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Oleg Ivanovich of Ryazan was born 1335 in Ryazan, Ryazan Oblast, Russia to Ivan Aleksandrovich of Ryazan (c1315-1351) and died 5 July 1402 Ryazan, Ryazan Oblast, Russia of unspecified causes. He married Eufrosyne of Lithuania (c1352-1405) .

Oleg Ivanovich of Ryazan (baptised Jacob, in schema: Joachim ) (c1335-1402) - Grand Prince of Ryazan (1353-1402) [1][2], the grandson of Roman Olgovich. He inherited the Grand Principality of Ryazan after Vasili Aleksandrovich's death. According to one version, Oleg was the son of Prince Ivan Aleksandrovich (and nephew Vasili Aleksandrovich) [3], according to another version [4][5] - the son of Prince Ivan Ivanovich Korotkol. According to the " Sovereign genealogy" Prince Ivan Ivanovich Korotkol was the father of Grand Prince Oleg Ivanovich. The historian D.I. Ilovaisky, working on his letters of commendation, drew attention to an interesting detail, that Oleg Ivanovich himself din not call his father, Ivan Ivanovich Korotkol, but Ivan Aleksandrovich . The memorial record of Grand Prince Oleg Ivanovich at the Olgovo Assumption Monastery mentions Ivan Aleksandrovich as being his father. [[Ivan Ivanovich Korotopol (c1305-1349)|Ivan Ivanovich Korotkol] and Ivan Aleksandrovich were cousins.

Biography

Oleg Ivanovich was born in Ryazan in 1335. To revenge for his ancestor, Prince Konstantin Romanovich, who was murdered in Moscow by Prince Yuri Danilovich, he ruined the borderland with the Ryazan lands of Lopasnya in 1353. He akso rallied many boyars of Moscow, who were dissatisfied with the government of Ivan II [6].

In the era of the "great zamyatni" in the Golden Horde, before the concentration of power in the hands of Mamai, Oleg, in alliance with Vladimir Dmitriyevich of Pronsk and Tit Mstislavich, defeated the Horde Bek Tagay in the Battle of the Shishev Forest in 1365 .

In the period from 1370 to 1387, Oleg's persistently attempted to defend the independence of his principality against the steppe principality, at a time when national interests demanded the unification of Russian forces in the struggle against the Golden Horde. Oleg in 1370 became one of the organizers of the collection of troops to help Moscow besieged by Algirdas [7].

The battle of Skornischevo and its consequences

In 1371, the forces of Ryazan were defeated by the troops of Grand Principality of Moscow under the command of Dmitri Bobrok in the Battle of Skornishchevo. The rule of the Grand Principality of Ryazan was taken by Vladimir Dmitriyevich of Pronsk. According to V.N. Tatischev , the cause of the war was a resumed dispute over Lopastnia, which Oleg Ivanovich asked from Dmitri Ivanovich, as a reward for helping against Algirdas. Against this background, the struggle of the Prince of Ryazan and the Prince of Moscow resumed, and the agreement between them which had lasted six years, after the invasion of the Tagay, was violated. The battle took place not far from Pereslavl-Ryazan, in a place called Skornishchevo [8]. With regard to the military art of Oleg Ivanovich, he yielded to the cautious and talented Dmitri Bobrok, who turned in his favor the excessive arrogance of the enemies and prepared for them some kind of surprise. The Chronicler wrote:

"The Ryazanians waved in vain and with belt loops, they fell like sheaves and were killed like pigs." The Lord God helped Dmitri Ivanovich and his soldiers, and their prince Oleg Ivanovich barely escaped with a little brigade."

Belt and rope loops, which are mentioned in the chronicle, were probably nothing more than arcana, first used by the Ryazans in the battle and transferred to them from the steppe neighbors [9]. These arcana mislead the chronicler, who attributed such frivolity to the Ryazanians that they did not want to take weapons with them, but to collect the Muscovites to knit with ropes. When Oleg Ivanovich ran away, his son-in-law Vladimir Dmitriyevich Pronsky immediately sat down on the Ryazan throne. This fact most clearly indicates participation (note: maybe even treason), which the prince took prince in the war of Moscow and Ryazan [10]. At the request of the Grand Prince of Ryazan Oleg Ivanovich went to the aid of [[Salahmir {c1350-c1405)|Mirza Salahmir]] with his older brother Edu Khan. [11]. [[Salahmir {c1350-c1405)|Mirza Salahmir]] leads a large mounted army to Pereslavl-Ryazan and drove out the Moscow governor Vladimir Dmitriyevich of Pronsk [12]. The Chronicler left a note

"In the summer of 6880 (1372) Oleg of Ryazan having gathered important protests in Ryazan by the expulsion of Prince [[Vladimir Dmitriyevich of Pronsk (c1340-1372)|Volodimer of Pronsk}} and his compulsion, and himself to the reign of the great."

