Main Births etc
North America
Location North America
Area 24,709,000 km2 (9,540,000 sq mi)
Population 528,720,588 (2008, 4th)
Pop. density 22.9/km2 (59.3/sq mi)[1]
Demonym North American, American[2]
Countries 23 (List of countries)
Dependencies see List of North American countries
Languages Spanish, English, French, Dutch and many others
Time Zones UTC-10 to UTC
Largest cities List of cities

North America (Spanish: América del Norte or Norteamérica; French: Amérique du Nord; Dutch: Noord-Amerika; Papiamento: Nort Amerika; Greenlandic: Amerika Avannarleq) is a continent wholly within the western and northern hemispheres. It is also considered a northern subcontinent of the Americas.[3] It is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the south by South America, and to the west by the Pacific Ocean.

North America covers an area of about 24,709,000 square kilometers (9,540,000 square miles), about 4.8% of the planet's surface or about 16.5% of its land area. As of July 2008, its population was estimated at nearly 529 million people. It is the third-largest continent in area, following Asia and Africa, and the fourth in population after Asia, Africa, and Europe.


Historisch Nordamerika

Map of North America, from the 16th century.

The Americas are usually accepted as having been named after the Italian explorer Amerigo Vespucci by the German cartographers Martin Waldseemüller and Matthias Ringmann.[4] Vespucci, who explored South America between 1497 and 1502, was the first European to suggest that the Americas were not the East Indies, but a different landmass previously unknown by Europeans. In 1507, Waldseemüller produced a world map, in which he placed the word "America" on the continent of South America, in the middle of what is today Brazil. He explained the rationale for the name in the accompanying book Cosmographiae Introductio,

ab Americo inventore ... quasi Americi terram sive Americam (from Americus the discoverer ... as if it were the land of Americus, thus America).[5]

For Waldseemüller, no one should object to the naming of the land after its discoverer. He used the Latinized version of Vespucci's name (Americus Vespucius), but in its feminine form "America", following the examples of "Europa" and "Asia".

Later, when other mapmakers added North America, they extended the original name to it as well: in 1538, Gerard Mercator used the name America to all of the Western Hemisphere on his world map.[6]

Some argue that the convention is to use the surname for naming discoveries except in the case of royalty and so a derivation from "Amerigo Vespucci" could be problematic.[7] Ricardo Palma (1949) proposed a derivation from the "Amerrique" mountains of Central America—Vespucci was the first to discover South America and the Amerrique mountains of Central America, which connected his discoveries to those of Christopher Columbus.

Alfred E. Hudd proposed a theory in 1908 that the continents are named after a Welsh merchant named Richard Amerike from Bristol, who is believed to have financed John Cabot's voyage of discovery from England to Newfoundland in 1497. A minutely explored belief that has been advanced is that America was named for a Spanish sailor bearing the ancient Visigothic name of 'Amairick'. Another is that the name is rooted in a Native American language.[6]


Geologic history[]

North America is the source of much of what humanity knows about geologic time periods.[8] The geographic area that would later become the United States has been the source of more varieties of dinosaurs than any other modern country.[8] According to paleontologist Peter Dodson, this is primarily due to stratigraphy, climate and geography, human resources, and history.[8] Much of the Mesozoic Era is represented by exposed outcrops in the many arid regions of the continent.[8] The most significant Late Jurassic dinosaur-bearing fossil deposit in North America is the Morrison Formation of the western United States.[9]


File:Chichen-Itza El Castillo.jpg

The ruins of Chichén Itzá, Mexico.

Scientists have several theories as to the origins of the early human population of North America. The indigenous peoples of North America themselves have many creation myths, by which they assert that they have been present on the land since its creation.

Before contact with Europeans, the natives of North America were divided into many different polities, from small bands of a few families to large empires. They lived in several "culture areas", which roughly correspond to geographic and biological zones and give a good indication of the main lifeway or occupation of the people who lived there (e.g. the bison hunters of the Great Plains, or the farmers of Mesoamerica). Native groups can also be classified by their language family (e.g. Athapascan or Uto-Aztecan). Peoples with similar languages did not always share the same material culture, nor were they always allies.

Scientists believe that the Inuit people of the high Arctic came to North America much later than other native groups, as evidenced by the disappearance of Dorset culture artifacts from the archaeological record, and their replacement by the Thule people.

During the thousands of years of native inhabitation on the continent, cultures changed and shifted. Archaeologists often name different cultural groups they discover after the site where they were first found. One of the oldest cultures yet found is the Clovis culture of modern New Mexico. A more recent example is the group of related cultures called the Mound builders (e.g. the Fort Walton Culture), found in the Mississippi river valley. They flourished from 300 BC to the 150s AD.

The more southern cultural groups of North America were responsible for the domestication of many common crops now used around the world, such as tomatoes and squash. Perhaps most importantly they domesticated one of the world's major staples, maize (corn).


Benjamin West 005

Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) depicting the Battle of the Plains of Abraham.

As a result of the development of agriculture in the south, many important cultural advances were made there. For example, the Maya civilization developed a writing system, built huge pyramids and temples, had a complex calendar, and developed the concept of zero around 400 CE, a few hundred years after the Mesopotamians.[10] The Mayan culture was still present in southern Mexico and Guatemala when the Spanish explorers arrived, but political dominance in the area had shifted to the Aztec Empire whose capital city Tenochtitlan was located further north in the Valley of Mexico. The Aztecs were conquered in 1521 by Hernán Cortés.[11]

Upon the arrival of the Europeans in the "New World", the Native American population declined substantially, primarily due to the introduction of European diseases to which the Native Americans lacked immunity.[12] Native peoples found their culture changed drastically. As such, their affiliation with political and cultural groups changed as well, several linguistic groups went extinct, and others changed quite quickly. The names and cultures that Europeans recorded for the natives were not necessarily the same as the ones they had used a few generations before, or the ones in use today.

In the late 18th century and beginning of the 19th, several independence movements started across North America. The 13 British colonies on the North Atlantic coast declared independence in 1776, becoming the United States of America. New Spain, a territory that stretched from modern-day southern U.S. to Central America, declared independence in 1810 becoming the First Mexican Empire. In 1823 the former Captaincy General of Guatemala, then part of the Mexican Empire, became the first independent state in Central America, officially changing its name to the United Provinces of Central America.

