Familypedia

This wiki's URL has been migrated to the primary fandom.com domain.Read more here

READ MORE

Familypedia
Advertisement
Main Births etc


Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
Нижегородская область (Russian)
—  Oblast  —

Flag

Coat of arms
Anthem: None[1]
Coordinates: 35°29′N 44°32′E / 35.483, 44.533Coordinates: 35°29′N 44°32′E / 35.483, 44.533
Political status
Country Russia
Federal district Volga[2]
Economic region Volga-Vyatka[3]
Established January 14, 1929 (first),[4]
December 5, 1936 (second)[4]
Administrative center Nizhny Novgorod[5]
Government (as of September 2017)
 - Governor[6] Gleb Nikitin (acting)[7][8]
 - Legislature Legislative Assembly[6]
Statistics
Area (as of the 2002 Census)[9]
 - Total 76,900 km2 (29,691.3 sq mi)
Area rank 40th
Population (2010 Census)[10]
 - Total 3,310,597
 - Rank 10th
 - Density[11] 43.05 /km2 (111.5 /sq mi)
 - Urban 78.9%
 - Rural 21.1%
Population (January 2014 est.)3,281,008 inhabitants[12]
Time zone(s) MSK (UTC+04:00)[13]
ISO 3166-2 RU-NIZ
License plates 52, 152
Official languages Russian[14]
Official website

56°29′N 44°32′E / 56.483, 44.533 Nizhny Novgorod Oblast (Russian: Нижегоро́дская о́бласть, Nizhegorodskaya oblast), also known as Nizhegorod Oblast, is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). Its administrative center is the city of Nizhny Novgorod. Population: 3,310,597 (2010 Census).[10] From 1932 to 1990 it was known as Gorky Oblast.

The oblast is crossed by the Volga River. Apart from Nizhny Novgorod's metropolitan area (including Dzerzhinsk, Bor and Kstovo) the biggest city is Arzamas. Near the town of Sarov there is the Serafimo-Diveyevsky Monastery, one of the largest convents in Russia, established by Saint Seraphim of Sarov. The Makaryev Monastery opposite of the town of Lyskovo used to be the location of the largest fair in Eastern Europe. Other historic towns include Gorodets and Balakhna, located on the Volga to the north from Nizhny Novgorod.

Geography[]

The oblast covers an area of 76,900 square kilometers (29,700 sq mi), which is approximately equal to the entire area of the Benelux countries or Czech Republic. Agricultural land occupies 41% of this area; forests, 48%, lakes and rivers, 2%; and other lands, 9%. Nizhny Novgorod Oblast borders Kostroma Oblast (N), Kirov Oblast (NE), the Mari El Republic (E), the Chuvash Republic (E), the Republic of Mordovia (S), Ryazan Oblast (SW), Vladimir Oblast (W), and Ivanovo Oblast (NW).

Natural resources[]

Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is not rich in natural resources, which are limited to commercial deposits of sand (including titanium-zirconium sands), clay, gypsum, peat, mineral salt, and timber.

Politics[]

Nizhny Novgorod House of Legislative Assembly in the Nizhny Novgorod Kremlin, 2007

During the Soviet period, the high authority in the oblast was shared between three persons: the first secretary of the Nizhny Novgorod (then Gorki) CPSU Committee (who in reality had the greatest authority); the chairman of the oblast Soviet (legislative power); and the chairman of the oblast Executive Committee (executive power). After 1991, the CPSU lost all its power. The head of the Oblast administration, and eventually the governor, was appointed/elected alongside the elected regional parliament.

The Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the fundamental law of the region. The Legislative Assembly of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast is the province's standing legislative (representative) body. The Legislative Assembly exercises its authority by passing laws, resolutions, and other legal acts and by supervising the implementation and observance of the laws and other legal acts passed by it. The highest executive body is the Oblast Government, which includes territorial executive bodies such as district administrations, committees, and commissions that facilitate development and run the day to day matters of the province. The Oblast administration supports the activities of the Governor who is the highest official and acts as guarantor of the observance of the oblast Charter in accordance with the Constitution of Russia.