In historical documents there is no record of the battle, only mentioning that during the reign of Vladimir Dmiriyevich in Ryazan there was an outrage related to the collection of tribute. The people of Ryazan did not want to pay tribute to Prince Vladimir Dmiriyevich, expecting that Oleg Ivanovich would return and collect the tribute again. Prince M. Scherbatov wrote in his work:

"...but expelled by the power of the Moscow arms from Ryazan, Prince Oleg Ioannovich, did not long leave Prince Vladimir Pronsky in his throne, but having gathered in other areas his own troops, in which Ryazan citizens themselves helped, expelled them from Ryazan, and into the very escape he was captured through the troops sent. But as the close ties of blood connecting these princes did not allow Oleg to use his severity, he was content to persuade him to back away from the alliance of the Grand Duke of Moscow, with the promise not to leave him behind, and reconciled with him. " [13]

The organizer of an unauthorized khan, the Prince of Moscow Dmitri Ivanovich, was summoned to the Horde and on June 15, 1371, departed accompanied by numerous boyars and metropolitans.The chronicler wrote:

"... when they came to the Horde, the great Prince Dmitri Ivanovich presented many gifts and great promises to Mamai and the tsarits and princes, so that the reigns would not be taken away ."

M.D. Khmyrov, on the basis of historical documents, wrote: "Denying the request of the khan to give grand prince Vladimir Prince of Tver, he went to the Horde and gave Ryazan Oleg, defeated by the Moscow regiments" [14].

By 1373 , to the invasion of Mamai, Oleg was able to regain his reign with the help of the mount of [[Salahmir {c1350-c1405)|Mirza Salahmir]] ; The Moscow army was on the northern shore of the Oka . In 1377, Ryazan was devastated by the Horde prince Arapshoy, Oleg barely escaped captivity. In 1378, Dmitry withdrew troops for the Oka and in alliance with Danilo Pronsky defeated the Horde army in the Battle of Vozha. In 1379 Ryazan was again ruined by Mamai himself.

The Battle of Kulikovo and the position of Oleg Ivanovich

In 1380, Oleg entered into negotiations with Mamai and Yagaylo against Dmitri Ivanovich, which is traditionally interpreted as his betrayal of the all-Russian cause, but as part of the historians - as a diplomatic game in order to save his lands from repeated devastation, persuade Dmitri to meet Mamai before he comes to Ryazan land, and even as the deliberate misrepresentation of Mamai and Jagiello regarding a possible connection with them on the Oka [7]. Domestic specialists (MN Tikhomirov, AE Presnyakov, AG Kuzmin) often questioned the very existence of such a deal between Oleg Ivanovich and Mamai and Jagiello. In their opinion, the inserts in the Simeon Chronicle, the Rogozhsky chronicler, containing attacks on Oleg Ivanovich and accusing him of conspiracy and complicity to Mamai, are late and are missing in many reports: the Novgorod I chronicle , the Nikon chronicle. On the events of 1380 from the Ryazan prince silent Suzdal chronicle on the Academic list and the Vladimir chronicler. In the Zadonshchina , which appeared shortly after the Battle of Kulikovo, Oleg Ivanovich is not even mentioned. Obviously, Oleg Ivanovich's union with Mamai was hardly, and the rumor about Oleg Ivanovich's participation in the fight on Mamai's side was spread with the aim of seizing a number of lands from Ryazan. Dmitry withdrew his troops for the Oka, nevertheless, not striking the Ryazan, and passing west of the main lands of the Principality of Ryazan. In the Zadonshchina, even the death of 70 Ryazan boyars and only 40 Moscow boyars are mentioned [15]. However, some Ryazans, in the absence of their prince, who advanced with his army to the south, also robbed the convoys returning to Moscow from the Kulikovo field through the Ryazan land [16]. In 1381, Oleg Ryazansky recognized himself as a "younger brother" and concluded with Dmitri an anti-Horde treaty similar to the Moscow-Tver treaty1375 , and promised to return captives captured after the Battle of Kulikovo [17]. The cunning policies of Oleg Ivanovich led to the main results, namely: the formidable forces of Mamai were destroyed, the Ryazan princedom was saved from ruin, its own squad is intact, and the powerful neighbor is so weakened that he became much less dangerous than before.

The death of the prince

In 1382 Tokhtamysh suddenly attacked Russia, Dmitri Ivanovich did not have time to gather forces, and Oleg in order to save his lands from ruin by the Horde showed them fords on the Oka, but they nevertheless plundered Ryazan on the way back. In addition, in the autumn of the same year, Ryazan had a punitive march and Dmitri Ivanovich.

