- Tulsa County (north)
- Wagoner County (northeast)
- Muskogee County (east)
- McIntosh County (southeast)
- Okfuskee County (southwest)
- Creek County (northwest)
As of the census² of 2000, there were 39,685 people, 15,300 households, and 10,694 families residing in the county. The population density was 22/km² (57/mi²). There were 17,316 housing units at an average density of 10/km² (25/mi²). The racial makeup of the county was 69.73% White, 10.20% Black or African American, 12.85% Native American, 0.19% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.61% from other races, and 6.40% from two or more races. 1.95% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 15,300 households out of which 32.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 52.80% were married couples living together, 13.10% had a female householder with no husband present, and 30.10% were non-families. 27.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.06.
In the county, the population was spread out with 26.90% under the age of 18, 9.50% from 18 to 24, 25.30% from 25 to 44, 23.30% from 45 to 64, and 15.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females there were 95.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 90.80 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $27,652, and the median income for a family was $33,987. Males had a median income of $29,935 versus $20,861 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,065. About 14.90% of families and 18.90% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.90% of those under age 18 and 15.50% of those age 65 or over.
Cities and towns
The following sites in Okmulgee County are listed on the National Register of Historic Places:
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