Sights[]

Map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast

The unique architectural construction—the 128-meter (420 ft) steel lattice hyperboloid tower built by the Russian engineer and scientist Vladimir Grigorievich Shukhov in 1929—is located near the town of Dzerzhinsk on the left bank of the Oka River.

Administrative divisions[]

The oblast includes 40 rayons (districts) and 13 urban okrugs (circles).

Urban Okrugs (Circles)

Coat of Arms Name of
Urban okrug
Area
(km²)
Population
(2017).
Population
Rank
I Coat of Arms of Nizhny Novgorod.svg Nizhny Novgorod 410.68 1 270 241 1
II Arzamas COA (1993).svg Arzamas 41.74 104 547 4
III Coat of Arms of Bor (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Bor 3484.28 121 873 3
IV Coats of arms of Chkalovsk.png Chkalovsk 861.52 20 183 11
V Coat of Arms of Dzerzhinsk.svg Dzherzhinsk 421.53 242 033 2
VI Coat of Arms of Kulebaki 1997 (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Kulebaki 922.39 48 730 7
VII Navashino 1277.48 22 519 10
VIII Coat of Arms of Pervomaysk (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Pervomaysk 1227.39 18 508 12
IX Coat of Arms of Sarov (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Sarov (closed city) 232.00 90 065 5
X Coat of arms of Semyonovsky urban district, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.png Semyonov 3877.38 47 868 8
XI Shakhunya COA (2013).jpg Shakhunya 2588.25 36 216 9
XII Sokol 1981,44 13 139 13
XIII Vyksa city coa n23271.jpg Vyksa 1865.64 82 656 6





Relief Map of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.png

Герб Ардатовского района Нижегородской области.png
Ardatov
Coat of Arms of Arzamas rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Arzamas
Coat of Arms of Balakhna.svgBalakhna
Coat of arms of Bogorodsk Rayon.png
Bogorodsk
Bolsheboldinskiy rayon coa 58.gifBolshoye
Boldino
Coat of Arms of Bolshemurashkinskiy rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast) 2012.gif
Bolshoye
Murashkino
Coat of Arms of Dalnekonstantinovsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).gif
Dalneye
Konstantinovo
Diveevskii rayon coa.gif
Diveyevo
Gagino-gerb.jpg
Gagino
Coats of arms of Knyaginin.png
Knyaginino
Герб Ковернинского района Нижегородской области.jpg
Kovernino
Coat of Arms Krasnooktyabrsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Krasno-
oktyabrsky
Coat of arms of Krasbakovsky district.pngKrasnye Baki
Coats of arms of Kstovo.png
Kstovo
20px
Lukoyanov
Герб Лысковского района Нижегородской области.png
Lyskovo
Герб Павловского района.png
Pavlovo
Perevoz rayon coa n11023.gif
Perevoz
Pilna
Coats of arms of Pochinkovsky district (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Pochinki
Герб Сеченовского района Нижегородской области России.png
Sechenovo
Sharanga
Shatki
Sosnovskiy rayon coa.gifSosnovskoye
Spasskoye
Tonkinskiy rayon coa.gifTonkino
Tonshaevskii rayon coa.gif
Tonshayevo