The Battle of Perevitsk

In 1385, Oleg, taking advantage of the weakening of Moscow after the invasion of Tokhtamysh, captured Kolomna . Many events in Russian history often turn out to be undeservedly devoid of any attention, despite their most important significance. A similar event can be attributed to the little-known battle at Perevitsk (Perevitsky Torzhok, Lukhovitsky Rayon, Moscow Oblast), held in the spring of 1385. In it the Moscow army under the command of Vladimir Andreyevich of Serpukhov was routed by the Ryazan warriors. "The apple of discord" was Kolomna, the force taken away by Moscow at the beginning of the century and the position of Oleg Ivanovich not joining (neutrality) to the army of Dmitri Ivanovich at the Battle of Kulikovo. At the same time, Oleg Ivanovich did not oppose the direct participation of the Ryazan people in the Battle of Kulikovo. "Zadonshchina" reports that 70 Ryazan boyars died in the battle, and only 40 boyars perished in Moscow. [18] Having well thought out the situation, having secured the support of his son-in-law, Grand Duke Yuri Svyatoslavovich Smolensky of Murom and other princes, Oleg Ivanovich suddenly attacked the Grand Principality of Moscow on 25 March 1385 in Lazarev Saturday. The army quickly overcame the distance between Pereslavl-Ryazan and Moscow possessions, crossed the frozen Oka River, captured Kolomna ".... The city was taken and looted. Kolomna governor Alexander Andreyevich Ostej together with boyars and the best people are allotted to the country. The Ryazans got rich booty, because the city had already made considerable trade and was considered one of the most prosperous in Russia. " [19] In response, Moscow assembled a strong army under the command of Prince Vladimir Andreyevich of Serpukhov:" Prince Dmitri Ivanovich, having collected a lot, Ambassador with him the brother of his prince Volodymyr Andreevich to prince Olga and to the Ryazan land " [20]. Upon learning of this, Oleg Ivanovich left Kolomna, feeling that he could not hold the city and withdrew his troops to Perevitsk, a well fortified Ryazan fortress on the border of the principality. Then the chronicles either obliterate the fact of the defeat of the Muscovites, or even keep silent about the event, reporting only the names of the dead: " Then in that war I killed Prince Mikhail of Polotsky Olgerdovich's son in Ryazan ." Nikon's annals indicate: " on that battle, many boyars of Moscow and lushshih husbands of Novgorod and Pereslavl were killed ." The fact of the defeat of Muscovites is told by Ryazan manuscripts. in which the Muscovites of Ryazan were beaten at Perevitsk [21]. A.G. Kuzmin, referring to the documents of RGADA, points out that in the " arch of 1584 "On the Murder of Muscovites from the Ryazanians "and that Prince Oleg Ivanovich and the famous voevoda Ivan Miroslavovich were fighting, the Moscow warriors flinched and fled, losing a large number of associates, the army suffered a crushing defeat." The sarcasm of the Muscovites reflected in the chronicle of 1371 was forgotten: "Ryazans severe men are more cruel, fierce and witty, aki monsters, half-witted people, vzgordevshis velichanie .. do not eat any shield or copy, or any other weapon, but only took with them together the hooks (ropes) ... seizing the Muscovite, it would be than yazat , Inasmuch are weak and strashlivy not kreptsy ... " [22]. In support of the Ryazan people there was also a flood of rivers. Muscovites could not strike back, and judging by further events and there was nothing to hit. Clamped by circumstances in a corner, Dmitry Ivanovich sent a rich ransom for the prisoners and two embassies asking for peace. Ambassadors returned with nothing. Ryazan demanded certain territorial concessions from Moscow. After this war, unsuccessful for Moscow, the Yelets principality submits to the Ryazan and we see that in 1389 Prince Yuri Yeletsky, at the behest of Oleg Ryazansky, comes to the mouth of the Crow River, to meet Metropolitan Pimen [23]. This dependence on the Ryazan princes was destroyed probably with the death of Oleg Ivanovich [24].

Mission of Sergei of Radonezh

Thanks to the intervention of Sergius Radonezhsky , another internecine war was prevented. Oleg concluded an eternal peace with Dmitry Donskoy and in 1387 married his son Fyodor to the daughter of Dmitry Sophia [25].

The idea of ​​the mission of Sergei of Radonezh was born to Dmitri Ivanovich long before the embassy began. The chronicle writes:

"In the summer of 6894 (1386) the month of September, Grand Prince Dmitri Ivanovich went to the monastery of the Life-Giving Trinity to the Monk hegumen Sergius of Radonezh, and performed a prayer service to the Lord God and the Most-Pure Mother of God and the holy brethren feeding and giving alms to the monk Father Sergius , so that the Reverend Hegumen Sergius of the embassy to Ryazan to prince Oleg from the eternal peace and love came from him " [26]. </blockquote?

Sergius of Radonezh did not immediately hasten to the embassy in Ryazan, but waited two months for the Nativity Fast to begin. One of the most important contents of fasting, especially the Nativity Fast, is repentance, awareness of all sins and forgiveness of sins made by other people regarding the fasting. After leaving Radonezh, Sergius went to Moscow, where the first boyars joined him, guarded by the prince and other servants of the royal court. Horse carts moved toward and passed through Ryazan Kolomna where served moleben [27]. On the Ryazan side, the embassy was already awaiting the accompanying Grand Duke of Ryazan. In this composition, all safely reached Pereslavl-Ryazan in Philippi post (from November 28 to January 06). The chronicle talks about the course of the peace talks:

<blpckquote> "... St. Sergius the abbot, an elderly cousin, with quiet and gentle words and speeches and gracious verbs, with the grace given to him by the Holy Spirit, talked a lot with him about the use of the soul, and about peace and love. meekness, and comfort and tame and be touched by the soul of the soul, ashamed of the only holy man, and took with the Grand Prince Dmitry Ivanovich eternal peace " [28]

The historian of the Ryazan princedom D.I. Ilovaysky assesses Dmitry Medvedev's peace treaty with Oleg Ryazansky as follows: The world of 1386 is indisputable, can serve as the strongest protest against all the criticism that the famous prince Oleg was subjected to by the northern chroniclers and their followers. This world is especially remarkable in that it actually justified its eternal name. Since that time, there has not been a single war, not only between Oleg Ivanovich and Dmitry Donskoy, but also between their descendants. The place of the bitter struggle was akin to the kindred and friendly relations with which the Ryazan princedom extended its political coexistence for another hundred years and a quarter. In gratitude to God for eternal peace between Moscow and Ryazan princedoms, for the blessing of Sergius of Radonezh in Kolomna, a city of discord, The Epiphany Old-Golutvin Monastery was founded. In the following year, 1387, the union was still cemented by family relations: Oleg's son married Sofya, Dmitri's daughter. And in 1400 the daughterFedor Olgovich becomes the wife of Ivan, son of Vladimir Andreevich the Brave.