Geography and extent[]

North America satellite orthographic

Satellite imagery of North America.

North America occupies the northern portion of the landmass generally referred to as the New World, the Western Hemisphere, the Americas, or simply America (which, less commonly, is considered by some as a single continent[13][14][15] with North America a subcontinent).[16] North America's only land connection to South America is at the Isthmus of Panama. The continent is delimited on the southeast by most geographers at the Darién watershed along the Colombia-Panama border, placing all of Panama within North America.[17][18][19] Alternatively, less common views would end North America at the man-made Panama Canal; and some geologists physiographically locate its southern limit at the Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Mexico, with Central America extending southeastward to South America from this point.[20]

Before the Central American isthmus was raised, the region had been underwater. The islands of the West Indies delineate a submerged former land bridge which had connected North America and South America via what are now Florida and Venezuela. The continental coastline is long and irregular. The Gulf of Mexico is the largest body of water indenting the continent, followed by Hudson Bay. Others include the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the Gulf of California.

There are numerous islands off the continent’s coasts, principally, the Arctic Archipelago, the Bahamas, Turks & Caicos, the Greater and Lesser Antilles, the Aleutian Islands (some of which are in the eastern hemisphere proper), the Alexander Archipelago, the many thousand islands of the British Columbia Coast, and Newfoundland. Greenland, a self-governing Danish island, and the world's largest, is on the same tectonic plate (the North American Plate) and is part of North America geographically. In a geologic sense, Bermuda is not part of the Americas, but an oceanic island which was formed on the fissure of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge over 100 million years ago. The nearest landmass to it is Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. However, Bermuda is often thought of as part of North America, especially given its historical, political and cultural ties to Virginia and other parts of the continent.

The vast majority of North America is on the North American Plate. Parts of California and western Mexico form the partial edge of the Pacific Plate, with the two plates meeting along the San Andreas fault. The southernmost portion of the continent and much of the West Indies lie on the Caribbean Plate, whereas the Juan de Fuca and Cocos plates border the North American Plate on its western frontier.

The continent can be divided into four great regions (each of which contains many subregions): the Great Plains stretching from the Gulf of Mexico to the Canadian Arctic; the geologically young, mountainous west, including the Rocky Mountains, the Great Basin, California and Alaska; the raised but relatively flat plateau of the Canadian Shield in the northeast; and the varied eastern region, which includes the Appalachian Mountains, the coastal plain along the Atlantic seaboard, and the Florida peninsula. Mexico, with its long plateaus and cordilleras, falls largely in the western region, although the eastern coastal plain does extend south along the Gulf.

The western mountains are split in the middle and into the main range of the Rockies and the coast ranges in California, Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia with the Great Basin—a lower area containing smaller ranges and low-lying deserts—in between. The highest peak is Denali in Alaska.

The United States Geographical Survey states that the geographic center of North America is "6 miles west of Balta, Pierce County, North Dakota" at approximately 48°10′N 100°10′W / 48.167, -100.167, approximately 15 miles (25 km) from Rugby, North Dakota. The USGS further states that “No marked or monumented point has been established by any government agency as the geographic center of either the 50 States, the conterminous United States, or the North American continent.” Nonetheless, there is a 15-foot (4.5 m) field stone obelisk in Rugby claiming to mark the center. The North American continental pole of inaccessibility is located 1650 km (1024 mi) from the nearest coastline, between Allen and Kyle, South Dakota at 43°22′N 101°58′W / 43.36, -101.97 (Pole of Inaccessibility North America).[21]


Non-Native American Nations Control over N America 1750-2008

Non-Native American Nation's control and claims over North America circa 1750–2008

Languages of the Americas

Languages spoken in the Americas

Langs N

Native languages of North America (Map of U.S., Canada and Greenland)

The prevalent languages in North America are English, Spanish, and French. The term Anglo-America is used to refer to the anglophone countries of the Americas: namely Canada (where English and French are co-official) and the United States, but also sometimes Belize and parts of the Caribbean. Latin America refers to the other areas of the Americas (generally south of the United States) where the Romance languages, derived from Latin, of Spanish and Portuguese (but French speaking countries are not usually included) predominate: the other republics of Central America (but not always Belize), part of the Caribbean (not the Dutch, English or French speaking areas), Mexico, and most of South America (except Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana (FR), and The Falkland Islands (UK)).

The French language has historically played a significant role in North America and now retains a distinctive presence in some regions. Canada is officially bilingual. French is the official language of the Province of Quebec, where 95% of the people speak it as either their first or second language, and it is co-official with English in the Province of New Brunswick. Other French-speaking locales include the Province of Ontario (the official language is English, but there is an estimated 600,000 Franco-Ontarians), the Province of Manitoba (co-official as de-jure with English), the French West Indies and Saint-Pierre et Miquelon, as well as the U.S. state of Louisiana, where French is also an official language. Haiti is included with this group based on historical association but Haitians speak both Creole and French. Similarly, French and French Antillean Creole is spoken in Saint Lucia and the Commonwealth of Dominica alongside English.

Economically, Canada and the United States are the wealthiest and most developed nations in the continent, followed by Mexico, a newly industrialized country.[22] The countries of Central America and the Caribbean are at various levels of economic and human development. For example, small Caribbean island-nations such as Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago and Antigua and Barbuda have a higher GDP (PPP) per capita than Mexico due to their smaller populations. Panama and Costa Rica have a significantly higher Human Development Index and GDP than the rest of the Central American nations.[23]

Demographically, North America is a racially and ethnically diverse continent. Its three main racial groups are Caucasians, Mestizos and Blacks. There is a significant minority of Indigenous Americans and Asians among other less numerous groups.

Socially and culturally, North America presents a well-defined entity. Canada and the United States have a similar culture and similar traditions as a result of both countries being former British colonies. A common cultural and economic market has developed between the two nations because of the strong economic and historical ties. Spanish-speaking North America shares a common past as former Spanish colonies. In Mexico and the Central American countries where civilizations like the Maya developed, indigenous people preserve traditions across modern boundaries. Central American and Spanish-speaking Caribbean nations have historically had more in common due to geographical proximity and the fact that they won independence from Spain.