Uren
Flag of Vachsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Vacha
Vadskii rayon coa.gif
Vad
Varnavino
Coats of arms of Vetluga.png
Vetluga
Coat of Arms of Volodarsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast) 2008.gif
Volodarsk
Vorotinskii rayon coa.gif
Vorotynets
Voskresenskii rayon coa.gif
Voskresenskoye
Voznesenskii rayon coa.gif
Voznesenskoye
Coat of Arms of Bor (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Bor
Coats of arms of Chkalovsk.png
Chkalovsk
Coat of Arms of Dzerzhinsk.svg
Dzherzhinsk
Coat of Arms of Kulebaki 1997 (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Kulebaki
Navashino
Coat of Arms of Pervomaysk (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Pervomaysk
Coat of Arms of Sarov (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png
Sarov
Coat of arms of Semyonovsky urban district, Nizhny Novgorod Oblast.png
Semyonov
Shakhunya COA (2013).jpg
Shakhunya
Sokolsky rayon coa n6292.gif
Sokol
Vyksa city coa n23271.jpg
Vyksa


Rayons (Districts):

Coat of Arms Name of rayon Area
(km²)
Area
rank
Population
'000 (2013)
Population
rank
Аdministrative
center
Population
1 Герб Ардатовского района Нижегородской области.png Ardatov Rayon 1887.63 23 553 Ardatov 8 777
2 Coat of Arms of Arzamas rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Arzamas Rayon 2010.84 41 807 Arzamas 104 547
3 Coat of Arms of Balakhna.svg Balakhna Rayon 896,59 76 712 Балахна 49 364
4 Coat of arms of Bogorodsk Rayon.png Bogorodsk Rayon 1459.00 68 103 Bogorodsk 34 388
5 Bolsheboldinskiy rayon coa 58.gif Bolshoye Boldino Rayon 866.47 11 180 Bolshoye Boldino 5 074
6 Coat of Arms of Bolshemurashkinskiy rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast) 2012.gif Bolshoye Murashkino Rayon 658.64 9 684 Bolshoye Murashkino 5 080
7 Buturlinskii rayon coa.gif Buturlino Rayon 1105.20 13 614 Buturlino 6338
8 Coat of Arms of Dalnekonstantinovsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).gif Dalneye Konstantinovo Rayon 1377.09 21 140 Dalneye Konstantinovo 4,133
9 Diveevskii rayon coa.gif Diveyevo Rayon 844.85 15 905 Diveyevo 6 408
10 Gagino-gerb.jpg Gagino Rayon 1064.18 11 194 Gagino 3 891
11 Coat of Arms of Gorodets (Nizhny Novgorod).png Gorodets Rayon 1482.72 88 092 3 Gorodets 30 493
12 Coats of arms of Knyaginin.png Knyaginino Rayon 769.92 11 855 Knyaginino 7 062
13 Герб Ковернинского района Нижегородской области.jpg Kovernino Rayon 2339.78 18 597 Kovernino 6 869
14 Coat of Arms Krasnooktyabrsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Krasnooktyabrsky Rayon 866.17 10 015 Urazovka 1 626
15 Coat of arms of Krasbakovsky district.png Krasnye Baki Rayon 1757.82 21 785 Krasnye Baki 7 858
16 Coats of arms of Kstovo.png Kstovo Rayon 1226.64 119 630 1 Kstovo 67 783
17 40px Lukoyanov Rayon 1890.69 29 897 Lukoyanov 14 136
18 Герб Лысковского района Нижегородской области.png Lyskovo Rayon 2134.02 38 248 Lyskovo 21 293
19 Герб Павловского района.png Pavlovo Rayon 1097.11 95 284 2 Pavlovo 58 163
20 Perevoz rayon coa n11023.gif Perevoz Rayon 769.15 15 943 Perevoz 8 928
21 Pilna Rayon 1312.94 19 818 Pilna 6 894
22 Coats of arms of Pochinkovsky district (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Pochinki Rayon 1960.59 28 580 Pochinki 11 891
23 Герб Сеченовского района Нижегородской области России.png Sechenovo Rayon 991.04 14 326 Sechenovo 5 263
24 Coats of arms of Sergach.png Sergach Rayon 1243.76 28 631 Sergach 30 416
25 Sharanga Rayon 1595.76 11 825 Sharanga 6 923
26 Shatki 1440.42 24 124 Shatki 8 796
27 Sokolsky rayon coa n6292.gif Sokol 1981.44 13 136 Sokol 6 054
28 Sosnovskiy rayon coa.gif Sosnovskoye 1170.56 18 118 Sosnovskoye 8 247
29 Spasskoye 706.55 9 698 Spasskoye 3 947
30 Tonkinskiy rayon coa.gif Tonkino 1 018.48 7 909 Tonkino 4 745
31 Tonshaevskii rayon coa.gif Tonshayevo 2353.10 18 878 Tonshayevo 4 581
32 Uren 2104.29 28 736 Uren 12 385
33 Flag of Vachsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast).png Vacha 979,49 17 749 Vacha 5 283
34 Vadskii rayon coa.gif Vad 742.70 14 452 Vad 6 698
35 Varnavino 2523.36 12 377 Varnavarino 3 304
36 Coats of arms of Vetluga.png Vetluga 2992,37 14 848 Vetluga 8 501
37 Coat of Arms of Volodarsky rayon (Nizhny Novgorod oblast) 2008.gif Volodarsk 1049.65 58 043 Volodarsk 10 021
38 Vorotinskii rayon coa.gif Vorotynets 1935.81 18 492 Vorotynets 6 154
39 Voskresenskii rayon coa.gif Voskresenskoye 3554.50 19 760 Voskresenskoye 5 942
40 Voznesenskii rayon coa.gif Voznesenskoye 1302.92 15 566 Voznesenskoye 6 313