In subsequent years, Oleg supported his son-in-law, Smolensk prince Yuri Svyatoslavich , against Vytautas of Lithuania, seeking to capture Smolensk. The clashes occurred on Lithuanian and Ryazan territory (1393-1401). Convinced by Saint Cyprian, Metropolitan of Kiev, made a large monetary donation in favor of the Tsaregrad Greeks in 1398.

Just before the end of his life, Oleg received monasticism and schema under the name of Joachim in the 18th century he founded the Solotchinsky Monastery from Ryaza . Nun graduated from his life and his wife - Princess Euphrosyne. Their common tomb is in the cathedral of the monastery.

Burial of Prince Oleg Ivanovich and Princess Euphrosyne

Grand Duke Oleg Ivanovich Ryazansky died July 5, 1402 and was originally buried in a stone coffin in the Intercession Church of the Solotchi Monastery. At the baptism received the name of Jacob, in the monastic elder Iona Pereslav. He is venerated by Orthodox people, like a faithful, sacred saint. His wife Evrosinya (Eupraxia) died on December 05, 1404/06. She is venerated as a revered saint in the ranks of the saint. By decree of the Holy Synod from October 6, 1769 No. 1955, the remains of Grand Prince Oleg Ivanovich and Princess Euphrosyne were transferred to the Church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary Solotchi Monastery. After the closure of the monastery in 1923, the remains of the Grand Duke and his wife were seized and transferred to the Ryazan Provincial Museum. On July 13, 1990, the remains of Oleg Ivanovich were transferred to the St. John the Theological Monastery. On June 22, 2001, the remains were transferred to Monastery of the Nativity of the Holy Mother of God, Solotcha. Subsequently, the spouses were reburied in the Dormition Cathedral of Ryazan.

Evaluation of activities

Prince Oleg had a difficult and controversial fate and posthumous ungrateful glory, which was created by the Moscow chroniclers and has survived to the present day. A traitor who has become a saint. Prince, who was christened "the second Svyatopolk" in Moscow, but who was loved by the people of Ryazan and was loyal to him both in victories and after defeats, which is a bright and significant figure in the life of Russia in the fourteenth century . It is noteworthy that in the end of the charter of 1375 between Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy and Mikhail Alexandrovich Tversky - the main competitors for domination and the great reign of Vladimir, as the arbitrator for disputed cases, Prince Oleg Ryazansky is mentioned. This indicates that Oleg was at that time the only authoritative figure, the Grand Prince, who did not stand either on the side of Tver or on the side of Moscow. A more suitable candidate for the role of an arbitrator was almost impossible to find.

Each independent principality was politically a body, lived its own life, had its own local interests. The disunity of the principalities was supported, moreover, by the mutual hostility of the princes. The first clear consciousness of national unity was awakened in Moscow, together with its desire to unify Rus'. But this very desire placed it in a hostile attitude toward other great principalities, such as Tver and Ryazan. They are anxiously beginning to follow the growth of the power of the descendants of Kalita and are trying to find support in foreign neighbors. Tver resorts to Lithuania for help, Ryazan prefers to become a Horde rather than to recognize the dominance of Moscow. The question of the Horde's game, therefore, received local and far from identical significance for various areas of Russia. If Moscow felt itself already able to fight against the Horde, then for Ryazan such time has not yet come and circumstances make its princes differently look at the khan's anger. Oleg Ivanovich understood this better than anyone else, because he had not really experienced what his friendship with the strong Moscow prince was worth. For eight years he was a faithful ally of Dmitri Donskoy and what results? Four times the Tatars came to devastate the Ryazan land in large numbers. With their own forces, the Ryazans could not protect themselves from such invasions, which were always more or less unexpected, and the Muscovites were helping out too late. The struggle of the Horde with Moscow in any case was unprofitable for the Ryazans, because on their fields there were bloody encounters of rivals. The very victory of the ally entailed only new disasters, like, for example, the Battle of Vozhin, meanwhile, as the inhabitants of the Moscow volosts quietly indulged in peaceful pursuits, in the belief that no further stepping of the Oka coasts the feet of the Tatar horses would step, and in retaliation for the Ryazan princedom the Horde raid was carried out. It is clear why Oleg Ivanovich found himself in great difficulty when he heard of the new Tatar army, which was moving closer to the borders of the principality. To remain in alliance with Moscow or go over to the side of the Horde, in both cases his principality was threatened with ruin, and still fresh were the wounds of the Tatar pogroms. The situation was such that he could either lose a lot, if not everything, or win a lot. Everything depended on his diplomatic dexterity and all his decisions about Mamai's support were based on these realities then in retaliation for the Ryazan princedom the Horde raid was carried out. It is clear why Oleg Ivanovich found himself in great difficulty when he heard of the new Tatar army, which was moving closer to the borders of the principality. To remain in alliance with Moscow or go over to the side of the Horde, in both cases his principality was threatened with ruin, and still fresh were the wounds of the Tatar pogroms. The situation was such that he could either lose a lot, if not everything, or win a lot. Everything depended on his diplomatic dexterity and all his decisions about Mamai's support were based on these realities then in retaliation for the Ryazan princedom the Horde raid was carried out. It is clear why Oleg Ivanovich found himself in great difficulty when he heard of the new Tatar army, which was moving closer to the borders of the principality. To stay in alliance with Moscow or go over to the side of the Horde, in both cases, his principality was threatened only by ruin, and still fresh were the wounds of the Tatar pogroms. The situation was such that he could either lose a lot, if not everything, or win a lot. Everything depended on his diplomatic dexterity and all his decisions about Mamai's support were based on these realities and still fresh were the wounds of Tatar pogroms. The situation was such that he could either lose a lot, if not everything, or win a lot. Everything depended on his diplomatic dexterity and all his decisions about Mamai's support were based on these realities and still fresh were the wounds of Tatar pogroms. The situation was such that he could either lose a lot, if not everything, or win a lot. Everything depended on his diplomatic dexterity and all his decisions about Mamai's support were based on these realities [29] .