Northern Mexico, particularly in the cities of Monterrey, Tijuana, Ciudad Juárez, and Mexicali, is strongly influenced by the culture and way of life of the United States. Of the a fore mentioned cities, Monterrey has been regarded as the most Americanized city in North America.[24] Immigration to the United States and Canada remains a significant attribute of many nations close to the southern border of the U.S. The Anglophone Caribbean states have witnessed the decline of the British Empire and its influence on the region, and its replacement by the economic influence of Northern America. In the Anglophone Caribbean this influence is partly due to the relatively small populations (less than 200,000) of the majority of English-speaking Caribbean countries, and the fact that many of these countries now have expatriate diasporas living abroad that are larger than those remaining at home.


The most populous country in North America, over doubling the second largest country in population, is the United States with 303,606,020 persons.[25] The second largest country, and only other country to maintain a populace above 100 million persons is Mexico with a population of 112,322,757.[26] Canada is the third largest country with a population of 32,623,490.[27] The majority of Caribbean island-nations have national populations under one million, though Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Puerto Rico - a territory of the United States, Jamaica, and Trinidad and Tobago have populations higher than ten million.[28][29][30][31][32]

As mentioned above, the United States, Canada, and Mexico maintain the largest populations. Yet, large city populations are not restricted to these nations. Among the largest cities of the United States, Canada, and Mexico are also large cities from the Caribbean. The largest cities in North America, by far, are Mexico City and New York. These cities are the only cities on the continent to break eight million, and two of three in the Americas. These cities are followed by Los Angeles, Chicago, Toronto, Havana, Santo Domingo, and Montreal. Cities in the sunbelt regions of the United States, such as those in Southern California and Houston, Phoenix, Miami, Atlanta, and Las Vegas, are experiencing rapid growth. These causes included warm temperatures, retirement of Baby Boomers, large industry, and the influx of immigrants. Cities near the United States border, particularly in Mexico, are also experiencing large amounts of growth. Most notable is Tijuana, a city bordering San Diego that receives immigrants from all over Latin America and parts of Europe and Asia. Yet as cities grow in these warmer regions of North America, they are increasingly forced to deal with the major issue of water shortages.[33]

Eight of the top ten metropolitan areas are are located in the United States. These metropolitan areas all have a population of above 5.5 million and include the New York City metropolitan area, Los Angeles metropolitan area, Chicago metropolitan area, and the Dallas–Fort Worth metroplex.[34] Whilst the majority of the largest metropolitan areas are within the United States, Mexico is host to the largest metropolitan area by population in North America: Greater Mexico City.[35] Canada also breaks into the top ten largest metropolitan areas with the Toronto metropolitan area having five and half million citizens.[36] The proximity of cities to each other on the Canada - United States border and Mexico - United States border has led to the rise of international metropolitan areas. These urban agglomerations are observed at their largest and most productive in Detroit–Windsor and San Diego–Tijuana and experience large commercial, economic, and cultural activity. The metropolitan areas are responsible for millions of dollars of trade dependent on international freight. In Detroit-Windsor the Border Transportation Partnership study in 2004 concluded USD $13 billion was dependent on the Detroit–Windsor international border crossing while in San Diego-Tijuana freight at the Otay Mesa Port of Entry was valued at USD $20 billion.[37][38]

The North America continent has also been witness to the growth of megapolitan areas. In the United States exists eleven megaregions that transcend international borders and comprise Canadian and Mexican metropolitan regions. These are the Arizona Sun Corridor, Cascadia, Florida, Front Range, Great Lakes Megaregion, Gulf Coast Megaregion, Northeast, Northern California, Piedmont Atlantic, Southern California, and the Texas Triangle.[39] Canada and Mexico are also the home of megaregions. These include the Quebec City – Windsor Corridor, Golden Horseshoe - both of which are considered part of the Great Lakes Megaregion - and megalopolis of Central Mexico. Traditionally the largest megaregion has been considered the Boston-Washington, D.C. Corridor, or the Northeast, as the region is one massive contiguous area. Yet megaregion criterion have allowed the Great Lakes Megalopolis to maintain status as the most populated region, being home to 53,768,125 people in 2000.[40]

The top ten largest North American metropolitan areas by population as of 2010, based on national census numbers from the United States of America, and census estimates from Canada and Mexico.

Metro Area Population Area Country
Mexico City 21,163,226 1 7,346 square kilometres (2,836 sq mi) Mexico
New York 18,897,109 17,405 square kilometres (6,720 sq mi) USA
Los Angeles 12,828,837 12,562 square kilometres (4,850 sq mi) USA
Chicago 9,461,105 24,814 square kilometres (9,581 sq mi) USA
Dallas-Fort Worth 6,371,773 24,059 square kilometres (9,289 sq mi) USA
Delaware Valley 5,965,343 13,256 square kilometres (5,118 sq mi) USA
Houston 5,946,800 26,061 square kilometres (10,062 sq mi) USA
Toronto 5,593,212 1 7,124 square kilometres (2,751 sq mi) Canada
Washington, D.C. 5,582,170 14,412 square kilometres (5,565 sq mi) USA
Miami 5,564,635 15,896 square kilometres (6,137 sq mi) USA

1. Figures are estimates for 2009, not official census figures.


North america rock types

Sedimentary, volcanic, plutonic, metamorphic rock types of North America.

Canadian geology[]

Geologically, Canada one of the oldest regions in the world, with more than half of the region consisting of precambrian rocks that have been above sea level since the beginning of the Palaeozoic era.[41] Canada's mineral resources are diverse and extensive.[41] Across the Canadian Shield and in the north there are large iron, nickel, zinc, copper, gold, lead, molybdenum, and uranium reserves. Large diamond concentrations have been recently developed in the Arctic,[42] making Canada one of the world's largest producers. Throughout the Shield there are many mining towns extracting these minerals. The largest, and best known, is Sudbury, Ontario. Sudbury is an exception to the normal process of forming minerals in the Shield since there is significant evidence that the Sudbury Basin is an ancient meteorite impact crater. The nearby, but less known Temagami Magnetic Anomaly has striking similarities to the Sudbury Basin. Its magnetic anomalies are very similar to the Sudbury Basin, and so it could be a second metal-rich impact crater.[43] The Shield is also covered by vast boreal forests that support an important logging industry.

U.S. Geological provinces[]

The lower 48 U.S. states can be divided into roughly five physiographic provinces:

  1. The American cordillera.
  2. The Canadian Shield.[41]
  3. The stable platform.
  4. The coastal plain.
  5. The Appalachian orogenic belt.

