The Slutsk principality was originally an autonomous principality of the Turov land in the 12th - 14th centuries. [1] It emerged in 1160 [2] , finally took shape in the 1190s. [3] In the XIV-XVIII centuries - a large feudal principality in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania .

History of the Principality[]

The first mention of Slutsk (Sluchesk) occurs in the "Tale of Bygone Years" around 1116 : the Minsk prince Gleb Vseslavich invaded the territory of Vladimir Monomakh , "fought the Dregovichi and Sluchesk burned." Although FF Serno-Solovyovych points out in his book that the principality was mentioned in archival documents as early as 1086 , and Bishop NS Sestrenzovich said that in 1096 . Teacher Slutskaya gymnasium IA Glebov said that there is news of the Slutsk Psalter XI century. But all this information is given without references to documents, they can not be verified now, therefore the most authentic source is the chronicle "The Tale of Bygone Years".

It occupied territory from Neman and Lani to Ptich and Pripyat , including the cities of Slutsk, Kopyl , Petrikov , Timkovichi, Ureche, Luban, Starye Dorogi, Umgoichi, Tal, Pogost, and others [4] .

The first of the mentioned rulers of Slutsk was Yury Dolgoruky. In 1149 he transferred Slutsk to the possession of the northern Prince Svyatoslav. In 1160-1162 the head of the specific Slutsk principality grandson of Vladimir Monomakh - Vladimir Mstislavich [4] . Against him came a coalition of princes led by his brother, the Kiev prince Rostislav Mstislavich. Their squads besieged Slutsk , and Vladimir Mstislavich was forced to surrender. Subsequently (two hundred years), the principality was ruled by the descendants of the Turov prince Yuri Yaroslavich [1] . In 1387, the literary mention of the slutsky prince Yuri, the last of this dynasty [5] .

In the beginning of the 13th century, the Slutsk Principality, like other appanage principalities of the Turov land, became dependent on the then strong Galicia-Volyn principality [6] . Since 1320, the Slutsk Principality as part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1395 , when the Grand Duke of Lithuania Vytautas , having taken away the principality of Kiev , transferred the Slutsk Principality to the brother of the Polish King Jagiello, Prince Vladimir Olgerdovich , it became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, and for two centuries Slutsk was one of the political and cultural centers of this state. Until the end of the 14th century, the princes of the Turov lineRurikovichi [7] . After the death of Vladimir Olgerdovich (after 1398), Sluck, together with Kopyl, stood out as the destiny of his son Olelka and his successors Oleklovichy - Semyon, Mikhail, Yuri and Semyon.

Olelko Vladimirovich in 1440 received the principality of Kiev, and the governor of Slutsky principality left the eldest son of Semyon Olelkovych . After the death (1454) Olelko Vladimirovich, Semyon received the Kyiv principality, and the youngest son Mikhail Olelkovich began to reign in Slutsk in 1481 . After the death of Semyon Olelkovich, his brother Mikhail Olelkovich expected to receive the throne of Kiev, but without success. He, with supporters - princes Fyodor Ivanovich Belsky and Ivan Yuryevich Golshansky - decided to overthrow the Grand Duke of Lithuania Casimir IV and erect on the Lithuanian throne of Mikhail Olelkovich as the descendant of the Grand Duke Olgerd. But the conspiracy was revealed, and Mikhail Olelkovich was executed in 1481 in the town square in Vilna . Slutsk principality passed away to the widow of the executed Anna Mstislavskaya (the daughter of Prince Ivan Mstislavsky) and the young son Semyon, who reigned from 1481 to 1503 .

From 1569 until the 18th century the Slutsk Principality entered the Rech Pospolitaya . On the death of Prince Yuri Yurievich Olelkovych in 1578 , each of his three sons (Yuri, Ian-Simeon, Alexander) received a testament in part of the city of Slutsk and a third of the principality. After the death of the brothers (in 1586, 1591, 1592, respectively), all parts were inherited by the daughter of Prince Yuri - Sophia (the last of the Olelkovic family). In 1600, a fifteen- year- old Sofya Olelkovich (1585-1612) married 21-year-old Janusz Radziwill. She died in 1612, leaving all their enormous possessions to her husband. Janusz Radziwill received the Slutsk Principality with the cities of Slutsk and Kopyl, Romanov , Starobin , Luban, Pesochnoe and 32 farmsteads.