Armed conflicts during the reign of Oleg Ivanovich

In 1358, Ambassador Orda Tsarevich Mamat-Khoja arrived to resolve the border conflict between the rulers of the Moscow and Ryazan principalities . The territorial disputed issue was resolved in favor of the Ryazan principality. The complaint to the Horde of the Grand Duke Vladimir, Novgorod and Moscow Ivan Ivanovich Krasny , caused the Ambassador's recall to the Horde and the death of Mamat-Khoja due to participation in the palace conspiracy against the Khan. The results of the campaign: the robbery of the rural possessions of the principality of the Ryazan. [30]

In 1365 Tagai Prince Bezdezhsky [31], the ruler of the Naruchad Ulus, undertook a military campaign for the purpose of military extraction. The results of the campaign: the destruction of the Pereslavl-Ryazan and its rural districts by the Horde. Complete defeat of the troops of Prince Tagay Bezdezhsky troops Oleg Ivanovich Ryazan, Vladimir Dmitrievich Pronsky , Tit Kozelsky . Elimination of the military threat from the ulus of Naruchad [32]. In 1370 the troops of the Ryazan princedom under the leadership of Vladimir Dmitrievich Pronsky were sent to help Moscow, besieged by the Lithuanian prince [33]. In December 1371, Prince Oleg Oleg Ivanovich was defeated by Moscow troops under the leadership of voevody Dmitri Bobrok in the Battle of Skornishchevo. The prince fled to the Horde. At his request, a horse army arrived under the leadership of [[Salahmir {c1350-c1405)|Mirza Salahmir]] and his elder brother Edu Khan, nicknamed "Strongly-cunning." With the help of the [[Salahmir {c1350-c1405)|Mirza Salahmir]] troops, Oleg Ivanovich drove the Moscow governor Vladimir Dmitrievich of Pronsk, whom Dmitry the future Donskoi placed on the Ryazan reign and again ascends the throne in the summer of 1372 [34].[35]. The fact of the expulsion of Oleg Ivanovich from the throne by the military force of Moscow, after helping Moscow in 1370 in connection with litvoyu, for many years has left a negative imprint on the relationship between the two principalities. In the summer of 1373, in retaliation for the subordination of Ryazans' border power to the Horde and military booty, a campaign was undertaken to the Ryazan principality. The result of the trip: the ruin of cities and lands of the Ryazan principality [36]. The prince of Moscow and his brother Prince Serpukhov, bound by a contractual charter, did not have any help, confining themselves to being on the shore of the Eye and not letting the Ordyntsy through the Oka into their territories. At the end of August 1377, in retaliation for subjugation of the Ordinsky frontier possessions and military booty to Ryazan , Chingizid Tsarevich Arab Shah (Arapsha) undertook a campaign against the Ryazan principality. The results of the campaign: the ruin of the territory of the Ryazan principality and its capital [37]. Prince Oleg Ivanovich himself shot and bloodied himself barely escaped the Horde's troops. In August 1378, Mamaev's military campaign against the Moscow principality took place. In the campaign, prominent princes of the Horde took part: Begich , Khazibey, Kavergui, Karagaluk, Kostruk. On the side of the Moscow troops were the troops of the Ryazan princedom under the leadership of Prince Daniil Vladimirovich Pronsky. The results of the campaign: the complete rout of the Horde troops at the Vozha river. [38] In September 1378, the Mamai Temnik raided the Ryazan principality. The results of the campaign: the ruin of Pereslavl-Ryazan, Dubka and their volosts [39] In August 1382, Chingizid Tokhtamish undertook a campaign against Moscow. The results of the trip: the devastation of not only Moscow and the Moscow principality, but also on the way back Tohtamish ravaged the Ryazan principality. The resumption of the payment of tribute to the Horde Tokhtamysh by the Ryazan prince [40]. In 1382, in revenge for the help of Tokhtamysh, Dmitri Donskoy's troops were ruined by the Ryazan princedom [41] . The chronicler wrote: "In 6891. In September, Prince Dmitry Ivanovich sent his army to Oleg Ivanovich Ryazansky, who went out with his boyars in the field, who, having gone to war, burned his land and burned him, and captured everyone and the empty one all created, so that he became more malicious than the Tatar rati " [42]. In 1385 March 25 days, in retaliation for the destruction of the Ryazan princedom in 1382, Ryazantsev's army unexpectedly appeared to Kolomna, taking it by expulsion (sudden attack) [43] , crossing Oka on the ice. Moscow gathered a strong army under the leadership of Vladimir Serpukhovsky, but was defeated in the battle near Perevitsk. The results of the trip: the return of volosts along the Oka peninsula, a large ransom was demanded for the captives. In June 1387, for the purpose of military extraction, the Horde's campaign was undertaken to the Ryazan principality. The results of the campaign: the ruin of Pereslavl-Ryazan, Lyubutsky and their rural districts. [43] Sam Prince Oleg Ivanovich, nearly fell into captivity to the Ordyn troops when they captured Pereslavl-Ryazan. In August 1388, for the purpose of military extraction, the Horde's campaign was undertaken to the Ryazan principality. The results of the trip: the ruin of Pereslavl-Ryazan and its rural areas. [44] In the summer of 1389/90, with the aim of military extraction, the Horde's expedition to the Ryazan principality was undertaken. The results of the campaign: the ruin of the territory of the Ryazan principality [45]. In November-December, 1390, a military campaign was launched against the Ryazan princedom. The results of the campaign: the ruin of the territory of the Ryazan princedom [46]. In the summer of 1391, the Horde's expedition to the Ryazan princedom was undertaken with the goal of military extraction. The results of the trip: the ruin of the territory of the Ryazan principality [47]. In the summer of 1394, the Horde's expedition to the Ryazan principality took place with the aim of military extraction. The results of the campaign: Reflection of the raid and victory in the battle over the Horde detachment [48]. In 1396, he fought against Lithuania, besieged Lubutsk (near Kaluga). In the summer of 1400, the campaign of Chingizid, the prince Mohammed-Saltan, took place with the purpose of military extraction. On the side of the Ryazan army the princes of Pronsk, Murom, and Kozelsk appeared. The results of the trip: the devastation of the Horde wandering along the banks of the rivers Ravens and Hopra. Captivity of the prince Muhammad-Saltan and a number of Horde princes [49]. In 1401 a surprise attack, along with Prince Yury of Smolensk, his son in law, took a cut out of the Lithuanians Smolensk [50]. In the autumn of 1401, with the aim of military extraction, the Horde troops marched on the Ryazan princedom. The results of the campaign: the ruin of the rural district of the Ryazan principality [51]..