The geology of Alaska is typical of that of the cordillera, while the major islands of Hawaii consist of Neogene volcanics erupted over a hot spot.

North america terrain 2003 map
North America bedrock and terrain
North america basement rocks
North American cratons and basement rocks

Central American geology[]

Tectonic plates Caribbean

  Central America rests in the Caribbean Plate.

Central America is geologically active with volcanic eruptions and earthquakes occurring from time to time. In 1976 Guatemala was hit by a major earthquake, killing 23,000 people; Managua, the capital of Nicaragua, was devastated by earthquakes in 1931 and 1972, the last one killed about 5,000 people; three earthquakes devastated El Salvador, one in 1986 and two in 2001; one earthquake devastated northern and central Costa Rica in 2009 killing at least 34 people; in Honduras a powerful earthquake killed 7 people in 2009.

Volcanic eruptions are common in the region. In 1968 the Arenal Volcano, in Costa Rica, erupted and killed 87 people. Fertile soils from weathered volcanic lavas have made it possible to sustain dense populations in the agriculturally productive highland areas.

Central America has many mountain ranges; the longest are the Sierra Madre de Chiapas, the Cordillera Isabelia and the Cordillera de Talamanca. Between the mountain ranges lie fertile valleys that are suitable for the people; in fact most of the population of Honduras, Costa Rica and Guatemala live in valleys. Valleys are also suitable for the production of coffee, beans and other crops.


Rank Country GDP (PPP, 2010)
millions of USD
1 United States United States 14,657,800
2 Mexico Mexico 1,629,917
3 Canada Canada 1,330,272
4 Cuba Cuba 125,500
5 Dominican Republic Dominican Rep. 85,391
6 Guatemala Guatemala 69,958
7 Costa Rica Costa Rica 51,130
8 Panama Panama 43,725
9 El Salvador El Salvador 43,640
10 Honduras Honduras 33,537

Canada, Mexico and the United States have significant and multifaceted economic systems. The United States has the largest economy in North America, and in the world.[44] In 2011, the US has an estimated per capita gross domestic product (PPP) of $47,200, and is the most technologically developed economy in North America.[44] The United States' services sector comprises 76.7% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 22.2% and agriculture comprises 1.2%.[44] Canada's economic trends and are similar to that of the United States, with significant growth in the sectors of services, mining and manufacturing.[45] Canada's GDP (PPP) was estimated at $39,400 in 2010.[45] Canada's services sector comprises 78% of the country's GDP (estimated in 2010), industry comprises 20% and agriculture comprises 2%.[45] Mexico has a GDP (PPP) of $15,113 per capita and as of 2010 is the 11th largest economy in the world.[46] Being a newly industrialized country,[22] Mexico maintains both modern and outdated industrial and agricultural facilities and operations.[47] Its main sources of income are oil, industrial exports, manufactured goods, electronics, heavy industry, automobiles, construction, food, banking and financial services.[48]

The North American economy is well defined and structured in three main economic areas.[49] These areas are the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), Caribbean Community and Common Market (CARICOM), and the Central American Common Market (CACM).[49] Of these trade blocs, the United States takes part in two. In addition to the larger trade blocs there is the Canada-Costa Rica Free Trade Agreement among numerous other free trade relations; often between the larger, more developed countries, and Central American and Caribbean countries.

The North America Free Trade Agreement forms one of the four largest trade blocs in the world.[50] Its implementation in 1994 allowed for strong economic cooperation with hopes of eliminating barriers of trade and foreign investment between the three northern nations.[51] While Canada and the United States already conducted the largest bilateral trade relationship - and to present day still do - in the world and Canada - United States trade relations already allowed trade without national taxes and tariffs,[52] NAFTA allowed Mexico to experience a similar duty free trade. The free trade agreement allowed for the elimination of tariffs that had previously been in place on United States-Mexico trade. Trade volume has steadily increased annually and in 2010, surface trade between the three NAFTA nations reached an all-time historical increase of 24.3% or USD $791 billion.[53] The NAFTA trade bloc GDP (PPP) is the world's largest with $17.617 USD trillions.[54] This is in part attributed to the fact that the economy of the United States is the world's largest national economy; the country had a nominal GDP of approximately $14.7 trillion in 2010.[55] The countries of NAFTA are also some of each others largest trade partners. The United States is the largest trade partner of Canada and Mexico;[56] while Canada and Mexico are each others third largest trade partners.[57][58]

The Caribbean trade bloc - CARICOM - came into agreement in 1973 when it was signed by 15 Caribbean nations. As of 2000, CARICOM trade volume was USD $96 billion. CARICOM also allowed for the creation of a common passport for associated nations. In the past decade the trade bloc focused largely on Free Trade Agreements and under the CARICOM Office of Trade Negotiations (OTN) free trade agreements have been signed into effect.

Integration of Central American economies occurred under the signing of the Central American Common Market agreement in 1961; this was the first attempt to engage the nations of this area into stronger financial cooperation. Recent implementation of the Central American Free Trade Agreement (CAFTA) has left the future of the CACM unclear.[59] The Central American Free Trade Agreement was signed by five Central American countries, the Dominican Republic, and the United States. The focal point of CAFTA is to created a free trade area similar to that of NAFTA. In addition to the United States, Canada also has relations in Central American trade blocs. Currently under proposal, the Canada – Central American Free Trade Agreement (CA4) would operate much the same as CAFTA with the United States does.

North American nations also take part in inter-continental trade blocs. Mexico takes a part in the G3 Free Trade Agreement with Colombia and Venezuela and has a trade agreement with the EU. The United States has proposed and maintained trade agreements under the Transatlantic Free Trade Area between itself and the European Union; the US-Middle East Free Trade Area between numerous Middle Eastern nations and itself; and the Trans-Pacific Strategic Economic Partnership between Southeast Asian nations, Australia, and New Zealand.



The full Pan American Highway, (including South America), from Prudhoe Bay, Alaska to Ushuaia, Argentina.


The Pan-American Highway route in North America is the portion of a network of roads nearly 48,000 km in length which travels through the mainland nations of the Americas. No definitive length of the Pan American Highway exists because the U.S. and Canadian governments have never officially defined any specific routes as being part of the Pan-American Highway, and Mexico officially has many branches connecting to the U.S. border. However, the total length of the North American portion of the highway is roughly 16,000 miles (26,000 km).