Demographics[]

Population: 3,310,597 (2010 Census);[10] 3,524,028 (2002 Census);[15] 3,714,322 (1989 Census).[16]

According to the 2010 Census,[10] ethnic Russians at 3,109,661 made up 95.1% of the oblast's population. Other ethnic groups included Tatars (44,103, or 1.4%), Mordva (19,138, or 0.6%), Ukrainians (17,657, or 0.5%), and various smaller groups, each accounting for less than 0.5% of the total. Additionally, 42,349 people were registered from administrative databases, and could not declare an ethnicity. It is estimated that the proportion of ethnicities in this group is the same as that of the declared group.[17]

  • Births (2011): 36,315 (11.0 per 1000)
  • Deaths (2011): 54,184 (16.4 per 1000)

Deaths decreased by 8.5% in 2011 compared to 2010.[18]

Vital statistics for 2012
  • Births: 38,881 (11.8 per 1000)
  • Deaths: 52,771 (16.0 per 1000) [19]
  • Total fertility rate:[20]

2009 - 1.43 | 2010 - 1.42 | 2011 - 1.44 | 2012 - 1.55 | 2013 - 1.56 | 2014 - 1.59 | 2015 - 1.67 | 2016 - 1.65(e)

According to the Federal Migration Service, 20,450 foreign citizens were registered in the oblast in 2006. The actual number of foreigners residing in the oblast as of June 1, 2006 was estimated to be over 22,000.[21]

Religion[]

Savior's Church in Balakhna

Religion in Nizhny Novgorod Oblast as of 2012 (Sreda Arena Atlas)[22][23]
Russian Orthodoxy
  
69.2%
Other Orthodox
  
1.6%
Other Christians
  
2.1%
Rodnovery and other native faiths
  
0.7%
Spiritual but not religious
  
15.2%
Atheism and irreligion
  
10%
Other and undeclared
  
1.2%

According to a 2012 survey[24] 69.2% of the population of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast adheres to the Russian Orthodox Church, 2% are unaffiliated generic Christians, 2% are Orthodox Christian believers without belonging to any church or members of other Orthodox churches, and 1% are adherents of the Slavic native faith (Rodnovery). In addition, 15% of the population declares to be "spiritual but not religious", 10% is atheist, and 0.8% follows other religions or did not give an answer to the question.[24]

Economy[]

An IKEA shopping center in Fedyakovo.