The coat of arms of Ryazan

"Small Coat of Arms of Ryazan (approved May 29, 1779)

The coat of arms of Ryazan, approved on 20 Ma7 1779 is defined as:

"In a golden field, a standing prince holding a sword in his right hand, and a sheath in his left; on it is a pancake made of scarlet, and a dress and a green cap with sables "( Winkler , p. 131).

According to Ryazan's legends, the coat of arms depicts the Grand Prince Oleg Ivanovich himself.

Family and children

Wives : 1) unknown, possibly Tatar (Horde) princess [52] (Horde princess) [53]. . This marriage means, Oleg Ivanovich had the title of Gurgan (son-in-law of the khan's clan).

2) Efrosinya (Evpraksiya) (c1352-December 5, 1405) [54] - according to some reports the daughter of the Lithuanian prince Algirdas and Uliana of Tver. The marriage could have been concluded, probably closer to the middle or the end of the 1360s, when Oleg was looking for supporters in the fight against the Moscow prince Dmitri Ivanovich Donskoy; By 1370 he was already Algirdas's ally. Before her death, Eufrosyne took her vows and adopted the name Evpraksya [55].

Children : According to some reports, Oleg Ivanovich had two sons from his first marriage - Fyodor Olgovich of Ryazan (c1360-1427) and Rodslav and two daughters, from the second marriage - two daughters [56].

From the first marriage were:

  • Fyodor Olgovich - Grand Duke of Ryazan (1402-1427);
  • daughter [57] - married to Vladimir Pronsky (died 1373) [58];
  • Anastasiya Olgovna of Ryazan (c1355-c1415) was married first to Prince Dmitri Vasilyevich Drutsky (died 1384), then to Koribut Olgierdovich, prince of Novhorod-Siverskyi; Princess Anastasia Olegovna is the grandmother of the Queen of Poland Sophia of Halshany (c1405-1451), the fourth wife of [[Wladyslaw II Jagiellon (c1362-1434)|Wladyslaw II Jagiellon]/]
  • Agrafena Olgovna of Ryazan (c1358-c1420) - married in 1377 Ivan Titovich of Kozelsk (c1350-c1400);
  • RodoslaV Olgovich of Ryazan (c1360-1407)

From the second marriage, probably, were:

  • daughter (c1368- - married to the prince of Murom, Vladimir Danilovich Red Snadba (died after 1395) [59];

Dmitri Svyatoslavich Yuryevsky (c1225- 1269) Дмитрий Святославич (князь юрьевский)


? Yaroslav Dmitriyevich (c1260 c1310

Vasili Yaroslavich of Murom (c1290-1345) Василий Ярославич (князь муромский) Daniil Vasilyevich (c1320 died cca 1370 Vladimir Danilovich (c1355 died cca 1410



Oleg of Ryazan in literature and art

Oleg Ryazansky became the hero of the novel of the same name Alexei Khludenyov. In his work the author touches upon such a complex topic as the "betrayal" of the Grand Duke of Ryazan to obscheusskim interests [60].