Map of the North American Class I railroad network from 2006

The First Transcontinental Railroad in the United States was built across North America in the 1860s, linking the railroad network of the eastern U.S. with California on the Pacific coast. Finished on May 10, 1869 at the famous Golden spike event at Promontory Summit, Utah, it created a nationwide mechanized transportation network that revolutionized the population and economy of the American West, catalyzing the transition from the wagon trains of previous decades to a modern transportation system. Although an accomplishment, it achieved the status of first transcontinental railroad by connecting myriad eastern US railroads to the Pacific and was not the largest single railroad system in the world. The Canadian Grand Trunk Railway (GTR) had, by 1867, already accumulated more than 2,055 kilometres (1,277 mi) of track by connecting Portland, Maine, and the three northern New England states with the Canadian Atlantic provinces west as far as Port Huron, Michigan, through Sarnia, Ontario.


Many of the nations of North America cooperate together on a shared telephone system known as the North American Numbering Plan (NANP) which is an integrated telephone numbering plan of 24 countries and territories: the United States and its territories, Canada, Bermuda, and 16 Caribbean nations.


Geographically the North American continent is composed of many regions and subregions. These included regions formed by cultural, economic, and geographic standards. Economic regions included those formed by trade blocs; among notable inclusionss, the North American Trade Agreement bloc and Central American Trade Agreement. Linguistically and culturally, the continent could be divided into Anglo-America and Latin America. Anglo-America includes most of Northern America, Belize, and Caribbean islands with English speaking populations - though sub-national entities such as Louisiana and Quebec are Francophone in composition.

The southern North American continent is often recognized as being composed of two regions. These recognized regions are Central America and the Caribbean.[60][61] The north of the continent maintains recognized regions as well. In contrast to the common definition of North America, that which encompasses the whole continent, the term North America is also used to refer to Canada, Mexico, the United States, and Greenland.[62][63][64][65][66]

The term Northern America, originating in reference to the northern-most countries and territories of North America, is used in reference to Canada, the United States, Greenland, Bermuda, and St. Pierre and Miquelon.[67][68] Although rarely used, the term Middle America - not to be confused with the Midwestern United States - groups the regions of Central America, the Caribbean and Mexico.[69]

The largest countries of the continent, Canada and the United States, also maintain well-defined and recognized regions. In the case of Canada these are the British Columbia Coast, Canadian Prairies, Central Canada, Atlantic Canada, and Northern Canada. These regions also maintain numerous subregions. In the case of the United States - and in accordance with the U.S. Census Bureau definitions - these regions are: New England, Mid-Atlantic, East North Central States, West North Central States, South Atlantic States, East South Central States, West South Central States, Mountain States, and Pacific States. Regions shared between both nations included the Great Lakes Region. Megalopolis' have also formed between both nations in the case of the Pacific Northwest and the Great Lakes Megaregion.

Countries, territories, and dependencies[]

North America

A political map of North America

CIA map of Central America

Political map of Central America

CIA map of the Caribbean

A political map of the Caribbean

Below is a table of North American countries and territories divided into three basic regions.[70][71][72]

