were residents of Nantucket include Herman Melville.

Music and theater are well represented in Nantucket as well.

Willie Wright wrote much of his 1977 LP, Telling The Truth, while living on the island over the winter of 1976. The album's opening track was "Nantucket Island," which according to The Numero Group's liner notes, "was a tribute and dedication to this new found home and the greatest fans he'd ever known."

The 1990s sitcom, Wings—a series about a fictional airline serving the airport, depicted life on Nantucket at the fictional "Tom Nevers Field" and other locations, portrayed by actual sites on the island.


Clinton Folger, mail carrier for Nantucket, towed his car to the state highway for driving to Siasconset, in observance of an early 20th-Century ban on automobiles on town roads.

From 1900 to 1918 Nantucket was one of few jurisdictions in the United States which banned automobiles.[28]

Nantucket can be reached by sea from the mainland by using one of three commercial ferry services or by private boat.[29]

Nantucket is served by Nantucket Memorial Airport, a three-runway airport on the south side of the island. The airport, whose three call letters are ACK, is one of the busiest in the Commonwealth and often logs more take-offs and landings on a summer day than Boston's Logan airport. This is due in part to the large number of private/corporate planes used by wealthy summer inhabitants, and in part to the 10-seat Cessna 402s used by several commercial air carriers to serve the island community.

Nantucket Regional Transit Authority (NRTA) operates seasonal island-wide shuttle buses to many destinations including Surfside Beach, Sconset, and the airport.

Until 1917, Nantucket was served by the narrow-gauge Nantucket Railroad.

Transportation disasters[]

The Argo Merchant ran aground on December 15, 1976. A silvery oil slick can be seen coming from the center holds in the foreground.

Nantucket waters were the site of several noted transportation disasters:

  • On July 25, 1956, the Italian ocean liner SS Andrea Doria collided with the MS Stockholm in heavy fog 45 miles (72 km) south of Nantucket, resulting in the deaths of 51 people (46 on the SS Andrea Doria, 5 on the MS Stockholm).
  • On December 15, 1976, the oil tanker Argo Merchant ran aground 29 miles (47 km) southeast of Nantucket. Six days later, on December 21, the wrecked ship broke apart, causing one of the largest oil spills in history.
  • On October 31, 1999, EgyptAir Flight 990, traveling from New York City to Cairo, crashed approximately 60 miles (97 km) south of Nantucket, killing all 217 on board.

National Register of Historic Places[]

The following Nantucket places are listed on the National Register of Historic Places;[30]:

  • Brant Point Light Station — Brant Point (added October 28, 1987)
  • Jethro Coffin House — Sunset Hill Road (added December 24, 1968)
  • Nantucket Historic District (added December 13, 1966)
  • Nantucket Light (added 1982 - Structure #82005272) Also known as Great Point Light; Located at Sandy Point, Nantucket Island, Nantucket. Built in 1784, the original wooden tower was destroyed by fire in 1816. The following year, 1817, a stone tower was erected which stood until toppled in a storm in March, 1984. This second tower was what was listed on the National Register. In 1986, a new stone tower was built to replicate the old one. This third tower remains in operation today.
  • Sankaty Head Light — Sankaty Head (added November 15, 1987)

Notable residents or recurring visitors[]

The following are people who have either resided on Nantucket or regularly visited the island:

  • Russell Baker, New York Times columnist
  • Bill Belichick, football coach
  • Peter Benchley, author
  • Joe Biden, politician[31]
  • Don Callahan, bank executive
  • Mary Coffin (1645-1717) - founder of Nantucket's Quaker Colony
  • Katie Couric, journalist
  • James H. Cromartie, artist
  • A. J. Cronin, novelist
  • Bob Diamond, banker
  • James A. Folger founder of coffee company, bearing his name
  • Mayhew Folger, whaling captain
  • Bill Frist, United States senator
  • Lou Gerstner, business executive
  • Charles Geschke, software entrepreneur
  • Frank Gifford and Kathie Lee Gifford television entertainers
  • David Halberstam, journalist and historian
  • Kerry Hallam, artist
  • Dorothy Hamill, figure skater
  • Tommy Hilfiger, retail clothing executive
  • Wayne Huizenga, entrepreneur
  • Judith Ivey, actress
  • Seward Johnson, sculptor
  • Frances Karttunen, scholar
  • John Kerry, United States senator, and his wife, Teresa Heinz, philanthropist
  • Frank Lorenzo, aviation executive
  • Rowland Hussey Macy, retail merchandiser
  • Chris Matthews, political commentator
  • Maria Mitchell, astronomer
  • Mary Morrill, grandmother of Benjamin Franklin
  • Lucretia Coffin Mott minister, abolitionist, social reformer, and proponent of women's rights
  • Cyrus Peirce, educator
  • Roger Penske, entrepreneur
  • Nathaniel Philbrick, author
  • Steven M. Rales, business executive
  • Fred Rogers, children's television entertainer.
  • Ned Rorem, composer
  • David M. Rubenstein, financier
  • Tim Russert, television host
  • Richard Mellon Scaife, publisher
  • Eric Schmidt, software executive
  • John Shea, actor
  • Frank Stallone, actor and musician
  • Mary Starbuck (1663-1696) - first white child born on Nantucket.
  • Barry Sternlicht, hotelier
  • Jerry Stiller, comedian and actor, and his wife, Anne Meara, actress
  • Louis Susman, ambassador
  • Joseph Gardner Swift, first graduate of the United States Military Academy
  • Bruce Taylor, tobacco executive
  • Jack Welch, business executive
  • Charles F. Winslow, physician, 19th Century science author
  • Bob Wright, broadcast executive

