|— Federal Subject of Russia —|
|Official language||Veliky Novgorod|
|Established||May 7, 1944|
|• Body||Oblast Duma|
|• Governor||Sergei Gerasimovich Mitin|
|• Federal Subject of Russia||55,300 km2 (21,400 sq mi)|
|• Federal Subject of Russia||634,100|
|ISO 3166 code||RU-NGR|
Novgorod Oblast (Russian: Новгоро́дская о́бласть, Novgorodskaya oblast) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast), located between Moscow and Saint Petersburg. The administrative center is the city of Veliky Novgorod. Some of the oldest Russian cities, including Veliky Novgorod and Staraya Russa, are located there. The historic monuments of Veliky Novgorod are surroundings have been declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The western part is a lowland around the Lake Ilmen, while the eastern part is a highland (northern spurs of the Valdai Hills). The highest point is Mount Ryzhokha (296 m).
Novgorod Oblast is noted for its science- and labor-intensive sectors, particularly the chemical and forest industries. The engineering and metalworking, electronics, chemical, forest, woodworking, and pulp and paper industries produce nearly half of the oblast's marketable commodities.
The chemical industry is Novgorod Oblast's leading economic sector, accounting for 31.4% of total industrial output. Products include fertilizers, general rubber goods, synthetic resins, plastics, paints, pharmaceuticals, and household chemicals. Fertilizer companies using both local and imported raw materials produce nitrogen fertilizers (Novgorod Chemical Plant).
The engineering industry accounts for 11%+ of all industrial production. It is characterized by science- and labor-intensive production specializing in the output of sophisticated high-precision machines and equipment, electrical equipment, electronics and radioelectronics, instrument making, and shipbuilding, which developed as a result of the Oblast's maritime location. Production of equipment for the chemical industry has also been established.
The forestry complex, which includes the forest, woodworking, and pulp and paper industries, produces 10.9% of the Oblast's industrial goods. Lumber, plywood, and furniture are some of the products of the woodworking industry. Most of the materials for the wood processing industry are supplied from neighboring Oblasts and republics of Northern district.
The development prospects of the forestry complex are tied to high-end timber processing, greater competitiveness of output products, forest regeneration, and improvements in the Oblast's ecological situation.
Along with specialized sectors, there are others that supplement the economic complex, such as the power industry, which accounts for 16.5% of industrial output. The power industry is represented by low- and medium-power thermal and hydroelectric power plants, including a hydroelectric power plant on the Volkhov River. All the plants are integrated into the Northwestern unified energy system and connected with the unified energy system of European Russia. The metallurgical industry is another supplementary sector. Light industry is represented mainly by the textile, leather shoe, and ceramics industries.
The industrial construction complex has interregional significance. Companies in this sector are located in large and medium-sized cities with access to main highways. They produce reinforced concrete components and structures and other building materials. The glass industry is also well developed in Novgorod Oblast.
Novgorod Oblast's economic complex is a combination of companies of regional significance (forestry, power) and specialized companies (radio engineering and chemical industries). The largest industrial centers are Veliky Novgorod (specialized machine engineering, electrical and radio engineering, chemical industry, nitrogen fertilizer production, food industry, ship repair yard, and sawmill); Staraya Russa (instrument making and chemical engineering); and Borovichi (ceramics and glass production).
Major rivers (sorted by discharge) include:
- Volkhov River
- Mologa River
- Msta River
- Lovat River
- Syas River
- Shelon River
Major lakes include:
- Lake Ilmen
- Valdai Lake
Municipally, the territories of the administrative districts are incorporated into twenty-one municipal districts and the territories of the three cities of oblast significance are incorporated as urban okrugs.
|№||Coat of Arms||Name of
|Staraya Russa||26||32 235||3|
|Veliky Novgorod||91||214 777||1|
|№||Coat of Arms||Name of rayon||Area
|8||Malaya Vishera||3281.0||3||18,286||8||Malaya Vishera||12,352|
|17||Staraya Russa||3111.4||7||48,524||3||Staraya Russa||-|
Population: 694,355 (2002 Census), down from about 753,000 in 1989. Novgorod Oblast has the lowest population for any oblast in the European part of Russia. One of the reasons for the relatively low population density is that the area suffered heavily during World War II. The population is 70% urban. There are ten cities and towns.
Ethnic groups: Novgorod Oblast is relatively homogenous, with only five recognised ethnic groups of more than two thousand persons each at the time of the census. The following nationalities were most numerous: 652,152 Russians (93.92%); 10,449 Ukrainians (1.50%); 5,294 Belarusians (0.76%); 3,388 Roma (0.49%); 2,077 Tatars (0.30%); 1,940 Armenians (0.289%); 1,574 Azeris (0.23%); 1,074 Chechens (0.15%); and 1,010 Germans (0.15%); as well as many other smaller groups. In addition, a further 5,575 persons (0.80%) declined to state their nationality on the census questionnaire.
- Births (2008): 6,912 (10.6 per 1000)
- Deaths (2008): 13,574 (20.9 per 1000) 
- ^ Darby; Richard Brookes, William Darby (1827). Darby's Universal Gazetteer: Or, A New Geographical Dictionary .... Original from the New York Public Library: Bennett & Walton. pp. 837. http://books.google.com/?id=NrsBAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA837&dq=%22Valdai+Lake%22.
- ^ (2002) "National Composition of Population for Regions of the Russian Federation" (XLS). Retrieved on 2006-07-20.
- ^ http://novgorodstat.natm.ru/digital/operinf/ЕстественноеДвижениеНаселения.htm
- (Russian) Information for tourists
- (Russian) Official website of Novgorod Oblast
- (Russian) Official website of the Novgorod Oblast branch of the State Statistics Service