Country or territory Area
(2008 est.)[74]
Population density
(per km²)
North America[note 1]
Flag of Bermuda Bermuda (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&&054.&&&&&054 &&&&&&&&&&065000.&&&&&065,000 1203.7 Hamilton
Flag of Canada Canada &&&&&&&&09984670.&&&&&09,984,670 &&&&&&&033573000.&&&&&033,573,000 3.4 Ottawa
Flag of Greenland Greenland (Den.) &&&&&&&&02166086.&&&&&02,166,086 &&&&&&&&&&057000.&&&&&057,000 0.026 Nuuk (Godthåb)
Flag of Mexico Mexico &&&&&&&&01964375.&&&&&01,964,375 &&&&&&0112322757.&&&&&0112,322,757 57.1 Mexico City
Flag of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Fr.) &&&&&&&&&&&&0242.&&&&&0242 &&&&&&&&&&&06000.&&&&&06,000 24.8 Saint-Pierre
Flag of the United States United States[75] &&&&&&&&09629091.&&&&&09,629,091 &&&&&&0311630000.&&&&&0311,630,000 32.7 Washington, D.C.
Flag of Anguilla Anguilla (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&&091.&&&&&091 &&&&&&&&&&015000.&&&&&015,000 164.8 The Valley
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda Antigua and Barbuda &&&&&&&&&&&&0442.&&&&&0442 &&&&&&&&&&088000.&&&&&088,000 199.1 St. John's
Flag of Aruba Aruba (Neth.) &&&&&&&&&&&&0180.&&&&&0180 &&&&&&&&&0107000.&&&&&0107,000 594.4 Oranjestad
Template:Country data Bahamas, The[76] &&&&&&&&&&013943.&&&&&013,943 &&&&&&&&&0342000.&&&&&0342,000 24.5 Nassau
Flag of Barbados Barbados &&&&&&&&&&&&0430.&&&&&0430 &&&&&&&&&0256000.&&&&&0256,000 595.3 Bridgetown
Flag of Bonaire Bonaire (Neth.) &&&&&&&&&&&&0294.&&&&&0294 &&&&&&&&&&012093.&&&&&012,093[77] 41.1 Kralendijk
Flag of the British Virgin Islands British Virgin Islands (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0151.&&&&&0151 &&&&&&&&&&023000.&&&&&023,000 152.3 Road Town
Flag of the Cayman Islands Cayman Islands (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0264.&&&&&0264 &&&&&&&&&&056000.&&&&&056,000 212.1 George Town
Flag of Cuba Cuba &&&&&&&&&0109886.&&&&&0109,886 &&&&&&&011204000.&&&&&011,204,000 102.0 Havana
Flag of Curaçao Curaçao (Neth.) &&&&&&&&&&&&0444.&&&&&0444 &&&&&&&&&0140794.&&&&&0140,794[77] 317.1 Willemstad
Flag of Dominica Dominica &&&&&&&&&&&&0751.&&&&&0751 &&&&&&&&&&067000.&&&&&067,000 89.2 Roseau
Flag of the Dominican Republic Dominican Republic &&&&&&&&&&048671.&&&&&048,671 &&&&&&&010090000.&&&&&010,090,000 207.3 Santo Domingo
Flag of Grenada Grenada &&&&&&&&&&&&0344.&&&&&0344 &&&&&&&&&0104000.&&&&&0104,000 302.3 St. George's
Flag of France Guadeloupe (Fr.) &&&&&&&&&&&01628.&&&&&01,628 &&&&&&&&&0401784.&&&&&0401,784[78] 246.7 Basse-Terre
Flag of Haiti Haiti &&&&&&&&&&027750.&&&&&027,750 &&&&&&&010033000.&&&&&010,033,000 361.5 Port-au-Prince
Flag of Jamaica Jamaica &&&&&&&&&&010991.&&&&&010,991 &&&&&&&&02719000.&&&&&02,719,000 247.4 Kingston
Flag of France Martinique (Fr.) &&&&&&&&&&&01128.&&&&&01,128 &&&&&&&&&0397693.&&&&&0397,693[79] 352.6 Fort-de-France
Flag of Montserrat Montserrat (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0102.&&&&&0102 &&&&&&&&&&&06000.&&&&&06,000 58.8 Plymouth; Brades[80]
Template:Country data Navassa Island (USA) &&&&&&&&&&&&&&05.&&&&&05[81] &&&&&&&&&&&&&&00.&&&&&00[82] 0.0  —
Flag of Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (USA) &&&&&&&&&&&08870.&&&&&08,870 &&&&&&&&03982000.&&&&&03,982,000 448.9 San Juan
Flag of Saba Saba (Neth.) &&&&&&&&&&&&&013.&&&&&013 &&&&&&&&&&&01537.&&&&&01,537[77] 118.2 The Bottom
Flag of France Saint Barthélemy (Fr.) &&&&&&&&&&&&&021.&&&&&021[81] &&&&&&&&&&&07448.&&&&&07,448[82] 354.7 Gustavia
Flag of Saint Kitts and Nevis Saint Kitts and Nevis &&&&&&&&&&&&0261.&&&&&0261 &&&&&&&&&&052000.&&&&&052,000 199.2 Basseterre
Flag of Saint Lucia Saint Lucia &&&&&&&&&&&&0539.&&&&&0539 &&&&&&&&&0172000.&&&&&0172,000 319.1 Castries
Flag of France Saint Martin (Fr.) &&&&&&&&&&&&&054.&&&&&054[81] &&&&&&&&&&029820.&&&&&029,820[82] 552.2 Marigot
Flag of Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Saint Vincent and the Grenadines &&&&&&&&&&&&0389.&&&&&0389 &&&&&&&&&0109000.&&&&&0109,000 280.2 Kingstown
Flag of Sint Eustatius Sint Eustatius (Neth.) &&&&&&&&&&&&&021.&&&&&021 &&&&&&&&&&&02739.&&&&&02,739[77] 130.4 Oranjestad
Flag of Sint Maarten Sint Maarten (Neth.) &&&&&&&&&&&&&034.&&&&&034 &&&&&&&&&&040009.&&&&&040,009[77] 1176.7 Philipsburg
Flag of Trinidad and Tobago Trinidad and Tobago[83] &&&&&&&&&&&05130.&&&&&05,130 &&&&&&&&01339000.&&&&&01,339,000 261.0 Port of Spain
Flag of the Turks and Caicos Islands Turks and Caicos Islands[84] (UK) &&&&&&&&&&&&0948.&&&&&0948 &&&&&&&&&&033000.&&&&&033,000 34.8 Cockburn Town
Flag of the United States Virgin Islands United States Virgin Islands (USA) &&&&&&&&&&&&0347.&&&&&0347 &&&&&&&&&0110000.&&&&&0110,000 317.0 Charlotte Amalie
Central America
Flag of Belize Belize &&&&&&&&&&022966.&&&&&022,966 &&&&&&&&&0307000.&&&&&0307,000 13.4 Belmopan
Flag of Costa Rica Costa Rica &&&&&&&&&&051100.&&&&&051,100 &&&&&&&&04579000.&&&&&04,579,000 89.6 San José
Flag of El Salvador El Salvador &&&&&&&&&&021041.&&&&&021,041 &&&&&&&&06163000.&&&&&06,163,000 293.0 San Salvador
Flag of Guatemala Guatemala &&&&&&&&&0108889.&&&&&0108,889 &&&&&&&014027000.&&&&&014,027,000 128.8 Guatemala City
Flag of Honduras Honduras &&&&&&&&&0112492.&&&&&0112,492 &&&&&&&&07466000.&&&&&07,466,000 66.4 Tegucigalpa
Flag of Nicaragua Nicaragua &&&&&&&&&0130373.&&&&&0130,373 &&&&&&&&05743000.&&&&&05,743,000 44.1 Managua
Flag of Panama Panama[83][85] &&&&&&&&&&075417.&&&&&075,417 &&&&&&&&03454000.&&&&&03,454,000 45.8 Panama City
Total &&&&&&&024500995.&&&&&024,500,995 &&&&&&0541720440.&&&&&0541,720,440 22.9

Usage of the term North America[]

The term North America maintains various definitions in accordance with location and context. In English, North America may be used to refer to the United States and Canada together.[86] Alternatively, usage sometimes includes Greenland[64][65][66] and Mexico (as in the North American Free Trade Agreement),[62][65][70][71][72] as well as offshore islands.

In Ibero-America and other parts of Europe, North America usually designates a subcontinent of the Americas containing Canada, the United States, and Mexico, and often Greenland, Saint Pierre et Miquelon, and Bermuda.[87]

North America has been historically referred to by other names. Spanish North America (New Spain) was often referred to as Northern America, and this was the first official name given to Mexico.[88]

Outside of North America, going into the twentieth century, the whole American continent (North, Central and South America as well as the Caribbean) was referred simply as "America" or "The Americas", one of the "Five Continents" (the other four being, Africa, Europe, Asia and Oceania).[89]

See also[]

Terrestrial globe Geography
North America 368x348 North America
Caribbean map blank Caribbean
Portal Latin America
  • Americas (terminology)
  • European colonization of the Americas
  • Fortress North America
  • Mountain peaks of North America
  • Nearctic
  • Turtle Island (North America)
  • Voyages of Christopher Columbus

Organizations and agreements:

  • Caribbean Community
  • North American Aerospace Defense Command
  • North American Free Trade Agreement
  • Organization of American States