Also Oleg Ryazansky is the hero of the novel by Yu. L. Limanov.

Dmitry Balashov in his historical trilogy "Holy Russia" from the series "The Sovereigns of Moscow" also defends the version that Oleg Ryazansky did not enter into an alliance with Mamai, Yagaylo and Tokhtamysh .

Notes

  1. ^ ВТ-МЭСБЕ - Олег}}
  2. ^ Oleg Ivanovich is named for the first time Grand Prince of Ryazan on 22 June 1353. (historian D.I. Ilovaisky). This is considered the first year of Oleg Ivanovich's reign.
  3. ^ Происхождение князя Олега Ивановича Рязанского
  4. ^ Карамзин Н. М. История государства Российского
  5. ^ Л.Войтович КНЯЗІВСЬКІ ДИНАСТІЇ СХІДНОЇ ЄВРОПИ
  6. ^ М.Д. Хмыров. "Алфавитно-справочный перечень Государей Русских и замечательнейших особ их крови". СПб. 1870г. стр. 64-65. Прим: год рождения О.И. в данном труде проставлен - около 1330г.
  7. ^ a b «Мир истории. Русские земли в XIII—XV веках», Греков И. Б., Шахмагонов Ф. Ф., «Молодая Гвардия», М., 1988
  8. ^ Договорная грамота Василия Дмитриевича с Федором Ольговичем Рязанским (№ 36) "...была рать отца моего, великого князя Дмитрия Ивановича, на Скорнищеве у города " (Переславля).
  9. ^ Догадка С.М. Соловьева. И.Р.З. прим. 480. Ник. IV31.32.Г.
  10. ^ Д.И. Иловайский. История Рязанского княжества.
  11. ^ Прим: Oleg Ivanovich's first wife, по изысканиям Д.И. Иловайского бала ордынская царевна и вполне возможно, что [[Salahmir {c1350-c1405)|Salahmir]] и Еду-хан были её родственники и в 1371 году царевна была ещё жива.
  12. ^ Родословная роспись Апраксиных. (РГАДА, фонд 286, опись 1, книга 241А, лист 177-181, 1743г.).
  13. ^ Сочинение князя Михаила Щербатого. "История Российская от древнейших времен". Том 4, Часть 1, стр. 60. Издание 1781 года.
  14. ^ М.Д. Хмыров. "Алфавитно-справочный перечень Государей Русских и замечательнейших особ их крови". СПб. 1870г. стр. 31.
  15. ^ «Задонщина»
  16. ^ Никоновская летопись: «Поведаша же великому князю Дмитрею Ивановичю, что князь Олегъ Рязянскии посылалъ Момаю на помощъ свою силу, а самъ на реках мосты переметал, а хто поехал домов з Доновского побоища сквозь его вотчину, Рязанскую землю, бояре или слуги, а тех велел имати и грабити и нагих пущати. Великий же князь Дмитреи Иванович хоте противу на князя Олга послати свою рать; и се внезаапу приехаша к нему бояре рязанскии и поведаша, что князь Олегъ…приде на рубеж Литовьскый и ту став и рече бояром своим: „Аз хощу зде ждати вести, как князь велики проидет мою землю и приидет в свою отчину, и яз тогда возвращуся восвояси.“» [1]
  17. ^ Грамота великого князя Олега Ивановича великому князю Дмитрию Ивановичу: «А что князь великии Дмитрии и брать, князь Володимеръ, билися на Дону с татары, от того веремени что грабеж или что поиманые у князя у великого людии у Дмитрия и у его брата, князя Володимера, тому межи нас суд вопчии, отдати то по исправе» [2]
  18. ^ Л.А. Дмитриев. Д.С. Лихачев. "Сборник произведений литературы Древней Руси". 1969г. стр. 396.
  19. ^ Д.И. Иловайский. "История рязанского княжества". 1885г. стр. 119.
  20. ^ Симеоновская летопись.
  21. ^ А.Г. Кузьмин. "Рязанское летописание". 1965г. стр.231.
  22. ^ "Московский летописный свод конца XV века". стр. 187. Симеоновская летопись. стр. 111-112.
  23. ^ Татищев. IV. стр.329.
  24. ^ Исследование Р.В. Зотова. "О Черниговских князьях по Любецкому синодику и о Черниговском княжестве в татарское время". СПб. 1892г. стр. 215-216.
  25. ^ Летопись: " ....преподобный же игумен Сергий, старец чюдный, тихими и кроткими словесы и речми и благоуветливыми глаголы, благодатию данною ему от Святого Духа, много беседовав с ним о пользе души, и о мире, и о любви. Князь велики же Олег преложи сверепьство свое на кротость, и утишися, и укротися, и умилися велми душею, и взял с великим князем Дмитрием Ивановичем вечный мир и любовь в род и род".
  26. ^ Никоновская летопись 6894 год.
  27. ^ Прим: некоторые источники пишут, что Сергий Радонежский пошел в Рязань пешком, что не соответствует действительности. На момент посольства ему было 64 года. Возраст и зимняя дорога не позволила идти пешком.
  28. ^ Никоновская летопись
  29. ^ И.Д. Иловайский. "История рязанского княжества". 1858г.
  30. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 77. Таблица № 46.
  31. ^ Прим: Бездежский - улус в Золотой Орде.
  32. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 80. Таблица № 49.
  33. ^ Никоновская и Симеоновская летописи.
  34. ^ Родословные росписи Апраксиных (РГАДА. фонд. 286. Оп.1. книга 241А. лист 177-181. 1743г.)
  35. ^ В книге История Российская от древнейших времен, сочинения князя Михаила Щербатого, Том 4, Часть 1, стр. 60, издание 1781 года, трактуется возвращение князя Олега Ивановича немного по другому:"... Однако изгнанный силою Московского оружия изъ Рязани князь Олег Иоанович, не долго оставил князя Владимира Пронского престолом его владеть, но собрав в других своих областях не малое воинство, в чем и самими Рязанскими гражданами быв помогаем, изгнал оного из Рязани, и чаяшельно в самом побег его чрез посланные войска пленил. Но какъ ближние узы крови, соединяющие сих князей, не позволили Олегу противу его суровости употребить, то он довольствовался склонить его отступить от союза великого князя Московского, с обещанием ни когда от него не отстовати, с ним помирился".
  36. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 83. Таблица № 52.
  37. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 92. Таблица № 61.
  38. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 97. Таблица № 66.
  39. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 99. Таблица № 67.
  40. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 102. Таблица № 69.
  41. ^ М.Д. Хмыров. "Алфавитно-справочный перечень Государей Русских и замечательнейших особ их крови". СПб. 1870г. стр. 64-65
  42. ^ Лицевой летописный свод XVI века. стр. 92.
  43. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 105. Таблица № 71.
  44. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 106. Таблица № 72.
  45. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 107. Таблица № 73.
  46. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 108. Таблица № 74.
  47. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 110. Таблица № 76
  48. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 112. Таблица № 78.
  49. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 115. Таблица № 81.
  50. ^ М.Д. Хмыров. "Алфавитно-справочный перечень Государей Русских и замечательнейших особ их крови". СПб. 1870г. стр. 64-65
  51. ^ Ю.В. Селезнев. "Русско-ордынские конфликты XIII-XV веков". стр. 116. Таблица № 82.
  52. ^ "Благоверный князь Олег Рязанский | Солотчинский Рождества Богородицы женский монастырь". srbgm.cerkov.ru. http://srbgm.cerkov.ru/blagovernyj-knyaz-oleg-ryazanskij/. Retrieved 2017-08-13. 
  53. ^ Историк Д.И. Иловайский.
  54. ^ По данным М.Д.Хмырова, Ефросинья (Евпраксия) скончалась в 1404 году.
  55. ^ В летописном своде XVI века записано за 1406 год: "В ту же зиму месяца декабря в 5 день в субботу преставилась благоверная великая княгиня Евпраксия, жена князя Олега Ивановича Рязанского".
  56. ^ Александр Быков, Ольга Кузьмина. "Александр Быков, Ольга Кузьмина". krotov.info. http://krotov.info/history/14/3/oleg_kuzmina.htm. Retrieved 2017-08-13. 
  57. ^ Сомнительно, по возрасту подошла бы сестра, нежели дочь Олега Рязанского.
  58. ^ Летописный свод XVI века за 1373 год: "В ту же зиму преставился Владимир Дмитриевич Пронский".
  59. ^ "Князья юрьевские и муромские (вторая ветвь)". http://www.historycivilizations.ru/library/genealogy/027.htm. 
  60. ^ Какой есть: Слово об авторе романа «Олег Рязанский» Алексее Хлуденёве — журнал Молоко (2009).