Until the XVI century, the prince was ruled by a prince with the help of a boyar "Duma". The prince had his vassals - "princes" and "boyars", received for the service of the estate. In the volosts ruled by the princes of the prince. In the XVI century, it gradually turned into a feudal fiefdom. Until the end of the 18th century it remained the last remaining East European principality, from 1507 entering the Novogrudok Povet and simultaneously retaining in the structure of the administrative, judicial and military organization some features of the former specific ownership.

At the princely court in the 1670 - 1705 years he worked as a printing house in 1738 - 1755 years - cloth manufacture in 1730 - 1884 years - manufacture of silk belts (Slutskaya persiyarnya), in 1751 - 1760 the theater operated the Radziwill family .

In 1791 the principality was liquidated, instead of it the Slouzeretsky Povet of the Novogrudok Province was created.

Under the second section of the Commonwealth (1793), the Sluchina moved to Russia, the Slutsk district was formed as part of the Minsk province . As for the centennial center of the principality of Slutsk, after the death of the last Radziwill (Radziwill) in Slutsk, in 1832, he transferred to her husband Count Ludwig Wittgenstein, who handed it over to the state in 1847 .

See also The princes of Slutsk Notes

Full. a collection of Russian chronicles (II, 350, 358, IV, 72, V, 236, 239, VII, 49, 255, VIII, 25).
Full. a collection of Russian chronicles (II, 350, 358, IV, 72, V, 236, 239, VII, 49, 255, VIII, 25.
Gritskevich A. P. Slutsk. Historical and economic essay. - Me, 1970
Lubavsky M. Regional division and local government of the Lithuanian-Russian state by the time of publication of the first Lithuanian statute. - M. , 1892.

Stryjkowski M. Kronika polska, litewska, żmudzka i wszystkiej Rusi. - T. II. - Warszawa, 1846. Kogan VM, Dombrovsky-Shalagin VI Prince Rurik and his descendants: Historical-genealogical arch. - P. 164. Narbut A. N. Genealogy of Belarus. Issue 1-4. - Moscow: 1994-1996. Literature Full. a collection of Russian chronicles (II, 350, 358, IV, 72, V, 236, 239, VII, 49, 255, VIII, 25). Lubavsky M., Oblast division and local government of the Lithuanian-Russian state at the time of the publication of the first Lithuanian statute. - M., 1892. Nicholas, Archimandrite . Historical and statistical description of the Minsk diocese. - St. Petersburg., 1864. The ancient Russian city of Slutsk and its shrines: East. essay / Comp. F. F. Serno-Solovyevich. - Wilno, 1896. Glebov AI Historical note on the Slutsk gymnasium from 1617-1630 - 1901. / Described the honored teacher of the Slutsk gymnasium Ivan Glebov. - Vilna, 1903; Skrynchenko DV Slutsky Synodic of the year 1684 / Sev-Zap. Branch of the Imperial Russian Geographical Society. - Vilna, 1914. Sluchcyna: Pershy zb. Slutsk. T-va edge of knowledge. - Sluck, 1930. Gritskevich A. P. Sluck. Historical and economic essay. - Me, 1970 Zhuk A. V. Храналогiя slutskaya meinuvshchyny. - Sluck, 1996. Kogan V.М., Dombrovsky-Shalagin V.I. Prince Rurik and his descendants: Historical-genealogical arch. - St. Petersburg. : "Parity", 2004. - 688 p. - 3000 copies. - ISBN 5-93437-149-5 . Narbut A. N. Genealogy of Byelorussia. Issue 1-4. - Moscow: 1994-1996. The Slavic Encyclopedia. Kievan Rus - Muscovy: in 2 tons / Author-compiler VV Boguslavsky. - Moscow: OLMA-PRESS, 2001. - T. 1. - 784 p. - 5000 copies. - ISBN 5-224-02249-5 . Staff. The Moscow kingdom. Grand Duchy of Lithuania. Speech Pospolita. Russian empire. Soviet Union. (Electronic resource, CD). - SPb., VIRD, 2005. Grand Dukes of Lithuania. XIII-XVIII centuries. Comp. V. Specchyunas. - Vilnius: Mokslo ir encikl. leidybos inst., 2006. Stryjkowski M. Kronika polska, litewska, żmudzka i wszystkiej Rusi. T.II Warszawa, 1846. Kalamajska-Saeed M. Portrety i zabytki ksiazat Olelkowiczow w Slucku: Inwentaryzacja Jozefa Smolinskiego z 1904 r. - Warszawa, 1996. Reference Eastern Europe in the first half. XIV century Sat, History of Slutsk.