The oblast ranks seventh in Russia in industrial output. Processing industries predominate in the local economy. More than 650 industrial companies employ nearly 700,000 people, or 62% of the workforce involved in material production. Industry generates 83% of the regional GDP and accounts for 89% of all material expenditures. The leading sectors are engineering and metalworking, followed by chemical and petrochemical industries and forestry, woodworking, and paper industries. The first three sectors account for about 75% of all industrial production.

The oblast has traditionally been attractive to investors. In 2002, Moody's rating agency confirmed a Caa1rating based on the region's long-term foreign currency liabilities.[25]

Peat Briquette Factory

The region maintains trade relations with many countries and has an export surplus. The largest volume of exports goes to Ukraine, Belarus, Switzerland, Kazakhstan, Belgium, and France. Imports come mainly from Ukraine, Germany, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Austria, Netherlands, China, and the United States.

The stock market infrastructure is quite well developed in Nizhny Novgorod, and the exchange business is expanding. Companies and organizations registered in the region include 1153 joint-stock companies, 63 investment institutions, 34 commercial banks, 35 insurance companies, 1 voucher investment fund, 1 investment fund, 17 nongovernmental pension funds, 2 associations of professional stock market dealers, and 3 exchanges (stock, currency, and agricultural). The oblast is noted for having relatively highly developed market relations. Today, the region needs serious partners interested in equitable, long-term, mutually beneficial partnerships.

There are 650+ industrial companies in the region,[26] most of them engaged in the following sectors:

  • Machine-building and engineering
  • Chemical & petrochemical
  • Fuel & energy
  • Ferrous and non-ferrous metallurgy
  • Construction materials
  • Glass
  • Wood and paper
  • Cloth-making
  • Food & food processing
  • Medical & pharmaceuticals
  • Printing & publishing.
  • Peat extraction.

These key industries are supplemented by other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, trade, services, communications and transport.

Transportation[]

  • The Altsevo peat narrow gauge railway is located in the work settlement of Pizhma
  • The Pizhemskaya narrow gauge railway is located in the work settlement of Pizhma
  • The narrow gauge railway of Caprolactam factory is located in Dzerzhinsk
  • The Kerzhenets peat narrow gauge railway is located in the Borsky District
  • The narrow gauge railway of Decor-1 factory is located in the Arzamassky District

Narrow gauge railways in the region:

References[]

Commons-logo.png
Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Notes[]