Bibliography

Литература

  • ВТ-РБС - Рязанские князья - Андреев А., Корсакова В.
  • Журавель А. В. «АКИ МОЛНИА В ДЕНЬ ДОЖДЯ». В 2-х книгах. — М.: «Русская панорама», «Русское историческое общество», 2010. — 2000 экз. — ISBN 978-5-93165-177-4 (общ.);
    • Book 1: Куликовская битва и её след в истории. — 424 с., ил. — ISBN 978-5-93165-178-1 (кн. 1).
    • Book 2: Наследие Дмитрия Донского. — 320 с., ил. — ISBN 978-5-93165-179-8 (кн. 2).
  • М.Д. Хмыров. "Алфавитно-справочный перечень Государей Русских и замечательнейших особ их крови". СПб. 1870г.
  • Ю.В. Селезнев. Справочно-методическое пособие "Русско-ордынские конфликты XII-XV веков". Исторический факультет Воронежского университета.
  • И.Д. Иловайский. "История Рязанского княжества". 1858г.
  • Трофимова Н. В. Повесть о битве на Скорнищеве в летописании XV—XVII в. Древняя Русь. Вопросы медиевистики. 2007. № 3 (29). С. 109—110.
  • ВТ-ЭСБЕ



Children


Offspring of Oleg Ivanovich of Ryazan and unknown parent
Name Birth Death Joined with
Fyodor Olegovich of Ryazan (c1360-1427) 1360 1427 Sofya Dmitriyevna of Ryazan (c1373-1427)




Siblings

Residences

Oleg Ivanovich
Born: 1335 Died: 1402
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Vasili Aleksandrovich
Grand Prince of Ryazan
1350–1371
Succeeded by
Vladimir Dmitriyevich
Preceded by
Vladimir Dmitriyevich
Grand Prince of Ryazan
1372–1402
Succeeded by
Fyodor Olegovich


Footnotes (including sources)

Afil  


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