See also[]

  • Brant Point Light
  • The Inquirer and Mirror (newspaper of record)
  • List of Registered Historic Places in Nantucket County, Massachusetts
  • Maria Mitchell Association
  • Martha's Vineyard
  • Moby-Dick
  • Nantucket (CDP), Massachusetts
  • Nantucket Dreamland Foundation
  • Nantucket Forests
  • Nantucket Nectars
  • Nantucket Reds
  • Nantucket sleighride
  • Nantucket shipbuilding
  • Nantucket Sound
  • Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym
  • Registry of Deeds (Massachusetts)
  • There once was a man from Nantucket
  • Wampanoag people


  1. ^ "Town and County of Nantucket - About Nantucket". 2012 [last update]. Retrieved September 4, 2012. 
  2. ^ Woolsey, Matt (7 October 2008), "America's Most Expensive ZIP Codes",,, retrieved 2012-12-31 
  3. ^ Huden, John C. (1962). Indian Place Names of New England. New York: Museum of the American Indian. Cited in: Bright, William (2004). Native American Place Names in the United States. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, pg. 312
  4. ^ Gardner, Frank A MD (1907). Thomas Gardner Planter and Some of his Descendants. Salem, MA: Essex Institute. (via Google Books)
  5. ^ Macy O (1835). The History of Nantucket:being a compendious account of the first settlement of the island by the English:together with the rise and progress of the whale fishery, and other historical facts relative to said island and its inhabitants:in two parts. Boston: Hilliard, Gray & Co.. ISBN 1-4374-0223-2. 
  6. ^ Van Deinse, AB (1937). "Recent and older finds of the gray whale in the Atlantic". Temminckia 2: 161–188. 
  7. ^ Dudley, P (1725). "An essay upon the natural history of whales". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 33: 256–259. 
  8. ^ Kelley, Shawnie (2006). It Happened on Cape Cod. Globe Pequot. ISBN 978-0-7627-3824-3. Retrieved 2011-11-22. 
  9. ^ People Section Time Magazine, April 18, 1977.]
  10. ^ The most recent survey of the geology of Cape Cod and the islands, accessible to the layman, is Robert N. Oldale, Cape Cod, Martha's Vineyard & Nantucket: The Geologic Story, 2001.
  11. ^ Squam Swamp Interview on Nantucket Plum TV.
  12. ^ Kottek, M.; J. Grieser, C. Beck, B. Rudolf, and F. Rubel (2006). "World Map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification updated". Meteorol. Z. 15 (3): 259–263. DOI:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130. Retrieved on 28 August 2012. 
  13. ^ "NOWData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2012-07-13. 
  14. ^ "TOTAL POPULATION (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010. 
  15. ^ "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  16. ^ "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  17. ^ "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts". US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  18. ^ "1950 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  19. ^ "1920 Census of Population". Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  20. ^ "1890 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  21. ^ "1870 Census of the Population". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  22. ^ "1860 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c.. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  23. ^ "1850 Census". Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c.. Retrieved July 12, 2011. 
  24. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 
  25. ^ "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 13, 2010" (PDF). Massachusetts Elections Division. Retrieved 2010-03-14. 
  26. ^ "2011 NCLB Report Card - Nantucket". No Child Left Behind Reports. Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education. 
  27. ^
  28. ^ Nantucket Historical Association
  29. ^ Getting to Nantucket Island
  30. ^ National Register of Historical Places - MASSACHUSETTS (MA), Nantucket County
  31. ^ Graziadei, Jason (20 November 2012), "Vice President Joe Biden arrives on Nantucket for Thanksgiving", The Enquirer and Mirror,, retrieved 2012-12-11 


Title page of the first U.S. edition of Moby-Dick, 1851.

  • Bond, C. Lawrence, Native Names of New England Towns and Villages, privately published by C. Lawrence Bond, Topsfield, Massachusetts, 1991.
  • Philbrick, Nathaniel, In The Heart of the Sea: The Tragedy of the Whaleship Essex, Penguin, NY, NY, 2000.

Further reading[]

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