  1. ^ Article 1.3 of the Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast states that the oblast may have its own anthem; however, as of 2014 no anthem has been adopted.
  2. ^ Президент Российской Федерации. Указ №849 от 13 мая 2000 г. «О полномочном представителе Президента Российской Федерации в федеральном округе». Вступил в силу 13 мая 2000 г. Опубликован: "Собрание законодательства РФ", №20, ст. 2112, 15 мая 2000 г. (President of the Russian Federation. Decree #849 of May 13, 2000 On the Plenipotentiary Representative of the President of the Russian Federation in a Federal District. Effective as of May 13, 2000.).
  3. ^ Госстандарт Российской Федерации. №ОК 024-95 27 декабря 1995 г. «Общероссийский классификатор экономических регионов. 2. Экономические районы», в ред. Изменения №5/2001 ОКЭР. (Gosstandart of the Russian Federation. #OK 024-95 December 27, 1995 Russian Classification of Economic Regions. 2. Economic Regions, as amended by the Amendment #5/2001 OKER. ).
  4. ^ a b "Нижегородская область. Административно-территориальное деление на 1 января 1992 г.". ГИПП "Нижполиграф", Нижний Новгород, 1993, стр. 5
  5. ^ Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 5.5
  6. ^ a b Charter of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast, Article 21
  7. ^ Official website of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast. Valery Pavlinovich Shantsev, Governor of Nizhny Novgorod Oblast
  8. ^ Путин отправил в отставку губернатора Нижегородской области
  9. ^ Федеральная служба государственной статистики (Federal State Statistics Service) (2004-05-21). "Территория, число районов, населённых пунктов и сельских администраций по субъектам Российской Федерации (Territory, Number of Districts, Inhabited Localities, and Rural Administration by Federal Subjects of the Russian Federation)" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. http://perepis2002.ru/ct/html/TOM_01_03.htm. Retrieved 2011-11-01. 
  10. ^ a b c d "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1 [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1)]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census). Federal State Statistics Service. 2011. http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/new_site/perepis2010/croc/perepis_itogi1612.htm. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  11. ^ The density value was calculated by dividing the population reported by the 2010 Census by the area shown in the "Area" field. Please note that this value may not be accurate as the area specified in the infobox is not necessarily reported for the same year as the population.
  12. ^ Nizhny Novgorod Oblast Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Оценка численности постоянного населения на 1 января 2014 года и в среднем за 2013 год (Russian)
  13. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Постановление №725 от 31 августа 2011 г. «О составе территорий, образующих каждую часовую зону, и порядке исчисления времени в часовых зонах, а также о признании утратившими силу отдельных Постановлений Правительства Российской Федерации». Вступил в силу по истечении 7 дней после дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Российская Газета", №197, 6 сентября 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Resolution #725 of August 31, 2011 On the Composition of the Territories Included into Each Time Zone and on the Procedures of Timekeeping in the Time Zones, as Well as on Abrogation of Several Resolutions of the Government of the Russian Federation. Effective as of after 7 days following the day of the official publication.).
  14. ^ Official the whole territory of Russia according to Article 68.1 of the Constitution of Russia.
  15. ^ "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек [Population of Russia, its federal districts, federal subjects, districts, urban localities, rural localities—administrative centers, and rural localities with population of over 3,000]" (in Russian). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года (All-Russia Population Census of 2002). Federal State Statistics Service. May 21, 2004. http://www.perepis2002.ru/ct/doc/1_TOM_01_04.xls. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  16. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров. [All Union Population Census of 1989. Present population of union and autonomous republics, autonomous oblasts and okrugs, krais, oblasts, districts, urban settlements, and villages serving as district administrative centers]" (in Russian). Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года (All-Union Population Census of 1989). Institute of Demographics of the State University—Higher School of Economics. http://demoscope.ru/weekly/ssp/rus89_reg.php. Retrieved February 9, 2012. 
  17. ^ "Перепись-2010: русских становится больше". Perepis-2010.ru. 2011-12-19. http://www.perepis-2010.ru/news/detail.php?ID=6936. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  18. ^ "Росстат. Демография". Gks.ru. Archived from the original on March 26, 2012. https://web.archive.org/web/20120326222501/http://gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat/rosstatsite/main/population/demography/. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 
  19. ^ http://www.gks.ru/free_doc/2012/demo/edn12-12.htm
  20. ^ http://www.gks.ru/wps/wcm/connect/rosstat_main/rosstat/ru/statistics/publications/catalog/doc_1137674209312
  21. ^ Дарья ВЛАДИМИРОВА, "Стройки под особым контролем", Rakurs, 30 June 2006
  22. ^ "Arena: Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia". Sreda, 2012.
  23. ^ 2012 Arena Atlas Religion Maps. "Ogonek", № 34 (5243), 27/08/2012. Retrieved 21/04/2017. Archived.
  24. ^ a b Arena - Atlas of Religions and Nationalities in Russia. Sreda.org
  25. ^ http://russiatrek.org/r_nnovgorod.shtml
  26. ^ "Nizhny Novgorod News Network - NN.NN.RU". Government.nnov.ru. http://www.government.nnov.ru/?id=1463. Retrieved 2012-08-13. 

Sources[]

  • Template:RussiaBasicLawRef/niz

External links[]

Shukhov towers built in Nizhny Novgorod suburbs near Dzerzhinsk in 1927–1929


Advertisement