  1. ^ This definition of North America includes only the four northernmost territorial entities of Canada, the United States, Greenland, Mexico, and the nearby islands of Bermuda - off the coast and east of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina - and Saint Pierre and Miquelon - off the coast and south of Newfoundland and Labrador. References include [70][71][72]


  1. ^ This North American density figure is based on a total land area of 23,090,542 km2 only, considerably less than the total combined land and water area of 24,709,000 km².
  2. ^ American, Merriam-Webster OnLine.
  3. ^ "North America". Encyclopaedia Britannica. 
  4. ^ "Amerigo Vespucci". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 7 July 2011. 
  5. ^ p. 9, The Cosmographiæ Introductio of Martin Waldseemüller in Facsimile, translated by Edward Burke and Mario E. Cosenza, introduction by Joseph Fischer and Franz von Wieser, edited by Charles George Herbermann, New York: The United States Catholic Historical Society, 1907.
  6. ^ a b The Naming of America: Fragments We've Shored Against Ourselves. By Jonathan Cohen
  7. ^ Lloyd, John; John Mitchinson (2006). The Book of General Ignorance. Harmony Books. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-307-39491-0. "New countries or continents were never named after a person’s first name, but always after the second..." 
  8. ^ a b c d Dodson, Peter (1997). "American Dinosaurs." Encyclopedia of Dinosaurs. Edited by Phillip J. Currie and Kevin Padian. Academic Press. p. 10-13.
  9. ^ Weishampel, David B; et al (2004). "Dinosaur distribution (Late Jurassic, North America)." In: Weishampel, David B.; Dodson, Peter; and Osmólska, Halszka (eds.): The Dinosauria, 2nd, Berkeley: University of California Press. Pp. 543–545. ISBN 0-520-24209-2.
  10. ^ Robert Kaplan (January 16, 2007). "What is the origin of zero? How did we indicate nothingness before zero?". Scientific American. Retrieved 2008-02-19. 
  11. ^ Bernard Grunberg, "La folle aventure d'Hernan Cortés", in L'Histoire n°322, July–August 2007
  12. ^ pp. 42–46, A Concise History of World Population: An Introduction to Population Processes, Massimo Livi Bacci, Malden, Massachusetts: Blackwell Publishing, 2001, 3rd ed., ISBN 0-631-22335-5.
  13. ^ "The Olympic symbols". Lausanne: Olympic Museum and Studies Centre: International Olympic Committee. 2002. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008.  The five rings of the Olympic flag represent the five inhabited, participating continents (Africa, America, Asia, Europe, and Oceania).
  14. ^ Océano Uno, Diccionario Enciclopédico y Atlas Mundial, "Continente", page 392, 1730. ISBN 84-494-0188-7
  15. ^ Los Cinco Continentes (The Five Continents), Planeta-De Agostini Editions, 1997. ISBN 84-395-6054-0
  16. ^ "Encarta, "Norteamérica"". Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. 
  17. ^ "Americas" Standard Country and Area Codes Classifications (M49), United Nations Statistics Division
  18. ^ "North America" Atlas of Canada
  19. ^ North America Atlas National Geographic
  20. ^ "Central America". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 28 June 2011. 
  21. ^ Garcia-Castellanos, D.; U. Lombardo (2007). "Poles of Inaccessibility: A Calculation Algorithm for the Remotest Places on Earth". Scottish Geographical Journal 123 (3): 227–233. DOI:10.1080/14702540801897809. Retrieved on 2008. 
  22. ^ a b David Waugh (3rd edition 2000). "Manufacturing industries (chapter 19), World development (chapter 22)". Geography, An Integrated Approach. Nelson Thornes Ltd.. pp. 563, 576–579, 633, and 640. ISBN 0-17-444706-X. 
  23. ^ "2010 Human development Report". United Nations Development Programme. pp. 148–151. Retrieved May 6, 2011. 
  24. ^ Emmot, Robert (June 1, 2011). "Special report: If Monterrey falls Mexico falls - Rueters". Rueters. 
  25. ^ "Resident Population Data – 2010". U.S. Census Bureau. 2010. Retrieved 2010-12-22. 
  26. ^ "INEGI 2010 Census Statistics". Retrieved 2010-11-25. 
  27. ^ "Estimated population of Canada, 1605 to present". Statistics Canada. July 6, 2009. Retrieved 2011-05-23. 
  28. ^ Anuario Estadístico de Cuba 2009. Edición 2010, Oficina Nacional de Estadísticas, República de Cuba. Accessed on November 6, 2010. Note: An exchange rate of 1 CUC to 1.08 USD was used to convert GDP.[1]
  29. ^ "Presidencia de la República; Generalidades". Retrieved 2009-12-14. 
  30. ^ CIA - The World Factbook: Haiti, Central Intelligence Agency,, retrieved June 11, 2011 
  31. ^ "2010 U.S. Census Data". Retrieved February 6, 2011. 
  32. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook: Jamaica". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 11, 2011. 
  33. ^ Cetron, Marvin J.; O'Toole, Thomas: Encounters with the future: a forecast of life into the 21st century, Mcgraw-Hill, April 1982, pg. 34
  34. ^ "Population and Housing Occupancy Status: 2010 - United States -- Metropolitan Statistical Area; and for Puerto Rico more information 2010 Census National Summary File of Redistricting Data". 2010 United States Census. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. April 14, 2011. Retrieved April 14, 2011. 
  35. ^ "CIA - The World Factbook: Mexico". Central Intelligence Agence. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  36. ^ Statistics Canada (Census 2006). "Toronto, Ontario (Census metropolitan area)". Retrieved 2010-01-29. 
  37. ^ Detroit Regional Chamber (2006) Detroit/Windsor Border Update: Part I-Detroit River International Crossing Study
  38. ^ "CHAPTER IV PLANNING FOR THE FUTURE: URBAN & REGIONAL PLANNING IN THE SAN DIEGO-TIJUANA REGION". International Community Foundation. Retrieved March 20, 2011. 
  39. ^ Hagler, Yoav (2009). "Defining U.S. Megaregions." New York, NY: Regional Plan Association.
  40. ^ Regional Plan Association (2008). America 2050: An Infrastructure Vision for 21st Century America. New York, NY: Regional Plan Association.
  41. ^ a b c Wallace, Stewart W. "Geology Of Canada." The Encyclopedia of Canada, Vol. III, Toronto, University Associates of Canada, 1948, 396p., p. 23-26. Marianopolis College. Accessed June 2011.
  42. ^ "Digging for Diamonds 24/7 Under Frozen Snap Lake" Accessed June 2011.
  43. ^ 3-D Magnetic Imaging using Conjugate Gradients: Temagami anomaly Retrieved on 2008-03-13
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  45. ^ a b c "Canada, Economy. U.S. Central Intelligence Agence. Accessed June 2011.
  46. ^ "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2010". IMF. Retrieved 5 March 2011. 
  47. ^ "Mexico, Economy. U.S. Central Intelligence Agence. Accessed June 2011.
  48. ^ "Stratfor Global Market - Mexico". Stratfor. 2007-08-30. Retrieved 2010-05-30. 
  49. ^ a b De la Torre, Miguel; Benigno Benavides, José Saldaña, Jesús Fernández (2008). "Las profesiones en México: condiciones económicas, culturales y sociales". Sociología y Profesión. Monterrey: Nuevo León Autonomous University (UANL). p. 116. ISBN 9702400511. "La economía de América del Norte se encuentra bien definida y estructurada en tres principales áreas económicas: el Tratado de Libre Comercio de América del Norte (TLCAN), el CARICOM y el Mercado Común Centroamericano" 
  50. ^ Regional Trade Blocs, UCSC,, retrieved June 10, 2011 
  51. ^ North American Free Trade Agreement, Encyclopedia Britannica,, retrieved June 10, 2011 
  52. ^ Fergusson, Ian, CRS Report for Congress: United States-Canada Trade and Economic Relationship - Prospects and Challenges, Congress Research Service,, retrieved June 9, 2011 
  53. ^ NAFTA Trade Volume Increases
  54. ^ IMF - 2010 Report Countries by GDP (PPP)
  55. ^ "BEA News Release: Gross Domestic Product". 
  56. ^ "United States Foreign Trade Highlights". United States of America Bureau of the Census. 
  57. ^ Canadian Manufacturing Association "Canadian Manufacturing Association". Canadian Manufacturing Association. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  58. ^ "Mexico Free Trade Agreements". Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  59. ^ "Central American Community and Market". Pearson Education. Retrieved June 9, 2011. 
  60. ^ "Central America". Encarta Encyclopedia. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  61. ^ "Caribbean". The Free Dictionary. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  62. ^ a b "North American Region". The Trilateral Comission. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  63. ^ Parsons, Alan; Jonathan Schaffer (May 2004). Geopolitics of oil and natural gas. Economic Perspectives. U.S. Department of State. 
  64. ^ a b "CIA - The World Factbook -- North America". Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  65. ^ a b c "Countries in North America - Country Reports". Country Reports. 
  66. ^ a b "North America: World of Earth Science". eNotes Inc.. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  67. ^ Definition of major areas and regions, from World Migrant Stock: The 2005 Revision Population Database, United Nations Population Division. Accessed on line October 3, 2007.
  68. ^ Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings, UN Statistics Division. Accessed on line October 3, 2007. (French)
  69. ^ "Middle America (region, Mesoamerica)". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved June 20, 2011. 
  70. ^ a b c "Security and Prosperity Partnership Of North America". Archived from the original on 2008-06-18. Retrieved 2010-11-14. 
  71. ^ a b c "Ecoregions of North America". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 30 May 2011. 
  72. ^ a b c What's the difference between North, Latin, Central, Middle, South, Spanish and Anglo America?,
  73. ^ Unless otherwise noted, land area figures are taken from (2008) "Demographic Yearbook—Table 3: Population by sex, rate of population increase, surface area and density" (PDF). Retrieved on 2010-10-14. 
  74. ^ Unless otherwise noted, population estimates are taken from Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009). "World Population Prospects, Table A.1" (PDF). Retrieved on 2009-03-12. 
  75. ^ Includes the U.S. state of Hawaii, which is distant from the North American landmass in the Pacific Ocean and therefore more commonly associated with the other territories of Oceania.
  76. ^ Since the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the Bahamas are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.
  77. ^ a b c d e Population estimates are taken from the Central Bureau of Statistics Netherlands Antilles. "Statistical information: Population". Government of the Netherlands Antilles. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  78. ^ Insee - Populations légales 2008 - 971-Guadeloupe
  79. ^ Insee - Populations légales 2008 - 972-Martinique
  80. ^ Due to ongoing activity of the Soufriere Hills volcano beginning in July 1995, much of Plymouth was destroyed and government offices were relocated to Brades. Plymouth remains the de jure capital.
  81. ^ a b c Land area figures taken from "The World Factbook: 2010 edition". Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  82. ^ a b c These population estimates are for 2010, and are taken from "The World Factbook: 2010 edition". Government of the United States, Central Intelligence Agency. Retrieved 2010-10-14. 
  83. ^ a b Depending on definitions, Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, Panama, and Trinidad and Tobago have territory in either or both of North and South America.
  84. ^ Since the Lucayan Archipelago is located in the Atlantic Ocean rather than Caribbean Sea, the Turks and Caicos Islands are part of the West Indies but are not technically part of the Caribbean, although the United Nations groups them with the Caribbean.
  85. ^ Panama is generally considered a North American country, though some authorities divide it at the Panama Canal. Figures listed here are for the entire country.
  86. ^ Burchfield, R. W., ed. 2004. "America." Fowler's Modern English Usage (ISBN 0-19-861021-1) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 48 – quotation reads: "the term 'North America' is mostly used to mean the United States and Canada together. Countries to the south of the United States are described as being in Central America (Mexico, Nicaragua, etc.) or South America (Brazil, Argentina, etc.)"; see also: McArthur, Tom. 1992. "North American." The Oxford Companion to the English Language (ISBN 0-19-214183-X) New York: Oxford University Press, p. 707.
  87. ^ In Ibero-America, North America is considered a subcontinent containing Canada, the United States, Mexico, Greenland, Bermuda and Saint-Pierre and Miquelon."(Mexican version) (archived from Norteamérica the original on 2009-01-30)
  88. ^ "Acta Solmente de la Declaración de Independencia de la América Septentrional". Archivos de la Independencia. Archivo General de la Nación. Retrieved 8 July 2011. 
  89. ^ Lewis, Martin W.; Wigen, Kären (1997). The myth of continents: a critique of metageography. University of California Press. p. 31. ISBN 9780520207431. 

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